• Euglena gracilis
References [37 ]
Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2003) Behavioural responses of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates to a temperature gradient. European Journal of Phycology 38: 195-203.
Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2004) Dominance and compromise in freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates: the interaction of behavioural preferences for conflicting environmental gradients. Functional Ecology 18: 371-380.
Clegg MR & Maberley SC (2003) The effect of photon irradiance on the behavioural ecology and potential niche separation of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Journal of Phycology 39: 650-662.
Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2003) Chemosensory behavioural response of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Plant, Cell and Environment 27: 123-135.
Clegg MR, Maberly SC & Jones RI (2007) Behavioural response as a predictor of seasonal depth distribution and vertical niche separation in freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Limnology and Oceanography 52(1): 441-455.
DOI: none
Gachon CMM, Day JG, Campbell CN, Pröschold T, Saxon RJ & Küpper FC (2007) The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): A biological resource for protistan genomics Gene 406: 51-57.
Day JG (2004) Cryopreservation: fundamentals, mechanisms of damage on freezing/thawing and application in culture collections Nova Hedwigia 79: 191-205.
Fleck RA, Benson EE, Bremner DH & Day JG (2003) Studies of antioxidant protection in freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive microalgae: Applications in Cryopreservation protocol development. CryoLetters 24: 213-228.
DOI: none
Day JG, Fleck RA & Benson EE (2000) Cryopreservation-recalcitrance in microalgae: Novel approaches to identify and avoid cryo-injury. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 369-377.
Fleck RA, Benson EE, Bremner DH & Day JG (2000) Studies of free radical-mediated cryoinjury in the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis using a non-destructive hydroxyl radical assay: A new approach for developing protistan cryopreservation strategies. Free Radical Research 32: 157-170.
Johnstone C, Day JG, Staines H & Benson EE (2006) An in vitro oxidative stress test for determining pollutant tolerance in algae. Ecological Indicators 6: 770-779.
Fleck RA, Pickup RW, Day JG & Benson EE (2006) The use of flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy to characterise cryopreservation-induced injuries in Euglena gracilis. Cryobiology 52: 261-268.
Freyssinent G, Eichholz RL & Buetow DE (1984) Kinetics of accumulation of Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate Carboxylase during greening in Euglena gracilis Plant Physiology 75(3): 850-857.
Whitehouse JW & Lewis BG (1973) The effect of diet and density on development, size and egg production in Cyclops abyssorum Sars, (Copepoda, Cyclopoida). Crustaceana 25(3): 225-236.
Zahalsky AC, Hutner SH, Keane M & Burger RM (1962) Bleaching Euglena gracilis with antihistamines and streptomycin-type antibiotics. Archiv für Microbiologie 42(1): 46-55.
Kahn JS (1984) Activation of coupling factor 1 from Euglena gracilis chloroplasts: Conditions for optimal activation and their possible physiological significance. Plant Physiology 75(2): 410-413.
Lonergan TA (1984) Regulation of cell shape in Euglena gracilis. Journal of Cell Science 71: 37-50.
DOI: none
Hyams JS (1982) The Euglena paraflagellar rod: Structure, relationship to other flagellar components and preliminary biochemical characterization. Journal of Cell Science 55: 199-210.
DOI: none
Axelsson-Olsson D, Olofsson J, Svensson L, Griekspoor P, Waldenström J, Ellström P & Olsen B (2010) Amoebae and algae can prolong the survival of Campylobacter species in co-culture. Experimental Parasitology 126: 59-64.
Javed Q & Merrett MJ (1986) Properties and immunochemical characterization of NADPH-specific glutamate dehydrogenase from Euglena gracilis. New Phytologist 104: 407-413.
DOI: none
Morris GJ & Canning CE (1978) The Cryopreservation of Euglena gracilis Journal of General Microbiology 108: 27-31.
Suzuki E, Tsuzuki M & Miyachi S (1986) Accumulation of inorganic carbon in the cells of Euglena gracilis Z grown photoautotrophically in ordinary air. Plant & Cell Physiology 27: 1205-1208.
DOI: none
Hashimoto H & Murakami S (1983) Effects of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol on chloroplast replication in synchronously dividing cultured cells of Euglena gracilis New Phytologist 94: 521-529.
DOI: none
Hwang S & Hudock GA (1971) Stability of Chlamydomonas reinhardi in liquid nitrogen storage. Journal of Phycology 7: 300-303.
Maberly SC, Courcelle C, Groben R & Gontero B (2010) Phylogenetically-based variation in the regulation of the Calvin cycle enzymes, phophoribulokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in algae. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 735-745.
Nowack ECM, Podola B & Melkonian M (2005) The 96-well twin-layer system: A novel approach in the cultivation of microalgae. Protist 156: 239-251.
Monfils AK, Triemer RE & Bellairs EF (2011) Characterization of paramylon morphological diversity in photosynthetic euglenoids (Euglenales, Euglenophyta). Phycologia 50: 156-169.
Bianchi VA, Castro JM, Rocchetta I, Nahabedian DE, Conforti V & Luquet CM (2015) Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 42: 367-378.
Taipale SJ, Peltomaa E, Hiltunen M, Jones RI, Hahn MW, Biasi C & Brett M (2015) Inferring phytoplankton, terrestrial plant and bacteria bulk δ13C values from compound specific analyses of lipids and fatty acids. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0133974.
Záhonová K, Füssy Z, Oborník M, Eliás M & Yurchenko V (2016) RuBisCO in non-photosynthetic alga Euglena longa: Divergent features, transcriptomic analysis and regulation of complex formation. PLoS ONE 11: e0158790.
Markunas CM & Triemer RE (2016) Evolutionary history of the enzymes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle in Euglenids. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 63: 326-339.
Aiyar P, Schaeme D, García-Altares M, Carrasco Flores D, Dathe H, Hertweck C, Sasso S & Mittag M (2017) Antagonistic bacteria disrupt calcium homeostasis and immobilize algal cells Nature Communications 8: 1756.
Tossavainen M, Chopra NK, Kostia S, Valkonen K, Sharma AK, Sharma S, Ojala A & Romantschuk M (2018) Conversion of biowaste leachate to valuable biomass and lipids in mixed cultures of Euglena gracilis and chlorophytes Algal Research 35: 76-84.
Shao Q, Hu L, Qin H, Liu Y, Tang X, Lei A & Wang J (2019) Metabolomic response of Euglena gracilis and its bleached mutant strain to light PLoS ONE 14(11): e0224926.
Jalilian N, Najafpour GD & Khajouei M (2020) Macro and Micro Algae in Pollution Control and Biofuel Production – A Review ChemBioEng Reviews 7: 18-33.
Peltomaa ET & Taipale S (2020) Osmotrophic glucose and leucine assimilation and its impact on EPA and DHA content in algae. PeerJ 8: e8363.
Tossavainen M, Ilyass U, Ollilainen V, Valkonen K, Ojala A & Romantschuk M (2019) Influence of long term nitrogen limitation on lipid, protein and pigment production of Euglena gracilis in photoheterotrophic cultures. PeerJ 7: e6624.
Sequences [14 ]
EMBL/Genbank Links
(Bold text = submission by CCAP staff or collaborators)
Division/Phylum: Euglenophyta/Euglenozoa Class: Euglenophyceae Order: Euglenales

Note: for strains where we have DNA barcodes we can be reasonably confident of identity, however for those not yet sequenced we rely on morphology and the original identification, usually made by the depositor. Although CCAP makes every effort to ensure the correct taxonomic identity of strains, we cannot guarantee that a strain is correctly identified at the species, genus or class levels. On this basis users are responsible for confirming the identity of the strain(s) they receive from us on arrival before starting experiments.
For strain taxonomy we generally use AlgaeBase for algae and Adl et al. (2019) for protists.

Culture media, purity and growth conditions:
Medium:EG:JM; Axenic; maintained by serial subculture and cryopreserved;
AuthorityKlebs 1883
IsolatorPringsheim (1950)
Notes "Z" strain; widely used for bioassay of vitamin B12; This strain is available as part of our School Kit.
Environment Freshwater
Pathogen Not pathogenic: Hazard Class 1
Strain Maintenance Sheet
Toxin Producer Not Toxic / No Data
Type Culture No
Taxonomy WoRMS ID 163460
Equivalent StrainsATCC 12894,IAM E-6,SAG 1224-5/25,UTCC 95,UTEX 753


Euglena gracilis

Related Products