References [ 22 ]
Davoren M, Ní Shúilleabháin S, O'Halloran J, Hartl MGJ, Sheehan D, O'Brien NM, Van Pelt FNAM & Mothersill C (2005) A test battery approach for the ecotoxicological evaluation of estuarine sediments. Ecotoxicology 14(7): 741-755.
Alverson AJ & Kolnick L (2005) Intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism among small subunit (18S) rDNA paralogs in the diatom genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 1248-1257.
Sarno D, Kooistra WHCF, Medlin LK, Percopo I & Zingone A (2005) Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae). II. An assessment of the taxonomy of S. costatum-like species with the description of four new species. Journal of Phycology 41: 151-176.
Day JG, Benson EE & Fleck RA (1999) In Vitro Culture and Conservation Of Microalgae: Applications For Environmental Research, Aquaculture & Biotechnology. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 35: 127-136.
Kaczmarska I, Beaton M, Benoit AC & Medlin LK (2005) Molecular phylogeny of selected members of the order Thalassiosirales (Bacillariophyta) and evolution of the Fultoportula. Journal of Phycology 42: 121-138.
Sarno D, Kooistra WHCF, Balzano S, Hargraves PE & Zingone A (2007) Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae). III. Phylogenetic position and morphological variability of Skeletonema costatum and Skeletonema grevillei with the description of Skeletonema ardens sp. nov. Journal of Phycology 43: 156-170.
Moriceau B, Goutx M, Guigue C, Lee C, Armstrong R, Duflos M, Tamburini C, Charrière & Ragueneau O (2009) Si-C interactions during degradation of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi. Deep-Sea Research II 56: 1381-1395.
Hatton AD & Wilson ST (2007) Particulate dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylsulphoniopropionate in phytoplankton cultures and Scottish coastal waters. Aquatic Sciences - Research Across Boundaries 69: 330-340.
Simon N, Campbell L, Örnolfsdottir E, Groben R, Guillou L, Lange M & Medlin LK (2000) Oligonucleotide probes for the identification of three algal groups by dot blot and fluorescent whole-cell hybridization. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 47(1): 76-84.
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Tengs T, Dahlberg OJ, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Klaveness D, Rudi K, Delwiche CF & Jakobsen KS (2000) Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 19'hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates have tertiary plastids of haptophyte origin. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17(5): 718-729.
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Kooistra WHCF, Sarno D, Balzano S, Gu H, Andersen RA & Zingone A (2008) Global diversity and biogeography of Skeletonema species (Bacillariophyta). Protist 159: 177-193.
Kheder RB, Quéré C, Moal J & Robert R (2010) Effect of nutrition on Crassostrea gigas larval development and the evolution of physiological indices. Part B: Effects of temporary food deprivation. Aquaculture 308: 174-182.
Wilson ST (2007) The production of biogenic gases in the marine environment. A Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Open University -: 319 pp.
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Rico-Villa B, Le Coz JR, Mingant C & Robert R (2006) Influence of phytoplankton diet mixtures on microalgae consumption, larval development and settlement of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) Aquaculture 256: 377-388.
Medlin LK, Elwood HJ, Stickel S & Sogin ML (1991) Morphological and genetic variation within the diatom Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta): Evidence for a new species, Skeletonema pseudocostatum. Journal of Phycology 27: 514-524.
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Gonzalez-Araya R, Quillien V & Robert R (2013) The effects of eight single microalgal diets on sex-ratio and gonad development throughout European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) conditioning. Aquaculture 400-401: 1-5.
Medlin LK & Kaczmarska I (2004) Evolution of the diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia 43: 245-270.
Erga SR, Lie GC, Aarø LH, Frette Ø & Hamre B (2014) Migratory behaviour of Skeletonema grethae (Bacillariophyceae) in stratified waters. Diatom Research 30: 13-25.
Po BHK, Ho KL, Lam MHW, Giesy JP & Chiu JMY (2017) Uptake and biotransformation of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in four marine microalgae species. Scientific Reports 7: 44263.
Yamada M, Otsubo M, Tsutsumi Y, Mizota C, Nakamura Y, Takahashi K & Iwataki M (2017) Utility of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome c oxidase I gene for phylogenetic analysis and species identification of the planktonic diatom genus Skeletonema Phycological Research -: -.
González-Araya R & Robert R (2018) Larval development and fatty acid composition of Ostrea edulis (L.) fed four different single diets from conditioning to pre‐settlement Aquaculture Research 49: 1768-1781.
Garvetto A, Badis Y, Perrineau M, Rad Menéndez C, Bresnan E & Gachon CMM (2019) Chytrid infecting the bloom-forming marine diatom Skeletonema sp.: Morphology, phylogeny and distribution of a novel species within the Rhizophydiales Fungal Biology 123: 471-480.
Sequences [ 7 ]
EMBL/Genbank Links
(Bold text = submission by CCAP staff or collaborators)
Division/Phylum: Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta Class: Coscinodiscophyceae Order: Thalassiosirales

Note: for strains where we have DNA barcodes we can be reasonably confident of identity, however for those not yet sequenced we rely on morphology and the original identification, usually made by the depositor. Although CCAP makes every effort to ensure the correct taxonomic identity of strains, we cannot guarantee that a strain is correctly identified at the species, genus or class levels. On this basis users are responsible for confirming the identity of the strain(s) they receive from us on arrival before starting experiments.
For strain taxonomy we generally use AlgaeBase for algae and Adl et al. (2019) for protists.

Culture media, purity and growth conditions:
Medium: f/2 + Si; Bacteria present; maintained by serial subculture;
AuthorityZingone & Sarno in Sarno et al. 2005
IsolatorRines (1986)
Collection Site Naragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA
Notes treated with Ampicillin; Name changed June 2010 after Kooistra et al 2009; Name confirmed March 2013 (ASSEMBLE)
Axenicity Status Bacteria present
Area North America
Country USA
Environment Marine
Group Diatom
Original Designation XM79
Pathogen Not pathogenic: Hazard Class 1
Special Uses used for ecotoxicity testing
Strain Maintenance Sheet SM_MarineDiatoms15_20.pdf
Toxin Producer Not Toxic / No Data
Type Culture No
Taxonomy WoRMS ID 376665
Formerly Listed in CCAP asSkeletonema costatum Greville (Cleve) 1873

CCAP 1077/3

Skeletonema grethae

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