References

Papers and other resources citing CCAP strains...

 

 

Inglis TJ, Rodrigues F, Rigby P, Norton R & Currie BJ (2004) Comparison of the susceptibilities of Burkholderia pseudomallei to meropenem and ceftazidime by conventional and intracellular methods. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 48: 2999-3005.
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.48.8.2999-3005.2004
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Marques A, Dinh T, Ioakeimidis C, Huys G, Swings J, Verstraete W, Dhont J, Sorgeloos P & Bossier P (2005) Effects of bacteria on Artemia franciscana cultured in different gnotobiotic environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71: 4307-4317.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.8.4307-4317.2005
Abstract: The use of probiotics is receiving considerable attention as an alternative approach to control microbiota in aquaculture farms, especially in hatching facilities. However, application with consistent results is hampered by insufficient information on their modes of action. To investigate whether dead bacteria (allowing investigation of their nutritional effect) or live bacteria (allowing evaluation of their probiotic effect) have any beneficial effect towards Artemia franciscana and, subsequently, if live bacteria have probiotic effects beyond the effects observed with dead bacteria, a model system was employed using gnotobiotic Artemia as a test organism. Nauplii were cultured in the presence of 10 bacterial strains combined with four different major axenic live feeds (two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two strains of Dunaliella tertiolecta) differing in their nutritional values. In combination with poor- and medium-quality live feeds, dead bacteria exerted a strong effect on Artemia survival but a rather weak or no effect on individual length and constituted a maximum of only 5.9% of the total ash-free dry weight supplied. These effects were reduced or even disappeared when mediumto good-quality major feed sources were used, possibly due to improvements in the health status of Artemia. Some probiotic bacteria, such as GR 8 (Cytophaga spp.), improved (not always significantly) the performance of nauplii beyond the effect observed with dead bacteria, independently of the feed supplied. The present approach can be an excellent system to study the exact mode of action of bacteria, especially if combined with challenge tests or other types of analysis (e.g., transcriptome and proteonomic analysis).
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Snelling WJ, McKenna JP, Lecky DM & Dooley JSG (2005) Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in waterborne protozoa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71: 5560-5571.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.9.5560-5571.2005
Abstract: The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers.
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Christiansen G, Kurmayer R, Liu Q & Börner T (2006) Transposons inactivate biosynthesis of the nonribosomal peptide microcystin in naturally occurring Planktothrix spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72: 1-7.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.1.117-123.2006
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Tinh NTN, Phuoc NN, Dierckens K, Sorgeloos P & Bossier P (2006) Gnotobiotically grown rotifer Brachionus plicatilis sensu strictu as a tool for evaluation of microbial functions and nutritional value of different food types. Aquaculture. 253: 421-432.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.09.006
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Pålsson C & Daniel C (2004) Effects of prey abundance and light intensity on nutrition of a mixotrophic flagellate and its competitive relationship with an obligate heterotroph. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 36: 247-256.
DOI: 10.3354/ame036247
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Pajdak-Stós A, Fia?kowska E & Fyda J (2001) Phormidium autumnale (Cyanobacteria) defense against three ciliate grazer species. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 23: 237-244.
DOI: 10.3354/ame023237
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Müller H, Foissner W & Weisse T (2006) The role of soil in the life cycle of Meseres corlissi (Ciliophora: Oligotrichea): experiments with two clonal strains from the type locality, an astatic meadow pond. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 42: 199-208.
DOI: 10.3354/ame042199
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Gächter E & Weisse T (2006) Local adaptation among geographically distant clones of the cosmopolitan freshwater ciliate Meseres corlissi. I. Temperature response. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 45: 291-300.
DOI: 10.3354/ame045291
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Weisse T, Scheffel U, Stadler P & Foissner W (2007) Local adaptation among geographically distant clones of the cosmopolitan freshwater ciliate Meseres corlissi. II. Response to pH. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 47: 289-297.
DOI: 10.3354/ame047289
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Caldwell GS, Olive PJW & Bentley MG (2002) Inhibition of embryonic development and fertilization in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates by water soluble diatom extracts and the diatom toxin 2-trans, 4-trans decadienal. Aquatic Toxicology. 60: 123-137.
DOI: 10.1016/S0166-445X(01)00277-6
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Bengtson Nash SM, Quayle PA, Schreiber U & Müller JF (2005) The selection of a model microalgal species as biomaterial for a novel aquatic phytotoxicity assay. Aquatic Toxicology. 72: 315-326.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.02.004
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Juhel G, Davenport J, O'Halloran J, Culloty SC, O'Riordan RM, James KJ, Furey A & Allis O (2006) Impacts of microcystins on the feeding behaviour and energy balance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha: A bioenergetics approach. Aquatic Toxicology. 79: 391-400.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.07.007
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Morlon H, Fortin C, Floriani M, Adam C, Garnier-Laplace J & Boudou A (2005) Toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Comparison between effects at the population and sub-cellular level. Aquatic Toxicology. 73(1): 65-78.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.02.007
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Scarano G & Morelli E (2002) Characterisation of cadmium- and lead-phytochelatin complexes formed in a marine microalga in response to metal exposure. Biometals. 15: 145-151.
DOI: 10.1023/A:1015288000218
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Morelli E, Mascherpa MC & Scarano G (2005) Biosynthesis of phytochelatins and arsenic accumulation in the marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in response to arsenate exposure. Biometals. 18(6): 587-593.
DOI: 10.1007/s10534-005-2998-1
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Hoef-Emden K, Tran H & Melkonian M (2005) Lineage-specific variations of congruent evolution among DNA sequences from three genomes, and relaxed selective constraints on rbcL in Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 5: 56.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-5-56
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Barbrook AC, Santucci N, Plenderleith LJ, Hiller RG & Howe CJ (2006) Comparative analysis of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes reveals rRNA and tRNA genes. BMC Genomics. 7: 297.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-297
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Müller DG & Stache B (1989) Life history studies on Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjellman (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) of different geographical origin. Botanica Marina. 32: 71-78.
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Spijkerman E, Maberly SC & Coesel PFM (2005) Carbon acquisition mechanisms by planktonic desmids and their link to ecological distribution. Canadian Journal of Botany. 83: 850-858.
DOI: 10.1139/b05-069
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Ross C, Küpper FC & Jacobs RS (2006) Involvement of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the wound response in Dasycladus vermicularis (Chlorophyta). Chemistry & Biology. 13: 353-364.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.01.009
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Küpper FC, Maier I, Müller DG, Loiseaux-de Goer S & Guillou L (2006) Phylogenetic affinities of two eukaryotic pathogens of marine macroalgae, Eurychasma dicksonii (Wright) Magnus and Chytridium polysiphoniae Cohn. Cryptogamie Algologie. 27: 165-184.
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Descamps-Julien B & Gonzalez A (2005) Stable coexistence in a fluctuating environment: an experimental demonstration. Ecology. 86(10): 2815-2824.
DOI: 10.1890/04-1700
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Davoren M, Ní Shúilleabháin S, O'Halloran J, Hartl MGJ, Sheehan D, O'Brien NM, Van Pelt FNAM & Mothersill C (2005) A test battery approach for the ecotoxicological evaluation of estuarine sediments. Ecotoxicology. 14(7): 741-755.
DOI: 10.1007/s10646-005-0022-8
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Davoren M & Fogarty AM (2005) Ecotoxicological evaluation of the biocidal agents sodium o-phenylphenol, sodium o-benzyl-p-chlorophenol, and sodium p-tertiary amylphenol. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 60: 203-212.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.04.004
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Davoren M & Fogarty AM (2004) A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of the agri-chemical Environ. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 59: 116-122.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.01.001
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Morlon H, Fortin C, Adam C & Garnier-Laplace J (2006) Selenite transport and its inhibition in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 25(5): 1408-1417.
DOI: 10.1897/2512039.1
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Juhel G, O'Halloran J, Culloty SC, O'Riordan RM, Davenport J, O'Brien NM, James KJ, Furey A & Allis O (2007) In vivo exposure to microcystins induces DNA damage in the haemocytes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, as measured with the comet assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 48: 22-29.
DOI: 10.1002/em.20271
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Kurmayer R, Christiansen G, Fastner J & Börner T (2004) Abundance of active and inactive microcystin genotypes in populations of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix spp. Environmental Microbiology. 6: 831-841.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00626.x
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Fai PB, Grant A & Reid B (2007) Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a biomarker for rapid toxicity assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26(7): 1520-1531.
DOI: 10.1897/06-394R1.1
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Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2003) Behavioural responses of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates to a temperature gradient. European Journal of Phycology. 38: 195-203.
DOI: 10.1080/0967026031000121697
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Segovia M & Berges JA (2005) Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and DNA replication on the induction of proteolytic activities, caspase-like activities and cell death in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. European Journal of Phycology. 40: 21-30.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260400019774
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Gachon CMM, Küpper H, Küpper FC & Setlik I (2006) Witnessing effects of a pathogen on photosynthesis of its host at the cellular level: chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic microscopy of Pylaiella littoralis (Phaeophyceae) infected by Chytridium polysiphoniae (Chytridiomycota). European Journal of Phycology. 41: 395-403.
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Walker G, Silberman JD, Karpov SA, Preisfeld A, Foster P, Frolov AO, Novozhilov Y & Sogin ML (2003) An ultrastructural and molecular study of Hyperamoeba dachnaya, n.sp., and its relationship to the mycetozoan slime moulds. European Journal of Protistology. 39: 319-336.
DOI: 10.1078/0932-4739-00906
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Keywords: Hyperamoeba dachnaya n. sp., protozoa, protist, myxogastrid, classification

 

Preston TM (2003) The water-air interface: a microhabitat for amoebae. European Journal of Protistology. 39: 385-389.
DOI: 10.1078/0932-4739-00008
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Müller H (2007) Live observation of excystment in the spirotrich ciliate Meseres corlissi. European Journal of Protistology. 43: 95-100.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2006.11.003
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Qi B, Beaudoin F, Fraser T, Stobart AK, Napier JA & Lazarus CM (2002) Identification of a cDNA encoding a novel C18-?9 polyunsaturated fatty acid-specific elongating activity from the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing microalga, Isochrysis galbana. FEBS Letters. 510: 159-165.
DOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03247-1
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Scheldeman P, Baurain D, Bouhy R, Scott M, Mühling M, Whitton BA, Belay A & Wilmotte A (1999) Arthrospira ('Spirulina') strains from four continents are resolved into only two clusters, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the internally transcribed spacer. Fems Microbiology Letters. 172: 213-222.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13471.x
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Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2004) Dominance and compromise in freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates: the interaction of behavioural preferences for conflicting environmental gradients. Functional Ecology. 18: 371-380.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0269-8463.2004.00834.x
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Nisbet RER, Koumandou VL, Barbrook AC & Howe CJ (2004) Novel plastid gene minicircles in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. Gene. 331: 141-147.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.02.008
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Peters AF (2003) Molecular identification, distribution and taxonomy of brown algal endophytes, with emphasis on species from Antarctica. In: Chapman ARO, Anderson RJ, Vreeland V & Davison IR (Eds) Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford Univ. : 293-302.
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Inglis TJ, Rigby P, Robertson TA, Dutton NS, Henderson M & Chang BJ (2000) Interaction between Burkholderia pseudomallei and Acanthamoeba species results in coiling phagocytosis, endamebic bacterial survival, and escape. Infection and Immunity. 68: 1681-1686.
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.68.3.1681-1686.2000
Abstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a potentially fatal disease whose clinical outcomes include rapidonset septicemia and relapsing and delayed-onset infections. Like other facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei is capable of survival in human phagocytic cells, but unlike mycobacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, the species has not been reported to survive as an endosymbiont in free-living amebae. We investigated the consequences of exposing Acanthamoeba astronyxis, A. castellani, and A. polyphaga to B. pseudomallei NCTC 10276 in a series of coculture experiments. Bacterial endocytosis was observed in all three Acanthamoeba species. A more extensive range of cellular interactions including bacterial adhesion, incorporation into amebic vacuoles, and separation was observed with A. astronyxis in timed coculture experiments. Amebic trophozoites containing motile intravacuolar bacilli were found throughout 72 h of coculture. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm the intracellular location of endamebic B. pseudomallei cells. Transmission electron microscopy of coculture preparations revealed clusters of intact bacilli in membrane- lined vesicles inside the trophozoite cytoplasm; 5 3 102 CFU of bacteria per ml were recovered from lysed amebic trophozoites after 60 min of coculture. Demonstration of an interaction between B. pseudomallei and free-living acanthamebae in vitro raises the possibility that a similar interaction in vivo might affect environmental survival of B. pseudomallei and subsequent human exposure. Endamebic passage of B. pseudomallei warrants further investigation as a potential in vitro model of intracellular B. pseudomallei infection.
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Inglis TJ, Robertson T, Woods DE, Dutton N & Chang BJ (2003) Flagellum-mediated adhesion by Burkholderia pseudomallei precedes invasion of Acanthamoeba astronyxis. Infection and Immunity. 71: 2280-2282.
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.71.4.2280-2282.2003
Abstract: In this study we investigated the role of the bacterial flagellum in Burkholderia pseudomallei entry to Acanthamoeba astronyxis trophozoites. B. pseudomallei cells were tethered to the external amoebic surface via their flagella. MM35, the flagellum-lacking fliC knockout derivative of B. pseudomallei NCTC 1026b did not demonstrate flagellum-mediated endocytosis in timed coculture, confirming that an intact flagellar apparatus assists B. pseudomallei entry into A. astronyxis.
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Hübner Y, Hoettges KF & Hughes MP (2003) Water quality test based on dielectrophoretic measurements of fresh water aglae Selenastrum capricornutum. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 5: 861-864.
DOI: 10.1039/b309131g
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Preston TM & King CA (2003) Locomotion and phenotypic transformation of the Amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi at the water-air interface. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 50(4): 245-251.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2003.tb00128.x
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Williams D & Clamp JC (2007) A molecular phylogenetic investigation of Opisthonecta and related genera (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 54: 317-323.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00262.x
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Müller D, Krick A, Kehraus S, Mehner C, Hart M, Küpper FC, Saxena K, Prinz H, Schwalbe H, Janning P, Waldmann H & König GM (2006) Brunsvicamides A-C: Sponge-related cyanobacterial peptides with Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitory activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49(16): 4871-4878.
DOI: 10.1021/jm060327w
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Hoef-Emden K (2005) Multiple independent losses of photosynthesis and differing evolutionary rates in the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae): Combined phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the nuclear and the nucleomorph ribosomal operons. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 60: 183-195.
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-004-0089-5
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Nozaki H, Onishi K & Morita E (2002) Differences in pyrenoid morphology are correlated with differences in the rbcL genes of members of the Chloromonas lineage (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). Journal of Molecular Evolution. 55: 414-430.
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-002-2338-9
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Nozaki H, Onishi K & Morita E (2002) Differences in pyrenoid morphology are correlated with differences in the rbcL genes of members of the Chloromonas lineage (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). Journal of Molecular Evolution. 55: 414-430.
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-002-2338-9
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Clegg MR & Maberley SC (2003) The effect of photon irradiance on the behavioural ecology and potential niche separation of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Journal of Phycology. 39: 650-662.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02164.x
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Senousy HH, Beakes GW & Hack E (2004) Phylogenetic placement of Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae) and Botryococcus sudeticus isolate UTEX 2629 (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 40: 412-423.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.03173.x
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Baurain D, Renquin L, Grubisic S & Scheldeman P (2002) Remarkable conservation of internally transcribed spacer sequences of Arthrospira ('Spirulina') (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria) strains from four continents and of recent and 30-year-old dried samples from Africa. Journal of Phycology. 38: 384-393.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2002.01010.x
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Alverson AJ & Kolnick L (2005) Intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism among small subunit (18S) rDNA paralogs in the diatom genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyta). Journal of Phycology. 41: 1248-1257.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00136.x
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Keywords: 18S, concerted evolution, diatoms, intragenomic polymorphism, Skeletonema, Skeletonema costatum, small subunit rDNA

 

Pajdak-Stós A, Fia?kowska E & Fyda J (2004) Vulnerability of Nostoc muscorum Agardh (Cyanophyceae) motile hormogonia to ciliate grazing. Journal of Phycology. 40: 271-274.
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Sarno D, Kooistra WHCF, Medlin LK, Percopo I & Zingone A (2005) Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae). II. An assessment of the taxonomy of S. costatum-like species with the description of four new species. Journal of Phycology. 41: 151-176.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.04067.x
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Burkhardt E & Peters AF (1998) Molecular evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences that Laminariocolax (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales sensu lato) is a worldwide clade of closely related kelp endophytes. Journal of Phycology. 34: 682-691.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.1998.340682.x
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Ross C, Vreeland V, Waite JH & Jacobs RS (2005) Rapid assembly of a wound plug; stage one of a two stage wound repair mechanism in the giant unicellular chlorophyte Dasycladus vermicularis. Journal of Phycology. 41: 46-54.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.04071.x
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Ross C, Küpper FC, Vreeland V, Waite JH & Jacobs RS (2005) Evidence of a latent oxidative burst in relation to wound repair in the giant unicellular chlorophyte Dasycladus vermicularis. Journal of Phycology. 41: 531-541.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.04072.x
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Küpper FC, Müller DG, Peters AF, Kloareg B & Potin P (2002) Oligoalginate recognition and oxidative burst play a key role in natural and induced resistance of sporophytes of Laminariales. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 28: 2057-2081.
DOI: 10.1023/A:1020706129624
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Taylor RL, Caldwell GS, Dunstan HJ & Bentley MG (2007) Short-term impacts of polyunsaturated aldehyde-producing diatoms on the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbe holothuriae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 341: 60-69.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.028
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Marques A, Dhont J, Sorgeloos P & Bossier P (2004) Evaluation of different yeast cell wall mutants and microalgae strains as feed for gnotobiotically grown brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.. 312: 115-136.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.06.008
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Cook KB, Bunker A, Hay S, Hirst AG & Spiers DC (2007) Naupliar development times and survival of the copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus in relation to food and temperature. Journal of Plankton Research. 29: 757-767.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbm056
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Invidia M, Sei S & Gorbi G (2004) Survival of the copepod Acartia tonsa following egg exposure to near anoxia and to sulfide at different pH values. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 276: 187-196.
DOI: 10.3354/meps276187
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Ellertsdóttir E & Peters AF (1997) High prevalence of infection by endophytic brown algae in populations of Laminaria spp. (Phaeophyceae). Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 146: 135-143.
DOI: 10.3354/meps146135
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Halldórsson HP, Svavarsson J & Granmo A (2005) The effect of pollution on scope for growth of the mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) in Iceland. Marine Environmental Research. 59: 47-64.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2004.02.001
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Morelli E & Scarano G (2001) Synthesis and stability of phytochelatins induced by cadmium and lead in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Marine Environmental Research. 52: 383-395.
DOI: 10.1016/S0141-1136(01)00093-9
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Gaze WH, Burroughs N, Gallagher MP & Wellington EMH (2003) Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and observation of a new mode of intracellular growth within contractile vacuoles. Microbial Ecology. 46: 358-369.
DOI: 10.1007/s00248-003-1001-3
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Kurmayer R, Christiansen G, Gumpenberger M & Fastner J (2005) Genetic identification of microcystin ecotypes in toxic cyanobacteria of the genus Planktothrix. Microbiology. 151: 1525-1533.
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.27779-0
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Barbrook AC & Howe CJ (2000) Minicircular plastid DNA in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. Molecular and General Genetics. 263: 152-158.
DOI: 10.1007/s004380050042
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Nash EA, Barbrook AC, Edwards-Stuart RK, Bernhardt K, Howe CJ & Nisbet ER (2007) Organisation of the mitochondrial genome in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24: 1528-1536.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msm074
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Barbrook AC, Symington H, Nisbet RER, Larkum A & Howe CJ (2001) Organisation and expression of the plastid genome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 266: 632-638.
DOI: 10.1007/s004380100582
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Croft MT, Lawrence AD, Raux-Deery E, Warren MJ & Smith AG (2005) Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Nature (Letters). 438(3): 90-93.
DOI: 10.1038/nature04056
Abstract: Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) was identified nearly 80?years ago as the anti-pernicious anaemia factor in liver1, and its importance in human health and disease has resulted in much work on its uptake2, cellular transport3 and utilization4. Plants do not contain cobalamin because they have no cobalamin-dependent enzymes. Deficiencies are therefore common in strict vegetarians5, and in the elderly, who are susceptible to an autoimmune disorder that prevents its efficient uptake6. In contrast, many algae are rich in vitamin B12, with some species, such as Porphyra yezoensis (Nori), containing as much cobalamin as liver7. Despite this, the role of the cofactor in algal metabolism remains unknown, as does the source of the vitamin for these organisms. A survey of 326 algal species revealed that 171 species require exogenous vitamin B12 for growth, implying that more than half of the algal kingdom are cobalamin auxotrophs. Here we show that the role of vitamin B12 in algal metabolism is primarily as a cofactor for vitamin B12-dependent methionine synthase, and that cobalamin auxotrophy has arisen numerous times throughout evolution, probably owing to the loss of the vitamin B12-independent form of the enzyme. The source of cobalamin seems to be bacteria, indicating an important and unsuspected symbiosis.
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Becks L, Hilker FM, Malchow H, Jürgens K & Amdt H (2005) Experimental demonstration of chaos in a microbial food web. Nature (Letters). 435: 1226-1229.
DOI: 10.1038/nature03627
Abstract: Discovering why natural population densities change over time and vary with location is a central goal of ecological and evolutional disciplines. The recognition that even simple ecological systems can undergo chaotic behaviour has made chaos a topic of considerable interest among theoretical ecologists. However, there is still a lack of experimental evidence that chaotic behaviour occurs in the real world of coexisting populations in multi-species systems. Here we study the dynamics of a defined predator-prey system consisting of a bacterivorous ciliate and two bacterial prey species. The bacterial species preferred by the ciliate was the superior competitor. Experimental conditions were kept constant with continuous cultivation in a one-stage chemostat. We show that the dynamic behaviour of such a two-prey, one-predator system includes chaotic behaviour, as well as stable limit cycles and coexistence at equilibrium. Changes in the population dynamics were triggered by changes in the dilution rates of the chemostat. The observed dynamics were verified by estimating the corresponding Lyapunov exponents. Such a defined microbial food web offers a new possibility for the experimental study of deterministic chaos in real biological systems.
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Walsby AE (2005) Stratification by cyanobacteria in lakes: a dynamic buoyancy model indicates size limitations met by Planktothrix rubescens filaments. New Phytologist. 168: 365-376.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01508.x
Abstract:
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Walsby AE, Schanz F & Schmid M (2006) The Burgundy-blood phenomenon: a model of buoyancy change explains autumnal waterblooms by Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Zürich. New Phytologist. 169: 109-122.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01567.x
Abstract:
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Küpper FC & Müller DG (1999) Massive occurence of the heterokont and fungal parasites Anisolpidium, Eurychasma and Chytridium in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Nova Hedwigia. 69: 381-389.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Koumura Y, Suzuki T, Yoshikawa S, Watanabe M & Iseki M (2004) The origin of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), the Euglena blue-light receptor: phylogenetic analysis of orthologues of PAC subunits from several euglenoids and trypanosome-type adenylyl cyclases from Euglena gracilis. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 3: 580-586.
DOI: 10.1039/b316075k
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kassab K, Dei D, Roncucci G, Jori G & Coppellotti O (2003) Phthalocyanine-photosensitized inactivation of a pathogenic protozoan, Acanthamoeba palestinensis. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 2: 668-672.
DOI: 10.1039/b300293d
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hoef-Emden K (2007) Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae) II: Incongruencies between the classical morphospecies concept and molecular phylogeny in smaller pyrenoid-less cells. Phycologia. 46: 402-428.
DOI: 10.2216/06-83.1
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is likely a good marker to identify biological species according to its degree of conservation. Dimorphic strains and a few reports of sexual reproduction indicate the presence of biological species also in cryptophyte taxa. In this study, a reverse (5 DNA-based) taxonomy approach was used to predict putative biological species in the genus Cryptomonas. Of 49 Cryptomonas strains, nuclear ITS2 and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences were used to determine groups of genetically identical strains. From each group, representative strains (a total of 30 strains) were chosen for improved molecular phylogenetic analyses with combined data sets (nuclear ITS2 and LSU rDNA and nucleomorph small subunit rDNA). To predict putative biological species in Cryptomonas, the secondary structures of the nuclear ITS2 sequences were compared among clades and among strains of the same clade. Mapping light microscopically visible characters of the 49 strains onto the phylogenetic trees revealed conflicts between classical morphospecies and putative biological species. Strains that were identical or almost identical in nuclear ITS2, showed cell shapes representing different morphological species, whereas strains seemingly belonging to the same morphological species were genetically too diverse to represent one biological species. Most of the five putative biological species could solely be identified by molecular signatures. Therefore, five species descriptions were emended by adding molecular signatures as diagnostic characters including a new combination, Cryptomonas commutata (Pascher) Hoef-Emden comb. nov.
Keywords: Cryptomonas, Cryptophyceae, Cryptomonad, Internal transcribed spacer, Morphology, Nucleomorph, Phylogeny, Reverse taxonomy, Revision, Ribosomal DNA, Systematics, Compensating basepair clades, Cryptic species

 

Müller DG, Küpper FC & Küpper H (1999) Infection experiments reveal broad host ranges of Eurychasma dicksonii (Oomycota) and Chytridium polysiphoniae (Chytridiomycota), two eukaryotic parasites in marine brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research. 47: 217-223.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.1999.tb00301.x
Abstract:
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Segovia M, Haramaty L, Berges JA & Falkowski PG (2003) Cell death in the unicellular Chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. A hypothesis on the evolution of apoptosis in higher plants and metazoans. Plant Physiology. 132: 99-105.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.102.017129
Abstract:
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Morelli E, Cruz BH, Somovigo S & Scarano G (2002) Speciation of cadmium-glutamyl peptides complexes in cells of the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Science. 163: 807-813.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9452(02)00216-9
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Morelli E & Scarano G (2004) Copper-induced changes of non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes in the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Science. 167: 289-296.
DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.04.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Scarano G & Morelli E (2003) Properties of phytochelatin-coated CdS nanochrystallites formed in a marine phytoplanktonic alga (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Bohlin) in response to Cd. Plant Science. 165: 803-810.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9452(03)00274-7
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Clegg MR, Maberley SC & Jones RI (2003) Chemosensory behavioural response of freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Plant, Cell and Environment. 27: 123-135.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2004.01138.x
Abstract:
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Franklin DJ & Berges JA (2004) Mortality in cultures of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae during culture senescence and darkness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 271: 2099-2107.
DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2810
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Koumandou VL & Howe CJ (2006) The copy number of chloroplast gene minicircles changes dramatically with growth phase in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. Protist. 158(1): 89-103.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2006.08.003
Abstract:
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Park JS, Simpson AGB, Lee WJ & Cho BC (2007) Ultrastructure and phylogenetic placement within Heterolobosea of the previously unclassified, extremely halophilic heterotrophic flagellate Pleurostomum flabellatum (Ruinen 1938). Protist. 158: 397-413.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.03.004
Abstract:
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Morlon H, Fortin C, Adam C & Garnier-Laplace J (2005) Cellular quotas and induced toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Radioprotection. 40 (Suppl. 1): S101-S106.
DOI: 10.1051/radiopro:2005s1-016
Abstract:
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Juhel G, Davenport J, O'Halloran J, Culloty SC, Ramsay R, James KF, Furey A & Allis O (2006) Pseudodiarrhoea in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins. The Jounal of Experimental Biology. 209: 810-816.
DOI: 10.1242/jeb.02081
Abstract:
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Howard K & Inglis TJ (2005) Disinfection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in potable water. Water Research. 39: 1085-1092.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.12.028
Abstract:
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Beiderbeck H, Taraz K, Budzikiewicz H & Walsby AE (2000) Anachelin, the siderophore of the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica CCAP 1403/2A. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 55: 681-687.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Michel R, Wylezich C, Hauröder B & Smirnov AV (2007) Phylogenetic position and notes on the ultrastructure of Sappinia diploidea (Thecamoebidae). Protistology. 4(4): 319-325.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakada T & Nozaki H (2007) Re-evaluation of three Chlorogonium (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae) species based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene phylogeny. European Journal of Phycology. 42(2): 177-182.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260601145816
Abstract:
Keywords: Chlorogonium, chlorophyceae, culture strain, molecular phylogeny, monophyletic species, 18S rRNA, species taxonomy

 

West JA, Klochkova TA, Kim GH & Loiseaux-de Goër S (2006) Olpidiopsis sp., an oomycete from Madagascar that infects Bostrychia and other red algae: Host species susceptibility. Phycological Research. 54: 72-85.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00410.x
Abstract:
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Scherwass A, Fischer Y & Arndt H (2005) Detritus as a potential food source for protozoans: Utilisation of fine particulate plant detritus by a heterotrophic flagellate, Chilomonas paramecium, and a ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis. Aquatic Ecology. 39(4): 439-445.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Dayananda C, Sarada R, Usha Rani M, Shamala TR & Ravishankar GA (2007) Autotrophic cultivation of Botryococcus braunii for the production of hydrocarbons and exopolysaccharides in various media. Biomass and Bioenergy. 31: 87-93.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.05.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ranga Rao A, Dayananda C, Sarada R, Shamala TR & Ravishankar GA (2007) Effect of salinity on growth of green alga Botryococcus braunii and its constituents. Bioresource Technology. 98: 560-564.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.02.007
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kosmala S, Milanowski R, Brzoska K, Pekala M, Kwiatowski J & Zakrys B (2007) Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Monomorphina (Euglenaceae) based on morphological and molecular data. Journal of Phycology. 43(1): 171-185.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00298.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bass D, Moreira D, Lopez-Garcia P, Polet S, Chao EE, von der Heyden S, Pawlowski J & Cavalier-Smith T (2005) Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria. Protist. 156(2): 149-161.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2005.03.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Oudot-Le Secq MP, Fontaine JM, Rousvoal S, Kloareg B & Loiseaux-De Goer S (2001) The complete sequence of a brown algal mitochondrial genome, the ectocarpale Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 53(2): 80-88.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Oudot-Le Secq MP, Grimwood J, Shapiro H, Armbrust EV, Bowler C & Green BR (2007) Chloroplast genomes of the diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana: comparison with other plastid genomes of the red lineage. Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 277: 427-439.
DOI: 10.1007/s00438-006-0199-4
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

West JA, Zuccarello GC, Scott JL, West KA & Loiseaux de Goer S (2007) Pulvinus veneticus gen. et sp. nov. (Compsopogonales, Rhodophyta) from Vanuatu. Phycologia. 46: 237-246.
DOI: 10.2216/06-66.1
Abstract: Pulvinus veneticus gen. et sp. nov. is a small (< 500 µm in diameter), cushion shaped epiphyte isolated into culture from Caloglossa vieillardii that was collected from Vanuatu. Molecular analysis places Pulvinus veneticus in the Compsopogonales. It has prostrate-adherent filaments or free filaments with one or more discoid to spiral bluish-green plastids without pyrenoids per cell. Pulvinus is euryhaline, growing and reproducing in salinities of 2 to 30 practical salinity units (psu). Monosporangia are formed successively by terminal branch cells or when a sector of a thallus gelatinises, releasing masses of spores. Monospores are round (6?10 µm diameter) and glide at speeds up to 4.5 m s1. Some monospores have an extracellular polysaccharide tail and move more slowly, 0.25 to 1.0 m s1. Spores avoid contact with other objects and do not require substrate contact during movement. The ultrastructure of Pulvinus is very similar to that of Compsopogon and Boldia in that the cis-region of Golgi bodies is not associated with a mitochondrion and plastids have a peripheral thylakoid. No pit connections occur between derivative cells.
Keywords: Pulvinus, compsopogonales, Boldia, psbA, spore motility, 18S rRNA, transmission electron microscopy

 

West JA, Zuccarello GC, Scott JL, West KA & Loiseaux de Goer S (2007) Correction to paper by West et al., Phycologia 46(3): 237-246 (2007). Phycologia. 46: 478.
DOI: 10.2216/0031-8884(2007)46[478:CTPBWE]2.0.CO;2
Abstract:
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Moore RB, Obornik M, Janouskovec J, Chrudimsky T, Vancova M, Green DH, Wright SW, Davies NW, Bolch CJS, Heimann K, Slapeta J, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Logsdon JM Jr & Carter DA (2008) A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature. 451: 959-963.
DOI: 10.1038/nature06635
Abstract: Many parasitic Apicomplexa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, contain an unpigmented chloroplast remnant termed the apicoplast, which is a target for malaria treatment. However, no close relative of apicomplexans with a functional photosynthetic plastid has yet been described. Here we describe a newly cultured organism that has ultrastructural features typical for alveolates, is phylogenetically related to apicomplexans, and contains a photosynthetic plastid. The plastid is surrounded by four membranes, is pigmented by chlorophyll a, and uses the codon UGA to encode tryptophan in the psbA gene. This genetic feature has been found only in coccidian apicoplasts and various mitochondria. The UGA-Trp codon and phylogenies of plastid and nuclear ribosomal RNA genes indicate that the organism is the closest known photosynthetic relative to apicomplexan parasites and that its plastid shares an origin with the apicoplasts. The discovery of this organism provides a powerful model with which to study the evolution of parasitism in Apicomplexa.
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Peters AF, Scornet D, Ratin M, Charrier B, Monnier A, Merrien Y, Corre E, Coelho SM & Cock JM (2008) Life-cycle-generation-specific developmental processes are modified in the immediate upright mutant of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Development. 135: 1503-1512.
DOI: 10.1242/dev.016303
Abstract:
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Kudryavtsev A (2006) "Minute" species of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida): Description of three new fresh- and brackish-water species with a new diagnosis for Cochliopodium minus Page, 1976. European Journal of Protistology. 42: 77-89.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2005.12.002
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebae, systematics, ultrastructure, scales, cochliopodium

 

Sekimoto S, Beakes GW, Gachon CMM, Müller DG, Küpper FC & Honda D (2008) The development, ultrastructural cytology, and molecular phylogeny of the Basal Oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii, infecting the filamentous Phaeophyte algae Ectocarpus siliculosus and Pylaiella littoralis. Protist. 159: 299-318.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.11.004
Abstract:
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Müller DG, Gachon CMM & Küpper FC (2008) Axenic clonal cultures of filamentous brown algae: initiation and maintenance. Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 49: 59-65.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Yokoyama A, Scott JL, Zuccarello GC, Kajikawa M, Hara Y & West JA (2009) Corynoplastis japonica gen. et sp. nov. and Dixoniellales ord. nov. (Rhodellophyceae, Rhodophyta) based on morphological and molecular evidence. Phycological Research. 57: 278-289.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2009.00547.x
Abstract:
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Fokin SI, Di Guiseppe G, Erra F & Dini F (2008) Euplotespora binucleata n. gen., n. sp. (Protozoa: Microsporidia), a parasite infecting the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes woodruffi, with observations on microsporidian infections in ciliophora. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55(3): 214-228.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00322.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cho BC, Park JS, Xu K & Choi JK (2008) Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Trimyema koreanum n. sp., a ciliate from the hypersaline water of a solar saltern. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55(5): 417-426.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00340.x
Abstract:
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Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Soares MB, Bonaldo MF, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Nosenko T & Bhattacharya D (2004) Migration of the plastid genome to the nucleus in a peridinin dinoflagellate. Current Biology. 14: 213-218.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.032
Abstract:
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Joaquim-Justo C, Detry C, Caufman F & Thomé J (2004) Feeding of planktonic rotifers on ciliates: a method using natural ciliate assemblages labelled with fluorescent microparticles. Journal of Plankton Research. 26(11): 1289-1299.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbh120
Abstract:
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Weisse T, Strüder-Kypke MC, Berger H & Foissner W (2008) Genetic, morphological, and ecological diversity of spatially separated clones of Meseres corlissi Petz & Foissner, 1992 (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55(4): 257-270.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00330.x
Abstract:
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Dodge JD (1963) Chromosome numbers in some marine dinoflagellates. Botanica Marina. 5(4): 121-127.
DOI:
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Dodge JD & Crawford RM (1968) Fine structure of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carteri Hulbert. Protistologica. 4(2): 231-242.
DOI:
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Mehner C, Müller D, Krick A, Kehraus S, Löser R, Gütschow M, Maier A, Fiebig H, Brun R & König GM (2008) A novel ?-amino acid in cytotoxic peptides from the cyanobacterium Tychonema sp. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2008(10): 1732-1739.
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.200701033
Abstract:
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Pennick NC & Clarke KJ (1977) The occurrence of scales in the peridinium dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenb.) Stein. British Phycological Bulletin. 12: 63-66.
DOI: 10.1080/00071617700650081
Abstract:
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Pröschold T, Harris EH & Coleman AW (2005) Portrait of a species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Genetics. 170: 1601-1610.
DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.044503
Abstract: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the first alga subject to a genome project, has been the object of numerous morphological, physiological, and genetic studies. The organism has two genetically determined mating types (plus and minus) and all stages of the simple life cycle can be evoked in culture. In the nearly 60 years since the first standard laboratory strains were isolated, numerous crosses and exchanges among laboratories have led to some confusion concerning strain genealogy. Here we use analyses of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions and other genetic traits to resolve these issues, correctly identify strains currently available, and analyze phylogenetic relationships with all other available similar chlamydomonad types. The presence of a 10-bp indel in ITS2 in some but not all copies of the nuclear ribosomal cistrons of an individual organism, and the changing ratios of these in crosses, provide a tool to investigate mechanisms of concerted evolution. The standard C. reinhardtii strains, plus C. smithii , plus the new eastern North American C. reinhardtii isolates, comprise one morphological species, one biological species of high sexual intercompatibility, and essentially identical ITS sequences (except the tip of helix I of ITS2). However, variant RFLP patterns characterize strains from each geographic site.
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Park JS, Simpson AGB, Brown S & Cho BC (2009) Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of two heterolobosean amoebae, Euplaesiobystra hypersalinica gen. et sp. nov. and Tulamoeba peronaphora gen. et sp. nov., isolated from an extremely hypersaline habitat. Protist. 160: 265-283.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.10.002
Abstract:
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Park JS, Simpson AGB, Brown S & Cho BC (2009) Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of two heterolobosean amoebae, Euplaesiobystra hypersalinica gen. et sp. nov. and Muamoeba propella gen. et sp. nov., isolated from an extremely hypersaline habitat. Protist. 160: 265-283.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.10.002
Abstract:
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Belcher JH, Pennick NC & Clarke KJ (1974) On the identity of Asteromonas propulsum Butcher. British Phycological Bulletin. 9: 101-106.
DOI: 10.1080/00071617400650131
Abstract:
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Douglas AE (1983) Uric acid utilization in Platymonas convolutae and symbiotic Convoluta roscoffensis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 63: 435-447.
DOI:
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Floyd GL & Salisbury JL (1977) Glycolate dehydrogenase in primitive green algae. American Journal of Botany. 64(10): 1294-1296.
DOI: 10.2307/2442493
Abstract:
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Gooday GW (1970) A physiological comparison of the symbiotic algae Platymonas convolutae and its free-living relatives. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 50: 199-208.
DOI:
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Hargreaves PE & Gardiner WE (1980) The life history of Pyramimonas amylifera Conrad (Prasinophyceae). Journal of Plankton Research. 2(2): 99-108.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/2.2.99
Abstract:
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Kremer BP (1975) 14CO2-Fixation by the endosymbiotic algae Platymonas convolutae within the turbellarian Convoluta roscoffensis. Marine Biology. 31: 219-226.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00387150
Abstract:
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Manton I (1966) Observations on scale production in Pyramimonas amylifera Conrad. Journal of Cell Science. 1: 429-438.
DOI:
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Manton I, Oates K & Parke M (1963) Observations on the fine structure of the Pyramimonas stage of Halosphaera and preliminary observations on three species of Pyramimonas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 43: 225-238.
DOI:
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Manton I & Parke M (1965) Observations on the fine structure of two species of Platymonas with special reference to flagellar scales and the mode of origin of the theca. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 45: 743-754.
DOI:
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Moestrup ø & Ettl H (1979) A light and electron microscopical study of Nephroselmis olivaceae (Prasinophyceae). Opera Botanica. 49: 1-40.
DOI:
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Norris RE, Hori T & Chihara M (1980) Revision of the genus Tetraselmis (class Prasinophyceae). Botanical Magazine, Tokyo. 93: 317-339.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02488737
Abstract:
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Parke M & Manton I (1965) Preliminary observations on the fine structure of Prasinocladus marinus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 45: 525-536.
DOI:
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Parke M & Manton I (1967) The specific identity of the algal symbiont in Convoluta roscoffensis Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 47: 445-464.
DOI:
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Pennick NC (1978) Studies of the external morphology of Pyramimonas: 5. P. amylifera Conrad. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 120: 142-147.
DOI:
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Pennick NC (1983) Studies of the external morphology of Pyramimonas: 9. Pyramimonas spinifera sp. nov. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 127: 1-7.
DOI:
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Pennick NC & Clarke KJ (1976) Studies of the external morphology of Pyramimonas: 3. Pyramimonas grossii Parke. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 118: 285-290.
DOI:
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Pennick NC, Clarke KJ & Belcher JH (1978) Studies of the external morphology of Pyramimonas: 1. P. orientalis and its allies in culture. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 120: 304-311.
DOI:
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Pennick NC, Clarke KJ & Cann JP (1976) Studies of the external morphology of Pyramimonas: 2. Pyramimonas obovata N. Carter. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 118: 221-226.
DOI:
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Provasoli L, Yamasu T & Manton I (1968) Experiments on the resynthesis of symbiosis in Convoluta roscoffensis with different flagellate cultures. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 48: 465-479.
DOI:
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Ricketts TR (1966) Magnesium 2,4-divinylphaeoporphyrin a5 monomethyl ester, a protochlorophyll-like pigment present in some unicellular flagellates. Phytochemistry. 5: 223-229.
DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85121-3
Abstract:
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Ricketts TR (1967) Further investigations into the pigment composition of green flagellates possessing scaly flagella. Phytochemistry. 6: 1375-1386.
DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)82880-0
Abstract:
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Ricketts TR & Edge PA (1977) The effect of nitrogen refeeding on starved cells of Platymonas striata Butcher. Planta. 134: 169-176.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00384967
Abstract:
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Wheeler PA (1977) Effect of nitrogen source on Platymonas (Chlorophyta) cell composition and amino acid uptake rates. Journal of Phycology. 13: 301-303.
DOI:
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Wheeler PA & Stephens GC (1977) Metabolic segregation of intracellular free amino acids in Platymonas (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 13: 193-197.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Brown LM & Elfman B (1983) Is autosporulation a feature of Nannochloris? Canadian Journal of Botany. 61(10): 2647-2657.
DOI: 10.1139/b83-292
Abstract:
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Dönz OC (1934) Chlorella zofingiensis, eine neue Bodenalge. Ber. Sch. Bot. Ges.. 43: 127-131.
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Kessler E, Czygan F, Fott B & Nováková M (1968) über Halochlorella rubescens Dangeard. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 110: 462-467.
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Komárková-Legnerová J (1969) The systematics and ontogenesis of the genera Ankistrodesmus Corda and Monoraphidium Gen. Nov. Studies in Phycology, Praha. : 75-122.
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Booker MJ & Walsby AE (1979) The relative form resistance of straight and helical blue-green algal filaments. European Journal of Phycology. 14(2): 141-150.
DOI: 10.1080/00071617900650161
Abstract:
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González-Barreiro O, Rioboo C, Herrero C & Cid A (2006) Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms. Environmental Pollution. 144: 266-271.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.014
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Janssen M, Patino R & Von Stockar U (2005) Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures. Thermochimica Acta. 435(1): 18-27.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tca.2005.04.024
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Jensen BB & Cox RP (1983) Direct measurements of steady-state kinetics of cyanobacterial N2 uptake by membrane-leak mass spectrometry and comparisons between nitrogen fixation and acetylene reduction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 45(4): 1331-1337.
DOI:
Abstract: A mass spectrometer with a membrane-covered inlet was used to measure nitrogen fixation by following changes in the concentration of dissolved N2 in a stirred suspension of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis in an open system. The results showed a good fit to Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for N2 of 65 ,uM at 35°C, corresponding to 0.121 atmosphere of N2. Corresponding values for the Km for acetylene reduction were 385 ,uM (0.011 atmosphere at 35°C). Comparison of the values of Vmax for N2 uptake with those for the acetylene reduction assay under similar conditions gave an average value of 3.8 for the conversion factor between N2 and C2H2 reduction. Reduction of protons to hydrogen was completely inhibited at sufficiently high concentrations of C2H2, but even at saturating N2 concentrations, 1 mol of H2 was produced for every mole of N2 reduced. This explains the finding that the observed C2H2/N2 ratio is higher than the value of 3 expected from the requirement for two electrons for acetylene reduction and six for nitrogen reduction. The results correlate well with a mechanism for N2 reduction involving the equation: N2 + 8H+ + 8e -* 2NH3 + H2 which gives a conversion factor between C2H2 and N2 of 4. It is proposed that, in general, 4 is a more appropriate value than 3 for the conversion factor.
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Müller J, Day JG, Harding K, Hepperle D, Lorenz M & Friedl T (2007) Assessing genetic stability of a range of terrestrial microalgae after cryopreservation using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). American Journal of Botany. 94(5): 799-808.
DOI: 10.3732/ajb.94.5.799
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller J, Friedl T, Hepperle D, Lorenz M & Day JG (2005) Distinction between multiple isolates of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) and testing for conspecificity using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and its rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology. 41(6): 1236-1247.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00134.x
Abstract: Multiple strains of individual algal species are available from public culture collections, often with the same isolate being maintained in parallel at a number of collections under different culture regimes. To unravel genomic variation and to identify unique genotypes among such multiple strains, two approaches were used on a sample of 29 strains of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, an alga of great value for applied research, from five culture collections. With the exception of two strains, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence data substantiated conspecificity of the studied strains and only minor sequence differences with the authentic ??Beijerinck isolate?? were observed. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) detected considerable genomic variation when rDNA sequences were identical. Band detection and the construction of a binary matrix from AFLP patterns for phylogenetic analyses were fully automated, but comparison of similar patterns still required manual refinement. The AFLPs distinguished 11 unique genotypes and provided robust support for the presence of five cryptic species. This finding advocates the need to carefully record which strain has been used in any experiment or in applied research, because genomic variation may also correspond to differences in physiological/biochemical properties. No genomic differences could be detected between duplicate strains of the same isolate that were maintained by continuous subculturing over many decades or within those stored at ultralow temperatures.
Keywords: AFLP, Chlorella vulgaris, cryopreservation, cryptic species, culture collections, genotyping, ITS, phylogenetic analyses, rDNA

 

Wu H, Hseu R & Lin L (2001) Identification of Chlorella spp. isolates using ribosomal DNA sequences. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 42: 115-121.
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Steeman Nielsen E, Hansen VK & Jørgensen EG (1962) The adaptation to different light intensities in Chlorella vulgaris and the time dependence on transfer to a new light intensity. Physiologia Plantarum. 15: 505-517.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08054.x
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Steeman Nielsen E & Willemoes M (1966) The influence of CO2 concentration and pH on two Chlorella species grown in continuous light. Physiologia Plantarum. 19: 279-293.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1966.tb07018.x
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Syrett PJ (1951) The effect of cyanide on the respiration and the oxidative assimilation of glucose by Chlorella vulgaris. Annals of Botany. 15(60): 473-492.
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Syrett PJ (1966) The kinetics of isocitrate lyase formation in Chlorella: Evidence for the promotion of enzyme synthesis by photophosphorylation. Journal of Experimental Botany. 17(53): 641-654.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/17.4.641
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Syrett PJ (1973) Measurement of nitrate- and nitrite-reductase activities in whole cells of Chlorella. New Phytologist. 72: 37-46.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1973.tb02007.x
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Templier J, Largeau C & Casadevall E (1984) Mechanism of non-isoprenoid hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Botryococcus braunii. Phytochemistry. 23(5): 1017-1028.
DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)82602-3
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Thinh LV & Griffiths DJ (1977) The effect of L-argenine on the growth of heterotrophic cultures of the Emerson strain of Chlorella. II. Reversal of the arginine effect of chloramphenicol. New Phytologist. 78: 121-129.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1977.tb01550.x
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Thinh LV & Griffiths DJ (1980) The effect of L-argenine on the growth of heterotrophic cultures of the Emerson strain of Chlorella. III. Studies with the structural analogue canavanine. New Phytologist. 84: 429-437.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1980.tb04550.x
Abstract:
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Thomas EM & Syrett PJ (1976) The assay of ATP:urea amidolyase in whole cells of Chlorella. New Phytologist. 76: 409-413.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1976.tb01476.x
Abstract:
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Thurston CF & Richards L (1980) Protein turnover in Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata: Detection of a rapidly degraded class of protein in growing and non-growing cells. Journal of General Microbiology. 121: 63-68.
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Kilvington S & Beeching J (1995) Identification and epidemiological typing of Naegleria fowleri with DNA probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61(6): 2071-2078.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kilvington S & Beeching J (1995) Development of a PCR for identification of Naegleria fowleri from the environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61(10): 3764-3767.
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Keywords:

 

Steeman Nielsen E (1961) Chlorophyll concentration and rate of photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris. Physiologia Plantarum. 14: 868-876.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1961.tb07917.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Steeman Nielsen E (1962) Inactivation of the photochemical mechanism in photosynthesis as a means to protect the cells against too high light intensities. Physiologia Plantarum. 15: 161-171.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb07996.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Vaitkevicius K, Lindmark B, Ou G, Song T, Toma C, Iwanaga M, Zhu J, Andersson A, Hammarström M, Tuckl S & Wai SN (2006) A Vibrio cholerae protease needed for killing of Caenorhabditis elegans has a role in protection from natural predator grazing. PNAS. 103(24): 9280-9285.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0601754103
Abstract: Vibrio cholerae is the causal bacterium of the diarrheal disease cholera, and its growth and survival are thought to be curtailed by bacteriovorous predators, e.g., ciliates and flagellates. We explored Caenorhabditis elegans as a test organism after finding that V. cholerae can cause lethal infection of this nematode. By reverse genetics we identified an extracellular protease, the previously uncharacterized PrtV protein, as being necessary for killing. The killing effect is associated with the colonization of bacteria within the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine. We also show that PrtV is essential for V. cholerae in the bacterial survival from grazing by the flagellate Cafeteria roenbergensis and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The PrtV protein appears to have an indirect role in the interaction of V. cholerae with mammalian host cells as judged from tests with tight monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate a key role for PrtV in V. cholerae interaction with grazing predators, and we establish Caenorhabditis elegans as a convenient organism for identification of V. cholerae factors involved in host interactions and environmental persistence.
Keywords: cholera, host interactions, environmental persistence

 

Bowler C et al. (2008) The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes. Nature (Letters). 456: -.
DOI: 10.1038/nature07410
Abstract:
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Burkhardt E, Amoroso G, Riebesell U & Sültemeyer D (2001) CO2 and HCO3- uptake in marine diatoms acclimated to different CO2 concentrations. Limnology and Oceanography. 46(6): 1378-1391.
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Clegg MR, Maberly SC & Jones RI (2007) Behavioural response as a predictor of seasonal depth distribution and vertical niche separation in freshwater phytoplanktonic flagellates. Limnology and Oceanography. 52(1): 441-455.
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Evangelista V, Frassanito AM, Passarelli V, Barsanti L & Gualtieri P (2006) Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 82(4): 1039-1046.
DOI: 10.1562/2006-01-11-RA-772
Abstract:
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Flynn KJ, Davidson K & Cunningham A (1993) Relations between carbon and nitrogen during growth of Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) Hibberd under continuous illumination. New Phytologist. 125: 717-722.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1993.tb03920.x
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Flynn KJ, Davidson K & Leftley JW (1993) Carbon-nitrogen relations during batch growth of Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae) under alternating light and dark. Journal of Applied Phycology. 5(4): 465-475.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02182739
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Johnston AM (1996) The effect of environmental variables on 13C discrimination by two marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 132: 257-263.
DOI: 10.3354/meps132257
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Morelli E & Fantozzi L (2008) Phytochelatins in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin): An evaluation of their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in marine waters. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 81(3): 236-241.
DOI: 10.1007/s00128-008-9472-z
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Riebesell U, Burkhardt S, Dauelsberg A & Kroon B (2000) Carbon isotope fractionation by a marine diatom: Dependence on the growth-rate-limiting resource. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 193: 295-303.
DOI: 10.3354/meps193295
Abstract:
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Rieley G, Teece MA, Peakman TM, Raven AM, Green KJ, Clarke TP, Murray M, Leftley JW, Campbell CN, Harris RP, Parkes RJ & Maxwell JR (1998) Long-chain alkenes of the haptophytes Isochrysis galbana and Emiliania huxleyi. Lipids. 33(6): 617-625.
DOI: 10.1007/s11745-998-0248-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sayegh FAQ, Radi N & Montagnes DJS (2007) Do strain differences in microalgae alter their relative quality as a food for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis? Aquaculture. 273: 665-678.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.10.041
Abstract:
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Zapata M & Garrido JL (1997) Occurrence of phyiwated chlorophyll c in Isochrysis galbana and Isochrysis sp. (Clone T-ISO) (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 33(2): 209-214.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.00209.x
Abstract: The pigment composition of two clones of Isochrysis galbana Parke (CCMP 1323 and CCAP 927/1), and Isochrysis sp. (clone T-ISO) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a polymeric octadecylsilica column. Fluorescent peaks with retention times higher than chlorophyll a were detected for all three clones. The corresponding pigments were isolated and characterized in terms of their visible absorbance and fluorescence spectra. The pigments were similar to phytol-substituted chlorophyll c, previously isolated from Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay and Mohler and other species containing chlorophyll c3. The presence of phytol-substituted chlorophyll c in I. galbana which lacked chlorophyll c3, increases the diversity of chlorophyll patterns for the Haptophyta, which can be grouped, at present, into six different pigment types. This is the first observation of a haptophyte containing the apolar phytylated chlorophyll c-like pigment but lacking chlorophyll c3
Keywords: haptophyta, HPLC, Isochrysidiales, Isochrysis galbana, Isochrysis sp. (clone T-ISO), phytylated chlorophyll c-like pigment, polymeric octadecylsilica columns, Prymnesiophyceae

 

Hoshina R, Hayashi S & Imamura N (2006) Intraspecific genetic divergence of Paramecium bursaria and re-construction of the Paramecium phylogenetic tree. Acta Protozoologica. 45: 377-386.
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Jolley E & Smith DC (1980) The green hydra symbiosis. II. The biology of the establishment of the association. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 207: 311-333.
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Kilvington S, Gray T, Dart J, Morlet N, Beeching JR, Frazer DG & Matheson M (2004) Acanthamoeba keratitis: The role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 45: 165-169.
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.03-0559
Abstract:
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Pickup ZL, Pickup R & Parry JD (2007) Effects of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73(8): 2631-2634.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02061-06
Abstract: Two amoebae were presented with six bacterial prey at a range of concentrations, and the growth parameters of the amoebae were deduced. All but one bacterium (Synechococcus) resulted in a positive growth response, but the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus proved to be difficult to digest and the heavily pigmented bacterium Klebsiella ozaenae induced unusual amoebic behavior prior to ingestion.
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Taylor SJ, Ahonen LJ, de Leij FAAM & Dale JW (2003) Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii with Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG and survival of M. bovis within the amoebae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(7): 4316-4319.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.69.7.4316-4319.2003
Abstract: Survival of Mycobacterium bovis after ingestion by protozoa would provide an environmental reservoir for infection of cattle. We have shown that M. bovis survived ingestion by Acanthamoeba castellanii. In contrast, two strains of M. bovis BCG did not survive well within Acanthamoeba.
Keywords:

 

Warren PH (1996) Dispersal and destruction in a multiple habitat system: An experimental approach using protist communities. Oikos. 77(2): 317-325.
DOI: 10.2307/3546071
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Beardsley C, Knittel K, Amann R & Pernthaler J (2005) Quantification and distinction of aplastidic and plastidic marine nanoplankton by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 41: 163-169.
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Broady PA & Ingerfeld M (1993) Three new species and a new record of chaetophoracean (Chlorophyta) algae from terrestrial habitats in Antarctica. European Journal of Phycology. 28(1): 25-31.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269300650041
Abstract:
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Clayden SL & Saunders GW (2008) Resurrecting the red algal genus Grania within the order Acrochaetiales (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology. 43(2): 151-160.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260801896630
Abstract:
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Flynn KJ & Gallon JR (1990) Changes in intracellular and extracellular a-amino acids in Gloeothece during N2-fixation and following addition of ammonia. Archives of Microbiology. 153: 574-579.
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Keywords:

 

Khamees HS, Gallon JR & Chaplin AE (1987) The pattern of acetylene reduction by cyanobacteria grown under alternating light and darkness. European Journal of Phycology. 22: 55-60.
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Abstract:
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Lovejoy C, Bowman JP & Hallegraeff GM (1998) Algicidal effects of a novel marine Pseudoalteromonas isolate (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision) on harmful algal bloom species of the genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium and Heterosigma. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64(8): 2806-2813.
DOI:
Abstract: During a bacterial survey of the Huon Estuary in southern Tasmania, Australia, we isolated a yellowpigmented Pseudoalteromonas strain (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain Y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. This organism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a strain with close affinities to Pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. This bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and death (within 3 h) of gymnodinoids (including Gymnodinium catenatum) and raphidophytes (Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo). It caused ecdysis of armored dinoflagellates (e.g., Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum mexicanum), but the algal cultures then recovered over the subsequent 24 h. Strain Y had no effect on a cryptomonad (Chroomonas sp.), a diatom (Skeletonema sp.), a cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria sp.), and two aplastidic protozoans. The algicidal principle of strain Y was excreted into the seawater medium and lost its efficacy after heating. Another common bacterial species, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, was isolated at the same time and did not have these algicidal effects. The minimum concentrations of strain Y required to kill G. catenatum were higher than the mean concentrations found in nature under nonbloom conditions. However, the new bacterium showed a chemotactic, swarming behavior that resulted in localized high concentrations around target organisms. These observations imply that certain bacteria could play an important role in regulating the onset and development of harmful algal blooms.
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Reay DS, Nedwell DB, Priddle J & Ellis-Evans JC (1999) Temperature dependence of inorganic nitrogen uptake: Reduced affinity for nitrate at suboptimal temperatures in both algae and bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(6): 2577-2584.
DOI:
Abstract: Nitrate utilization and ammonium utilization were studied by using three algal isolates, six bacterial isolates, and a range of temperatures in chemostat and batch cultures. We quantified affinities for both substrates by determining specific affinities (specific affinity 5 maximum growth rate/half-saturation constant) based on estimates of kinetic parameters obtained from chemostat experiments. At suboptimal temperatures, the residual concentrations of nitrate in batch cultures and the steady-state concentrations of nitrate in chemostat cultures both increased. The specific affinity for nitrate was strongly dependent on temperature (Q10 ' 3, where Q10 is the proportional change with a 10°C temperature increase) and consistently decreased at temperatures below the optimum temperature. In contrast, the steady-state concentrations of ammonium remained relatively constant over the same temperature range, and the specific affinity for ammonium exhibited no clear temperature dependence. This is the first time that a consistent effect of low temperature on affinity for nitrate has been identified for psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic bacteria and algae. The different responses of nitrate uptake and ammonium uptake to temperature imply that there is increasing dependence on ammonium as an inorganic nitrogen source at low temperatures.
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Vanderploeg HA, Liebig JR & Gluck AA (1996) Evaluation of different phytoplankton for supporting development of zebra mussel larvae (Dreissena polymorpha): The importance of size and polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 22(1): 36-45.
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von der Heyden S, Chao E & Cavalier-Smith T (2004) Genetic diversity of goniomonads: An ancient divergence between marine and freshwater species. European Journal of Phycology. 39(4): 343-350.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260400005567
Abstract:
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Boenigk J & Novarino G (2004) Effect of suspended clay on the feeding and growth of bacterivorous flagellates and ciliates. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 34: 181-192.
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Burger-Wiersma T & Post AF (1989) Functional analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus of Prochlorothrix hollandica (Prochlorales), a chlorophyll b containing procaryote. Plant Physiology. 91: 770-774.
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Dunton PG, Mawby WJ, Shaw VA & Walsby AE (2006) Analysis of tryptic digests indicates regions of GvpC that bind to gas vesicles of Anabaena flos-aquae. Microbiology. 152: 1661-1669.
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.28755-0
Abstract:
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Gibson CE (1985) Growth rate, maintenance energy and pigmentation of planktonic cyanophyta during one-hour light:dark cycles. European Journal of Phycology. 20: 155-161.
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Gontcharov AA, Marin B & Melkonian M (2004) Are combined analyses better than single gene phylogenies? A case study using SSU rDNA and rbcL sequence comparisons in the Zygnematophyceae (Streptophyta). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21(3): 612-624.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msh052
Abstract:
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McCourt RM, Karol KG, Bell J, Helm-Bychowski KM, Grajewska A, Wojciechowski MF & Hoshaw RW (2000) Phylogeny of the conjugating green algae (Zygnemophyceae) based on rbcL sequences. Journal of Phycology. 36: 747-758.
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Post AF & Arieli B (1997) Photosynthesis of Prochlorothrix hollandica under sulfide-rich anoxic conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63(9): 3507-3511.
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Rudi K, Skulberg OM, Larsen F & Jakobsen KS (1997) Strain characterization and classification of oxyphotobacteria in clone cultures on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences from the variable regions V6, V7 and V8. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63(7): 2593-2599.
DOI:
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Kooistra WHCF, De Stefano M, Mann DG, Salma N & Medlin LK (2003) Phylogenetic position of Toxarium, a pennate-like lineage within centric diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 39: 185-197.
DOI:
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Kooistra WHCF, Forlani G, Sterrenburg FAS & De Stefano M (2004) Molecular phylogeny and morphology of the marine diatom Talaroneis posidoniae gen. et sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta) advocate the return of the Plagiogrammaceae to the pennate diatoms. Phycologia. 43(1): 55-64.
DOI:
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Brown II, Mummey D & Cooksey KE (2005) A novel cyanobacterium exhibiting an elevated tolerance for iron. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 52: 307-314.
DOI: 10.1016/j.femsec.2004.11.020
Abstract: Studies directed at cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs may provide insights into the role of both ancient and contemporary cyanobacteria mediated iron transformations. Here we phylogenetically, morphologically and physiologically characterize a novel cyanobacterium isolated from an iron-depositing hot spring. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the bacterium is a representative of a new genus, exhibiting a maximum 95.2% homology to database sequences. The isolate is a unicellular cyanobacterium with bladder-like cells typically packed as duplexes, or in extracellular polymeric substance covered clumps and small chains without the ability to produce baeocystes. No growth without added combined nitrogen occurred. While requiring relatively large amounts of iron for growth (>40 lM), the isolate was shown to facilitate removal of iron from culture media. These results suggest that the isolate may be an important component of an iron-depositing microbial community. The name ??Chroogloeocystis siderophila?? for this cyanobacterium is proposed.
Keywords: novel cyanobacterium, iron tolerance, iron depositing hot spring, Great Yellowstone area

 

Pocock T, Lachance M, Pröschold T, Priscu JC, Kim SS & Huner N P A (2004) Identification of a psychrophilic green alga from lake Bonney Antarctica: Chlamydomonas raudensis ettl. (UWO 241) chlorophyceae. Journal of Phycology. 40(6): 1138-1148.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.04060.x
Abstract:
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Hellio C, Veron B & Le Gal Y (2004) Amino acid utilization by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Specific study of histidine. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 42(3): 257-264.
DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2003.12.005
Abstract:
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Lohmann E & Hagedorn H (1985) The effect of parathion on green algae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 22: 268-272.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00252029
Abstract:
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Morris GJ, Coulson GE & Leeson EA (1985) Changes in the shape of mitochondria following osmotic stress to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Journal of Cell Science. 76: 145-153.
DOI:
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Patel BN & Merrett MJ (1986) Regulation of carbonic-anhydrase activity, inorganic-carbon uptake and photosynthetic biomass yield in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Planta. 169: 81-86.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01369778
Abstract:
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Gachon CMM, Day JG, Campbell CN, Pröschold T, Saxon RJ & Küpper FC (2007) The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): A biological resource for protistan genomics Gene. 406: 51-57.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2007.05.018
Abstract:
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Love GD, Bowden SA, Summons RE, Jahnke LL, Snape CE, Campbell CN & Day JG (2005) An optimised catalytic hydropyrolysis method for the rapid screening of microbial cultures for lipid biomarkers. Organic Geochemistry. 36: 63-83.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.07.010
Abstract:
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Day JG (2004) Cryopreservation: fundamentals, mechanisms of damage on freezing/thawing and application in culture collections Nova Hedwigia. 79: 191-205.
DOI: 10.1127/0029-5035/2004/0079-0191
Abstract:
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Fleck RA, Benson EE, Bremner DH & Day JG (2003) Studies of antioxidant protection in freeze-tolerant and freeze-sensitive microalgae: Applications in Cryopreservation protocol development. CryoLetters. 24: 213-228.
DOI:
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Suda S, Watanabe MM, Otsuka S, Mahakahant A, Yongmanitchai W, Nopartnaraporn N, Liu YD & Day JG (2002) Taxonomic revision of water-bloom-forming species of oscillatorioid cyanobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52: 1577-1595.
DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.01834-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG, Fleck RA & Benson EE (2000) Cryopreservation-recalcitrance in microalgae: Novel approaches to identify and avoid cryo-injury. Journal of Applied Phycology. 12: 369-377.
DOI: 10.1023/A:1008107229005
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, cryo-injury, cryopreservation, culture collection, cryo-storage, Euglena gracilis, encapsulation/dehydration, vitrification

 

Fleck RA, Benson EE, Bremner DH & Day JG (2000) Studies of free radical-mediated cryoinjury in the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis using a non-destructive hydroxyl radical assay: A new approach for developing protistan cryopreservation strategies. Free Radical Research. 32: 157-170.
DOI: 10.1080/10715760000300161
Abstract:
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Fleck RA, Day JG, Clarke KJ & Benson EE (1999) Elucidation of the metabolic and structural basis for the cryopreservation recalcitrance of Vaucheria sessilis. CryoLetters. 20: 271-282.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG, Benson EE & Fleck RA (1999) In Vitro Culture and Conservation Of Microalgae: Applications For Environmental Research, Aquaculture & Biotechnology. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant. 35: 127-136.
DOI: 10.1007/s11627-999-0022-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Smith JK, Parry JD, Day JG & Smith RJ (1998) A PCR technique based on HIP1 interspersed repetitive sequence distinguishes cyanobacterial species and strains. Microbiology. 144: 2791-2801.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG, Watanabe MM & Turner MF (1998) Ex situ conservation of protistan and cyanobacterial biodiversity : CCAP - NIES collaboration 1991 - 1997. Phycological Research. 46: 77-83.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fleck RA, Day JG, Rana KJ & Benson EE (1997) Visualisation of cryoinjury and freeze events in the coenocytic alga Vaucheria sessilis using cryomicroscopy. CryoLetters. 18: 343-355.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG, Watanabe MM, Morris GJ, Fleck RA & McLellan MR (1997) Long-term viability of preserved eukaryotic algae. Journal of Applied Phycology. 9: 121-127.
DOI: 10.1023/A:1007991507314
Abstract:
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Tsavalos AJ & Day JG (1994) Development of a medium for the mixotrophic/heterotrophic culture of Brachiomonas submarina. Journal of Applied Phycology. 6: 431-433.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02182162
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Brown S & Day JG (1993) An improved method for the long-term preservation of Naegleria gruberi. CryoLetters. 14: 347-352.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG & Fenwick C (1993) Cryopreservation of members of the genus Tetraselmis used in aquaculture. Aquaculture. 118: 151-160.
DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90288-A
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fenwick C & Day JG (1992) Cryopreservation of Tetraselmis suecica cultured under different nutrient regimes. Journal of Applied Phycology. 4: 105-109.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02442458
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Achilles-Day UEM, Pröschold T & Day JG (2008) Phylogenetic position of the freshwater ciliate, Euplotes daidaleos (Diller,WF & Kounaris, D, 1966) within the Family of Euplotidae, obtained from Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequence. Denisia. 23: 411-416.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Müller H, Achilles-Day UEM & Day JG (2008) Cryopreservation of the rare oligotrich ciliate Meseres corlissi. CryoLetters. 29: 329-338.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Harding K, Müller J, Lorenz M, Timmerman H, Friedl T, Day JG & Benson EE (2008) Deployment of the encapsulation/dehydration protocol to cryopreserve microalgae held at Sammlung von Algenkulturen, Universität Göttingen Germany. CryoLetters. 29: 15-20.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Johnstone C, Day JG, Staines H & Benson EE (2006) An in vitro oxidative stress test for determining pollutant tolerance in algae. Ecological Indicators. 6: 770-779.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.09.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fleck RA, Pickup RW, Day JG & Benson EE (2006) The use of flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy to characterise cryopreservation-induced injuries in Euglena gracilis. Cryobiology. 52: 261-268.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2005.12.003
Abstract:
Keywords: cryomicroscopy, cryopreservation, Euglena gracilis, flow-cytometry, viability assessment

 

Day JG (1998) Cryo-conservation of microalgae and cyanobacteria. CryoLetters. S1: 7-14.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Scott J, Yokoyama A, Billard C, Fresnel J, Hara Y, West KA & West JA (2008) Neorhodella cynaea, a new genus in the Rhodellophyceae (Rhodophyta). Phycologia. 47(6): 560-572.
DOI: 10.2216/08-27.1
Abstract: The red algal unicell Rhodella cyanea (Rhodellophyceae) was reinvestigated. The cell ultrastructure is clearly dissimilar to that of the two other Rhodella species, R. maculata Evans and R. violacea (Kornmann) Wehrmeyer. Consequently, we have established Neorhodella gen. nov. Neorhodella cyanea possesses a large parietal chloroplast with numerous lobes extending into the cell center. The inner region of each lobe terminates near the central nucleus and contains several thylakoids sparsely covered by opposed, disc-shaped phycobilisomes. These regions are interpreted as multiple pyrenoids. Thylakoids are more numerous in other chloroplast regions where phycobilisomes are alternately spaced. A peripheral encircling thylakoid is absent and plastoglobuli, in unicellular red algae found only in the Rhodellophyceae, are found at the cell periphery. Golgi bodies are exclusively perinuclear, similar to Dixoniella and Glaucosphaera in the class Rhodellophyceae. Golgi cisternae appear closely opposed during some cell cycle stages, a feature found in no other unicells except members of the Rhodellophyceae. Several stages of mitosis were observed in Neorhodella. These suggest a pattern fairly typical of other unicellular red algae. Nucleus-associated organelles are polar rings, the division poles have conspicuous gaps in the mostly intact nuclear envelope and microtubules emanate from a flattened plate of membranes and moderately electron dense material, attaching to small kinetochores during mitosis and terminating near the former poles of telophase nuclei during migration of daughter nuclei. The low molecular weight carbohydrate of Neorhodella is mannitol, similar to Rhodella and Dixoniella.
Keywords: Chloroplast, Golgi, Mannitol, Neorhodella gen. nov., Porphyridiales, Pyrenoids, Rhodella, Rhodellophyceae, Ultrastructure, Unicellular red algae

 

Barrios-Llerena ME, Burja AM & Wright PC (2007) Genetic analysis of polyketide synthase and peptide synthetase genes in cyanobacteria as a mining tool for secondary metabolites. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 34: 443-456.
DOI: 10.1007/s10295-007-0216-6
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mendoza H, de la Jara A, Freijanes K, Carmona L, Ramos AA, de Sousa Duarte V & Serafim Varela JC (2008) Characterisation of Dunaliella salina strains by flow cytometry: a new approach to select carotenoid hyperproducing strains. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 11(4): -.
DOI: 10.2225/vol11-issue4-fulltext-2
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Weldy CS & Huesemann M (2007) Lipid production by Dunaliella salina in batch culture: Effects of nitrogen limitation and light intensity U.S. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research. 7: 115-122.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Stevenson RN & South GR (1974) Coccomyxa parasitica sp. nov. (Coccomyxaceae, Chlorococcales), a parasite of giant scallops in Newfoundland European Journal of Phycology. 9: 319-329.
DOI: 10.1080/00071617400650391
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Triemer RE, Linton E, Shin W, Nudelman A, Monfils A, Bennett M & Brosnan S (2006) Phylogeny of the Euglenales based up on combined SSU and LSU rDNA sequence comparisons and description of Discoplastis gen. nov. (Euglenophyta). Journal of Phycology. 42(3): 731-740.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00219.x
Abstract:
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Zakry? B, Milanowski R, Empel J, Borsuk P, Gromadka R & Kwiatowski J (2002) Two different species of Euglena, E. geniculata and E. myxocylindracea (Euglenophyceae), are virtually genetically and morphologically identical Journal of Phycology. 38: 1190-1199.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2002.02020.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Milanowski R, Kosmala S, Zakry? B & Kwiatowski J (2006) Phylogeny of photosynthetic euglenophytes based on combined chloroplast and cytoplasmic SSU rDNA sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology. 42: 721-730.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00216.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Zakry? B, Empel J, Milanowski R, Gromadka R, Borsuk P, K?dzior M & Kwiatowski J (2004) Genetic variability of Euglena agilis (Euglenophyceae). Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 73(4): 305-309.
DOI:
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Gachon CMM, Strittmatter M, Müller DG, Kleinteich J & Küpper FC (2009) Detection of differential host susceptibility to the marine oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii by real-time PCR: Not all algae are equal. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75(2): 32-328.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01885-08
Abstract: In the marine environment, a growing body of evidence points to parasites as key players in the control of population dynamics and overall ecosystem structure. However, their prevalence and impact on marine macroalgal communities remain virtually unknown. Indeed, infectious diseases of seaweeds are largely underdocumented, partly because of the expertise required to diagnose them with a microscope. Over the last few years, however, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has emerged as a rapid and reliable alternative to visual symptom scoring for monitoring pathogens. Thus, we present here a qPCR assay suitable for the detection and quantification of the intracellular oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii in its ectocarpalean and laminarialean brown algal hosts. qPCR and microscopic observations made of laboratory- controlled cultures revealed that clonal brown algal strains exhibit different levels of resistance against Eurychasma, ranging from high susceptibility to complete absence of symptoms. This observation strongly argues for the existence of a genetic determinism for disease resistance in brown algae, which would have broad implications for the dynamics and genetic structure of natural populations. We also used qPCR for the rapid detection of Eurychasma in filamentous brown algae collected in Northern Europe and South America and found that the assay is specific, robust, and widely applicable to field samples. Hence, this study opens the perspective of combining large-scale disease monitoring in the field with laboratory-controlled experiments on the genome model seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus to improve our understanding of brown algal diseases.
Keywords:

 

Dean AP, Nicholson JM & Sigee DC (2008) Impact of phosphorus quota and growth phase on carbon allocation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: An FTIR microspectroscopy study. European Journal of Phycology. 43(4): 345-354.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260801979287
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Peters AF & Ellertsdóttir E (1996) New record of the kelp endophyte Laminarionema elsbetiae (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) at Helgoland and its life history in culture. Nova Hedwigia. 62: 341-349.
DOI:
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Ellertsdóttir E & Peters AF (1997) High prevalence of infection by endophytic brown algae in populations of Laminaria spp. (Phaeophyceae). Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 146: 135-143.
DOI:
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Peters AF & Burkhardt E (1998) Systematic position of the kelp endophyte Laminarionema elsbetiae (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales sensu lato) inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Phycologia. 37: 114-120.
DOI:
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Peters AF (2003) Molecular identification, taxonomy and distribution of brown algal endophytes, with emphasis on species from Antarctica. In: Chapman ARO, Anderson RJ, Vreeland V & Davison IR (Eds) Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium. Oxford Univ. : 293-302.
DOI:
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Kudryavtsev A, Wylezich C, Schlegel M, Walochnik J & Michel R (2009) Ultrastructure, SSU rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic relationships of Flamella Schaeffer, 1926 (Amoebozoa), with description of three new species. Protist. 160: 21-40.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.09.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Küpper FC, Gaquerel E, Boneberg E, Morath S, Salaün J & Potin P (2006) Early events in the perception of lipopolysaccharides in the brown alga Laminaria digitata include an oxidative burst and activation of fatty acid oxidation cascades. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(9): 1991-1999.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erj146
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Liu H, Kelly MS, Cook EJ, Black K, Orr H, Zhu JX & Dong SL (2007) The effect of diet type on growth and fatty-acid composition of sea urchin larvae, I. Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata). Aquaculture. 264: 247-262.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.021
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Liu H, Kelly MS, Cook EJ, Black K, Orr H, Zhu JX & Dong SL (2007) The effect of diet type on growth and fatty acid composition of the sea urchin larvae, II. Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin). Aquaculture. 264: 263-278.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.022
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fry SC, Mohler KE, Nesselrode BHWA & Franková L (2008) Mixed-linkage ?-glucan: xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, a novel wall-remodelling enzyme from Equisetum (horsetails) and charophytic algae. Acta Protozoologica. 55: 240-252.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03504.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cannell RJP, Owsianka AM & Walker JM (1988) Results of a large-scale screening programme to detect antibacterial activity from freshwater algae. European Journal of Phycology. 23: 41-44.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618800650051
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bass D, Howe AT, Mylnikov AP, Vickerman K, Chao E-EY, Edwards Smallbone J, Snell J, Cabral Jr C & Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas and Cavernomonas gen. nov. Protist. 160: 483-521.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.01.004
Abstract:
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Cavalier-Smith T, Chao EE-Y, Stechmann A, Oates B & Nikolaev S (2008) Planomonadida ord. nov. (Apusozoa): Ultrastructural affinity with Micronuclearia podoventralis and deep divergences within Planomonas gen. nov. Protist. 159(4): 535-562.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.06.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bass D, Howe AT, Mylnikov AP, Vickerman K, Chao E-EY, Edwards Smallbone J, Snell J, Cabral Jr C & Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas and Cavernomonas gen. nov. Protist. 160: 483-521.
DOI: 10.1061/j.protis.2009.01.004
Abstract:
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Leliaert F, Rueness J, Boedeker C, Maggs CA, Cocquyt E, Verbruggen H & De Clerck O (2009) Systematics of the marine microfilamentous green algae Uronema curvatum and Urospora microscopica (Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology. 44(4): 487-496.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260903229540
Abstract: The microfilamentous green alga Uronema curvatum is widely distributed along the western and eastern coasts of the north Atlantic Ocean where it typically grows on crustose red algae and on haptera of kelps in subtidal habitats. The placement of this marine species in a genus of freshwater Chlorophyceae had been questioned. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclearencoded small and large subunit rDNA sequences reveal that U. curvatum is closely related to the ulvophycean order Cladophorales, with which it shares a number of morphological features, including a siphonocladous level of organization and zoidangial development. The divergent phylogenetic position of U. curvatum, sister to the rest of the Cladophorales, along with a combination of distinctive morphological features, such as the absence of pyrenoids, the diminutive size of the unbranched filaments and the discoid holdfast, warrants the recognition of a separate genus, Okellya, within a new family of Cladophorales, Okellyaceae. The epiphytic Urospora microscopica from Norway, which has been allied with U. curvatum, is revealed as a member of the cladophoralean genus Chaetomorpha and is herein transferred to that genus as C. norvegica nom. nov.
Keywords: Chlorophyta, Cladophorales, green algae, marine, molecular phylogenetics, systematics, taxonomy, Ulvophyceae

 

Trainor FR (1964) The effect of composition of the medium on morphology in Scenedesmus obliquus. Canadian Journal of Botany. 42: 515-518.
DOI: 10.1139/b64-051
Abstract:
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Rogerson A, Shiu WY, Huang GL, Mackay D & Berger J (1983) Determination and interpretation of hydrocarbon toxicity to ciliate Protozoa. Aquatic Toxicology. 3: 215-228.
DOI: 10.1016/0166-445X(83)90042-5
Abstract:
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Freyssinent G, Eichholz RL & Buetow DE (1984) Kinetics of accumulation of Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate Carboxylase during greening in Euglena gracilis Plant Physiology. 75(3): 850-857.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.75.3.850
Abstract:
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Wolk CP (1965) Control of sporulation in a blue-green alga Development Biology. 12: 15-35.
DOI: 10.1016/0012-1606(65)90018-7
Abstract:
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Hackney CM, Al-Khazzar AR & Butler RD (1982) Tenticle contraction and ultrastructure in Discophyra collini. The response to cations. Protoplasma. 112: 92-100.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01280219
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Whitehouse JW & Lewis BG (1973) The effect of diet and density on development, size and egg production in Cyclops abyssorum Sars, (Copepoda, Cyclopoida). Crustaceana. 25(3): 225-236.
DOI: 10.1163/156854073X00209
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Zahalsky AC, Hutner SH, Keane M & Burger RM (1962) Bleaching Euglena gracilis with antihistamines and streptomycin-type antibiotics. Archiv für Microbiologie. 42(1): 46-55.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00425189
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Kahn JS (1984) Activation of coupling factor 1 from Euglena gracilis chloroplasts: Conditions for optimal activation and their possible physiological significance. Plant Physiology. 75(2): 410-413.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.75.2.410
Abstract:
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Lonergan TA (1984) Regulation of cell shape in Euglena gracilis. Journal of Cell Science. 71: 37-50.
DOI:
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Sharma P (1984) Heterocyst and akinete induction with altered pattern in Anabaena cylindrica, caused by neo-peptone. Archiv für Microbiologie. 139: 196-201.
DOI:
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Sumar N, Casselton PJ, McNally SF & Stewart GR (1984) Occurrence of isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase in the alga Chlorella kessleri. Plant Physiology. 74(2): 204-207.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.74.2.204
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Setter TL & Greenway H (1983) Changes in the proportion of endogenous osmotic solutes accumulated by Chlorella emersonii in the light and dark. Plant, Cell and Environment. 6: 227-234.
DOI:
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Berkaloff C & Rousseau B (1984) Variability of cell wall structure and hydrocarbon type in different strains of Botryococcus braunii. Journal of Phycology. 20(3): 377-389.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1984.00377.x
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Wolk CP (1966) Evidence of a role of heterocysts in the sporulation of a blue-green alga. American Journal of Botany. 53(3): 260-262.
DOI: 10.2307/2439795
Abstract:
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Hackney CM & Butler RD (1981) Tentacle contraction in glycerinated Discophyra collini and the localisation of HMM-binding filaments. Journal of Cell Science. 47: 65-75.
DOI:
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Oliver RL & Walsby AE (1984) Direct evidence for the role of light-mediated gas vesicle collapse in the buoyancy regulation of Anabaena flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria). Limnology and Oceanography. 29(4): 879-886.
DOI:
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Reed RH, Chudek JA, Foster R & Stewart WDP (1984) Osmotic adjustment in cyanobacteria from hypersaline environments. Archiv für Microbiologie. 138(4): 333-337.
DOI:
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Tonomura B & Lewin RA (1965) Acid-soluble nucleotides of Chlamydomonas moewusii, wild type and a paralyzed mutant. Plant & Cell Physiology. 6: 671-680.
DOI:
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Fallowfield HJ & Osbourne BA (1985) Growth and light absorbance of Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyceae with particular reference to Anabaena variabilis and Scenedesmus obliquus. British Phycological Journal. 20(1): 27-41.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618500650051
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Whitehead PR & Brown NL (1985) A simple and rapid method for screening bacteria for type II restriction endonucleases: enzymes in Aphanothece halophytica. Archiv für Microbiologie. 141(1): 70-74.
DOI:
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Farnham WF, Blunden G & Gorden SM (1985) Occurrence and pigment analysis of the sponge endobiont Microspora ficulinae (Chlorophyceae). Botanica Marina. 17: 79-81.
DOI:
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Robreau G, Dron M & le Gal Y (1984) Identification of histone H1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 12(1): 7-12.
DOI: 10.1016/0305-1978(84)90003-6
Abstract:
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Stulp BK, Bos SA, Stenveld H & Stam WT (1984) Growth of Anabaena strains (Cyanophyceae) exposed to crossed gradients of light and temperature. Cryptogamie Algologie. 5: 63-71.
DOI:
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Roussard-Jacquemin M (1983) Etude ultrastructurale de la différenciation des hétérocystes chez la cyanobacterie Anabaena cylindrica Lemm. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 29(11): 1564-1575.
DOI:
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Eddy BP (1956) The suitability of some algae for mass cultivation for food, with special reference to Dunaliella bioculata. Journal of Experimental Botany. 21: 372-380.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/7.3.372
Abstract:
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Eppley RW & Coatsworth JL (1966) Culture of the marine phytoplankter, Dunaliella tertiolecta, with light-dark cycles. Archiv für Microbiologie. 55: 66-80.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00409157
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Spencer CN & King DL (1985) Interactions between light, NH4+ and CO2 in buoyancy regulation of Anabaena flos-aquae (Cyanophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 21(2): 194-199.
DOI:
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Santore UJ (1985) A cytological survey of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae) with comments on its taxonomy. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 130: 1-52.
DOI:
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Wegmann K & Metzner H (1971) Synchronization of Dunaliella cultures. Archiv für Microbiologie. 78: 360-367.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00412276
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Page FC & Blanton RL (1985) The Heterolobosea (Sarcodina: Rhizopoda) a new class uniting the Schizopyrenida and the Acrasidae (Acrasida). Protistologica. 21(1): 121-132.
DOI:
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Gates MA (1983) Trajectories of cell volume distributions during the growth cycle of Tetrahymena. Journal of General Microbiology. 129: 895-900.
DOI:
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de Vasconcenlos L & Fay P (1974) Nitrogen metabolism and ultrastructure in Anabaena cylindrica. I. The effect of nitrogen starvation. Archiv für Microbiologie. 96: 271-279.
DOI:
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Rogerson A (1980) Generation times and reproductive rates of Amoeba proteus (Leidy) as influenced by temperature and food concentration. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 58(4): 543-548.
DOI:
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Baldock BM, Rogerson A & Berger J (1982) Further studies on respiratory rates of freshwater amoebae (Rhizopoda, Gymnamoebia). Microbial Ecology. 8: 55-60.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02011461
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Livolant F (1982) Dinoflagellate trichocyst ultrastructure. I. The shaft. Biology of the Cell. 43: 201-210.
DOI:
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Livolant F (1982) Dinoflagellate trichocyst ultrastructure. II. Existence of a sheath. Biology of the Cell. 43: 211-216.
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Livolant F & Karsenti E (1982) Immunoperoxidase study of dinoflagellate trichocysts: A critical appraisal. Biology of the Cell. 43: 217-220.
DOI:
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Patterson DJ & Hausmann K (1982) Morulate bodies in actinophryid heliozoa: A fixation artefact derived from microtubules? Cell Structure and Function. 7: 341-348.
DOI:
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Watts DJ & Ashworth JM (1970) Growth of Myxamoebae of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum in axenic culture. Biochemical Journal. 119: 171-174.
DOI:
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Costas M & Griffiths AJ (1984) The esterases and acid-phosphatases of Acanthamoeba (Amoebida, Acanthamoebidae). Protistologica. 20(1): 33-41.
DOI:
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Costas M & Griffiths AJ (1984) Taxonomic significance of the fatty acid composition of Acanthamoeba (Amoebida, Acanthamoebidae). Protistologica. 20(1): 27-31.
DOI:
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Van der Veer J (1969) Pavlova mesolychnon (Chrysophyta) a new species from the Tamar estuary, Cornwall. Acta Botanica Neerlandica. 18(4): 496-510.
DOI:
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Sathaiah G, Reddy KL & Vidyavati (1983) Effect of 2-phenyl-3-amino quinazaline-4-one on Cosmarium praemorsum Breb. Current Science. 52(12): 610-611.
DOI:
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Vidyavati (1982) Cell ornamentation in Cosmarium bioculatum Breb. under SEM. Current Science. 51(11): 569-570.
DOI:
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Vidyavati (1982) Cell ornamentation of Cosmarium formosulum Hoff. under Scanning Electron Microscope. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science. 91(5): 632-634.
DOI:
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Vidyavati (1982) Division in Cosmarium formosulum Hoff. under Scanning Electron Microscope. Life Science Advances. 1(2): 151-155.
DOI:
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Sathaiah G, Reddy YR, Reddy KJ & Vidyavati (1982) The effect of ultrasonics on the desmid Cosmarium praemorsum Breb. Journal of Pure and Applied Ultrasonics. 4: 81-83.
DOI:
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Thompson RJ & Mosig G (1984) Light and genetic determinants in the control of specific chloroplast transcripts in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiology. 76(1): 1-6.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.76.1.1
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Wright SJL (1975) A simple agar plate method, using micro-algae, for herbicide bio-assay or detection. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 14(1): 65.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01685601
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Willaert E & Leray D (1973) Caracteres morphologiques, biologique et immunochimiques de Naegleria jadini sp. nov. (Amoebida, Vahlkampfiidae). Protistologica. 9(3): 417-426.
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Wiese L & Wiese W (1977) On speciation by evolution of gametic incompatibility. A model case in Chlamydomonas. The American Naturalist. 111(980): 733-742.
DOI: 10.1086/283202
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Wildon DC & Mercer FV (1963) The ultrastructure of the heterocyst and akinete of the blue-green algae. Archiv für Microbiologie. 47: 19-31.
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Wilcox M (1970) One-dimensional pattern found in blue-green algae. Nature. 228: 686-687.
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Wang AW & Tischer RG (1974) Preservation of the sheath of a blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae A-37. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 20(10): 1415-1416.
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Hyams JS (1982) The Euglena paraflagellar rod: Structure, relationship to other flagellar components and preliminary biochemical characterization. Journal of Cell Science. 55: 199-210.
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Cullimore JV & Sims AP (1980) An association between photorespiration and protein catabolism: Studies with Chlamydomonas. Planta. 150: 392-396.
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Reed RH, Richardson DL, Warr SRC & Stewart WDP (1984) Carbohydrate accumulation and osmotic stress in cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology. 130: 1-4.
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Fitzsimons AG & Smith RV (1984) The isolation and growth of axenic cultures of planktonic blue-green algae. British Phycological Journal. 19(2): 157-162.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618400650161
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Waris H (1956) Cytophysiological studies on Micrasterias. IV. Effects of acids upon the nuclear aspect and the resistance of the cell. Physiologia Plantarum. 9: 82-101.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1956.tb08993.x
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Daggett PM, Sawyer T & Nerad T (1982) Distribution and possible interrelationships of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Acanthamoeba from aquatic environments. Microbial Ecology. 8(4): 371-386.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02010676
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Santore UJ (1983) Flagellar and body scales in the Cryptophyceae British Phycological Journal. 18(3): 239-248.
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Evans RW, Kates M, Ginzburg M & Ginzburg BZ (1982) Lipid composition of halotolerant algae, Dunaliella parva Lerche and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 712: 186-195.
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Page FC & Robson EA (1983) Fine structure and taxonomic position of Hydramoeba hydroxena (Entz, 1912). Protistologica. 19(1): 41-50.
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Hilenski IL & Walne PL (1983) Ultrastructure of mucocysts in Peranema trichophorum (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Protozoology. 30(3): 491-496.
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Patterson DJ (1983) On the organization of the naked filose amoeba Nuclearia moebiusi Frenzel 1897 (Sarcodina Filosea) and its implications. Journal of Protozoology. 30(2): 301-307.
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Douglas AE (1983) Establishment of the symbiosis in Convoluta roscoffensis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 63(2): 419-434.
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Hegewald E & Schnepf E (1984) Zur struktur und taxonomie bestachelter Chlorellales (Micractiniaceae, Golenkiniaceae, Siderocystopsis) Nova Hedwigia. 39(1/2): 297-383.
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De Jonckheere JF, Pernin P, Scaglia M & Michel R (1984) A comparative study of 14 strains of Naegleria australiensis demonstrates the existence of a highly virulent subspecies: N. australiensis italica n.spp. Journal of Protozoology. 31(2): 324-331.
DOI:
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Whitton BA (1967) Effect of glycollate on phosphate uptake in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Planta. 74: 119-122.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00388324
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Whitton BA & MacArthur K (1967) The action of two toxic quinones on Anacystis nidulans. Archiv für Microbiologie. 57: 147-154.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00408698
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Whittle SJ & Casselton PJ (1969) The chloroplast pigments of some green and yellow-green algae. British Phycological Journal. 4(1): 55-64.
DOI: 10.1080/00071616900650041
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Weber HL & Boeck A (1968) Comparative studies on the regulation of DAHP synthetase activity in blue-green and green algae. Archiv für Microbiologie. 61: 159-168.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00412152
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Stulp BK & Stam WT (1984) Genotypic relationships between strains of Anabaena (Cyanophyceae) and their correlation with morphological affinities. British Phycological Journal. 19(3): 287-301.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618400650311
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Stulp BK & Stam WT (1984) Growth and morphology of Anabaena strains (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria) in cultures under different salinities. British Phycological Journal. 19(3): 281-286.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618400650301
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Rippka R & Cohen-Bazire G (1983) The cyanobacteriales: A legitimate order based on the type strain Cyanobacterium stanieri Annals of Microbiology. 134B: 21-36.
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Hibberd DJ & Norris RE (1984) Cytology and ultrastructure of Chlorarachnion reptans (Chlorarachniophyta divisio nova, Chlorarachniophyceae classis nova). Journal of Phycology. 20(2): 310-330.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1984.00310.x
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Mikolajczyk E (1984) Photophobic responses in Euglenina: 2. Sensitivity to light of the colourless flagellate Astasia longa in low and high viscosity medium. Acta Protozoologica. 23(2): 85-92.
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Reynoso GT & de Gamboa BA (1982) Salt tolerance in the freshwater algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Effect of proline and taurine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 73A(1): 95-99.
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Syrett PJ & Al-Houty FAA (1984) The phylogenetic significance of the occurrence of urease / urea amidolyase and glycollate oxidase / glycollate dehydrogenase in green algae. British Phycological Journal. 19(1): 11-21.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618400650021
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Syrett PJ & Al-Houty FAA (1984) The phylogenetic significance of the occurrence of urease / urea amidolyase and glycollate oxidase / glycollate dehydrogenase in green algae. British Phycological Journal. 19(1): 11-21.
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Al-Houty FAA & Syrett PJ (1984) The occurrence of urease / ruea amidolyase and glycollate oxidase / dehydrogenase in Klebsormidium spp. and members of the Ulotrichales. British Phycological Journal. 19(1): 1-10.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618400650011
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Page FC & Willumsen NBS (1983) A light- and electron-microscopical study of Paraflabellula reniformis (Schmoller, 1964), type species of a genus of Amoebae (Amoebida, Flabellulidae) with subpseudopodia. Protistologica. 19(4): 567-575.
DOI:
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Vickerman K (1962) Patterns of cellular organisation in Limax amoebae. Experimental Cell Research. 26: 467-519.
DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(62)90155-6
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Vischer W (1932) Experimentelle untersuchungen (Gallertbildung) mit Mischococcus sphaerocephalus Vischer. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 76(2): 257-273.
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Mullineaux PM, Chaplin AE & Gallon JR (1983) Synthesis of nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Gloeothece (Gloeocapsa) sp. CCAP 1403/3. Journal of General Microbiology. 129: 1689-1696.
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Tschermak-Woess E (1970) über wenig bekannte und neue flechtengonidien V. Der phycobiont von Verrucaria aquatilis und die fortpflanzung von Pseudopleurococcus arthopyreniae. Oesterr. Bot. Z.. 118: 443-455.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01376256
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Wolfe M (1954) The effect of molybdenum upon the nitrogen metabolism of Anabaena cylindrica I. A study of the molybdenum requirement for nitrogen fixation and for nitrate and ammonia assimilation. Annals of Botany. 18(71): 299-308.
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Al-Khazzar AR, Earnshaw MJ, Butler RD, Emes MJ & Sigee DC (1984) Tentacle contraction in Discophyra collini: The effects of inophore A23187 and ruthenium red on Ca2+-induced contraction and uptake of extracellular calcium. Protoplasma. 122: 125-131.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01279445
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Al-Khazzar AR, Butler RD & Earnshaw MJ (1984) The effect of ionophore A23187 and ruthenium red on tentacle contraction and ultrastructure in Discophyra collini: Evidence of calcium fluxing from intracellular reservoirs. Protoplasma. 117: 158-166.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01288354
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Zehnder A (1963) Kulturversuche mit Gloeotrichia echinulata (J. E. Smith) P. Richter. Schweiz. Zeitschr. Hydrol.. 25(1): 65-83.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02505435
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Weldon DC & Mercer FV (1963) The ultrastructure of the vegetative cell of blue-green algae. Acta Botanica Neerlandica. 16: 585-596.
DOI:
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Vidyavati (1983) Surface ornamentation in Cosmarium praemorsum Breb. Indian Journal of Botany. 6(1): 95-97.
DOI:
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Vidyavati (1982) Cell division in Staurastrum gracile Ralfs. under the scanning electron microscope. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science. 91(5): 443-447.
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Willaert E (1974) Etude immunotaxonomique du genre Naegleria. Annals de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale. 54(4/5): 395-404.
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Stache-Crain B, Müller DG & Goff LJ (1997) Molecular systematics of Ectocarpus and Kuckuckia (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and plastid-encoded DNA sequences. Journal of Phycology. 33: 152-168.
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Peters AF, van Wijk S, Cho GY, Scornet D, Hanyuda T, Kawai H, Schroeder DC, Cock JM & Boo SM (2010) Reinstatement of Ectocarpus crouaniorum Thuret in Le Jolis as a third common species of Ectocarpus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in western Europe, and its phenology at Roscoff, Brittany. Phycological Research. 58: 1-14.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2010.00574.x
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Müller DG & Parodi ER (1994) Asteronema rhodochortonoides nov. comb. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) - a newly recognized taxon with stellate chloroplast arrangement. Phycologia. 33: 471-474.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-33-6-471.1
Abstract: Borgesen (1914) described a small filamentous epiphytic brown alga from St Croix, Virgin Islands, as Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides. Later he reported it from the Canary Islands too (Borgesen 1914, 1926). Subsequently this taxon has been listed from tropical and subtropical coasts by various authors: India (Misra 1966), Tanzania (Jaasund 1976), Columbia (Schnetter 1976), West Africa (Lawson & John 1982) and South Africa (Bolton & Stegenga 1987). The chloroplasts were described as 'irregularly formed ribbons or plates' (Borgesen 1926), 'rodshaped' (Jaasund 1976) or 'short band-like' (Misra 1966) and all authors maintained the species within the genus Ectocarpus. We have studied cultures of E. rhodochortonoides originating from South Africa and the Canary Islands and come to the conclusion that the plastids in this taxon are arranged in a stellate manner around one or two central pyrenoid complexes. This feature means that the species must be removed from the genus Ectocarpus.
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Müller DG, Parodi ER & Peters AF (1998) Asterocladon lobatum gen. et sp. nov., a new brown alga with stellate chloroplast arrangement, and its systematic position judged from nrDNA sequences. Phycologia. 37: 425-432.
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Peters AF & Ramírez ME (2001) Molecular phylogeny of small brown algae, with special reference to the systematic position of Caepidium antarcticum (Adenocystaceae, Ectocarpales). Cryptogamie Algologie. 22: 187-200.
DOI:
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Liu H, Kelly MS, Campbell DA, Dong SL, Zhu JX & Wang SF (2007) Exposure to domoic acid affects larval development of king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) Aquatic Toxicology. 81: 152-158.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.11.012
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Maberly SC, Courcelle C, Groben R & Gontero B (2010) Phylogenetically-based variation in the regulation of the Calvin cycle enzymes, phophoribulokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, in algae. Journal of Experimental Botany. 61: 735-745.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erp337
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Folmer F, Jaspars M, Solano G, Cristofanon S, Henry E, Tabudravu J, Black K, Green DH, Küpper FC, Aalbersberg W, Feussner K, Dicato M & Diederich M (2009) The inhibition of TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation by marine natural products. Biochemical Pharmacology. 78: 592-606.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.05.009
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Hart MC, Green DH, Bresnan E & Bolch CJ (2007) Large subunit ribosomal RNA gene variation and sequence heterogeneity of Dinophysis (Dinophyceae) species from Scottish coastal waters. Harmful Algae. 6: 271-287.
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2006.10.001
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Amin SA, Green DH, Hart MC, Küpper FC, Sunda WG & Carrano CJ (2009) Photolysis of iron-siderophore chelates promotes bacterial-algal mutualism. PNAS. 106(40): 17071-17076.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905512106
Abstract: Marine microalgae support world fisheries production and influence climate through various mechanisms. They are also responsible for harmful blooms that adversely impact coastal ecosystems and economies. Optimal growth and survival of many bloom-forming microalgae, including climatically important dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, requires the close association of specific bacterial species, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. Here, we report that several clades of Marinobacter ubiquitously found in close association with dinoflagellates and coccolithophores produce an unusual lower-affinity dicitrate siderophore, vibrioferrin (VF). Fe-VF chelates undergo photolysis at rates that are 10?20 times higher than siderophores produced by free-living marine bacteria, and unlike the latter, the VF photoproduct has no measurable affinity for iron. While both an algal-associated bacterium and a representative dinoflagellate partner, Scrippsiella trochoidea, used iron from Fe-VF chelates in the dark, in situ photolysis of the chelates in the presence of attenuated sunlight increased bacterial iron uptake by 70% and algal uptake by >20-fold. These results suggest that the bacteria promote algal assimilation of iron by facilitating photochemical redox cycling of this critical nutrient. Also, binary culture experiments and genomic evidence suggest that the algal cells release organic molecules that are used by the bacteria for growth. Such mutualistic sharing of iron and fixed carbon has important implications toward our understanding of the close beneficial interactions between marine bacteria and phytoplankton, and the effect of these interactions on algal blooms and climate.
Keywords: algal blooms, iron acquisition, vibrioferrin, marinobacter, photochemistry

 

Gutman J, Zarka A & Boussiba S (2009) The host-range of Paraphysoderma sedebokerensis, a chytrid that infects Haematococcus pluvialis. European Journal of Phycology. 44(4): 509-514.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260903161024
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Figueroa RI, Garcés E, Massana R & Camp J (2008) Description, host-specificity, and strain selectivity of the Dinoflagellate parasite Parvalucifera sinerae sp. nov. (Perkinsozoa). Protist. 159: 563-578.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.05.003
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Krienitz L, Bock C, Luo W & Pröschold T (2010) Polyphyletic origin of the Dictyosphaerium morphotype within Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 46: 559-563.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00813.x
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Acinas SG, Haverkamp THA, Huisman J & Stal LJ (2009) Phenotypic and genetic diversification of Pseudanabaena spp. (cyanobacteria). The ISME Journal. 3: 31-46.
DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2008.78
Abstract: Pseudanabaena species are poorly known filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria closely related to Limnothrix. We isolated 28 Pseudanabaena strains from the Baltic Sea (BS) and the Albufera de Valencia (AV; Spain). By combining phenotypic and genotypic approaches, the phylogeny, diversity and evolutionary diversification of these isolates were explored. Analysis of the in vivo absorption spectra of the Pseudanabaena strains revealed two coexisting pigmentation phenotypes: (i) phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) strains and (ii) strains containing both PC and phycoerythrin (PE). Strains of the latter phenotype were all capable of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). About 65 kb of the Pseudanabaena genomes were sequenced through a multilocus sequencing approach including the sequencing of the16 and 23S rRNA genes, the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the cpcBA operon encoding PC and the IGS between cpcA and cpcB. In addition, the presence of nifH, one of the structural genes of nitrogenase, was investigated. Sequence analysis of ITS and cpcBA-IGS allowed the differentiation between Pseudanabaena isolates exhibiting high levels of microdiversity. This multilocus sequencing approach revealed specific clusters for the BS, the AV and a mixed cluster with strains from both ecosystems. The latter comprised exclusively CCA phenotypes. The phylogenies of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes are consistent, but analysis of other loci indicated the loss of substructure, suggesting that the recombination between these loci has occurred. Our preliminary results on population genetic analyses of the PC genes suggest an evolutionary diversification of Pseudanabaena through purifying selection.
Keywords: Pseudanabaena, cyanobacteria, complementary chromatic adaptation, microbial diversity, phylogeny, evolutionary diversification

 

Baker A, Robbins I, Moline MA & Iglesias-Rodriguez MD (2008) Oligonucleotide primers for the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates reveal novel luciferase sequences and information on the molecular evolution of this gene. Journal of Phycology. 44: 419-428.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00474.x
Abstract: Bioluminescence is reported in members of 18 dinoflagellate genera. Species of dinoflagellates are known to have different bioluminescent signatures, making it difficult to assess the presence of particular species in the water column using optical tools, particularly when bioluminescent populations are in nonbloom conditions. A ?universal? oligonucleotide primer set, along with species and genus-specific primers specific to the luciferase gene were developed for the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates. These primers amplified luciferase sequences from bioluminescent dinoflagellate cultures and from environmental samples containing bioluminescent dinoflagellate populations. Novel luciferase sequences were obtained for strains of Alexandrium cf. catenella (Whedon et Kof.) Balech and Alexandrium fundyense Balech, and also from a strain of Gonyaulax spinifera (Clap. et Whitting) Diesing, which produces bioluminescence undetectable to the naked eye. The phylogeny of partial luciferase sequences revealed five significant clades of the dinoflagellate luciferase gene, suggesting divergence among some species and providing clues on their molecular evolution. We propose that the primers developed in this study will allow further detection of low-light-emitting bioluminescent dinoflagellate species and will have applications as robust indicators of dinoflagellate bioluminescence in natural water samples.
Keywords: bioluminescence, CODEHOP PCR, dinoflagellates, luciferase, phylogeny

 

Ciugulea I, Nudelman MA, Brosnan S & Triemer RE (2008) Phylogeny of the Euglenoid loricate genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (Euglenophyta) inferred from nuclear SSU and LSU rDNA. Journal of Phycology. 44: 406-418.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00472.x
Abstract:
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Cox PA, Banack SA, Murch SJ, Rasmussen U, Tien G, Bidigare RR, Metcalf JS, Morrison LF, Codd GA & Bergman B (2005) Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid. PNAS. 102: 5074-5078.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0501526102
Abstract: Cyanobacteria can generate molecules hazardous to human health, but production of the known cyanotoxins is taxonomically sporadic. For example, members of a few genera produce hepatotoxic microcystins, whereas production of hepatotoxic nodularins appears to be limited to a single genus. Production of known neurotoxins has also been considered phylogenetically unpredictable. We report here that a single neurotoxin, -N-methylamino- L-alanine, may be produced by all known groups of cyanobacteria, including cyanobacterial symbionts and free-living cyanobacteria. The ubiquity of cyanobacteria in terrestrial, as well as freshwater, brackish, and marine environments, suggests a potential for widespread human exposure.
Keywords: biomagnification, neurotoxin, symbiosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex

 

De Martino A, Meichenin A, Shi J, Pan K & Bowler C (2007) Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions. Journal of Phycology. 43: 992-1009.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00384.x
Abstract:
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Domenighini A & Giordano M (2009) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of microalgae as a novel tool for biodiversity studies, species identification, and the assessment of water quality. Journal of Phycology. 45: 522-531.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00662.x
Abstract:
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Drummond CS, Hall J, Karol KG, Delwiche CF & McCourt RM (2005) Phylogeny of Spirogyra and Sirogonium (Zygnematophyceae) based on rbcL sequence data. Journal of Phycology. 41: 1055-1064.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00130.x
Abstract:
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Fazeli MR, Tofighi H, Madadkar-Sobhani A, Shahverdi AR, Nejad-Sattari T, Mirzaie S & Jamalifar H (2009) Nicotine inhibition of lycopene cyclase enhances accumulation of carotenoid intermediates by Dunaliella salina CCAP 19/18. European Journal of Phycology. 44(2): 215-220.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260802578526
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Frommlet JC & Iglesias-Rodriquez MD (2008) Microsatellite genotyping of single cells of the dinoflagellate species Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae): A novel approach for marine microbial population genetic studies. Journal of Phycology. 44: 1116-1125.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00566.x
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Garrido JL, Rodriguez F & Zapata M (2009) Occurrence of loroxanthin, loroxanthin decenoate and loroxanthin dodecenoate in Tetraselmis species (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 45: 366-374.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00660.x
Abstract:
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Hard BC & Gilmour DJ (1996) The uptake of organic compounds by Dunaliella parva CCAP 19/9. European Journal of Phycology. 31: 217-224.
DOI:
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Hoef-Emden K (2008) Molecular phylogeny of phycocyanin-containing cryptophytes: Evolution of biliproteins and geographical distribution. Journal of Phycology. 44: 985-993.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00530.x
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Jungblut AD, Lovejoy C & Vincent WF (2010) Global distribution of cyanobacterial ecotypes in the cold biosphere. The ISME Journal. 4: 191-202.
DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2009.113
Abstract: Perennially cold habitats are diminishing as a result of climate change; however, little is known of the diversity or biogeography of microbes that thrive in such environments. Here we use targeted 16S rRNA gene surveys to evaluate the global affinities of cold-dwelling cyanobacteria from lake, stream and ice communities living at the northern limit of High Arctic Canada. Pigment signature analysis by HPLC confirmed the dominance of cyanobacteria in the phototrophic communities of these High Arctic microbial mats, with associated populations of chlorophytes and chromophytes. Microscopic analysis of the cyanobacteria revealed a diverse assemblage of morphospecies grouping into orders Oscillatoriales, Nostocales and Chroococcales. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from six clone libraries grouped into a total of 24 ribotypes, with a diversity in each mat ranging from five ribotypes in ice-based communities to 14 in land-based pond communities. However, no significant differences in composition were observed between these two microbial mat systems. Based on clone-library and phylogenetic analysis, several of the High Arctic ribotypes were found to be 499% similar to Antarctic and alpine sequences, including to taxa previously considered endemic to Antarctica. Among the latter, one High Arctic sequence was found 99.8% similar to Leptolyngbya antarctica sequenced from the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. More than 68% of all identified ribotypes at each site matched only cyanobacterial sequences from perennially cold terrestrial ecosystems, and were o97.5% similar to sequences from warmer environments. These results imply the global distribution of low-temperature cyanobacterial ecotypes throughout the cold terrestrial biosphere.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, biogeography, cyanobacteria, dispersal, microbial mats, polar

 

Kaczmarska I, Beaton M, Benoit AC & Medlin LK (2005) Molecular phylogeny of selected members of the order Thalassiosirales (Bacillariophyta) and evolution of the Fultoportula. Journal of Phycology. 42: 121-138.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00161.x
Abstract:
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Karnkowska-Ishikawa A, Milanowski R, Kwiatowski J & Zakrys B (2010) Taxonomy of the Phacus oscillans (Euglenaceae) and its close relatives - balancing morphological and molecular features. Journal of Phycology. 46: 172-182.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00765.x
Abstract:
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Kim JI & Shin W (2008) Phylogeny of the Euglenales inferred from plastid LSU rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology. 44: 994-1000.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00536.x
Abstract:
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Kosmala S, Karnkowska-Ishikawa A, Milanowski R, Kwiatowski J & Zakrys B (2009) Phylogeny and systematics of Euglena (Euglenaceae) species with axial, stellate chloroplasts based on morphological and molecular data - new taxa, emended diagnoses, and epitypifications. Journal of Phycology. 45: 464-481.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00653.x
Abstract:
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Kosol S, Schmidt J & Kurmayer R (2009) Variation in peptide net production and growth among strains of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix spp. European Journal of Phycology. 44(1): 49-62.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260802158659
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Le Bail A, Billoud B, Maisonneuve C, Peters AF, Cock JM & Charrier B (2008) Early development pattern of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) sporophyte. Journal of Phycology. 44: 1269-1281.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00582.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Leonardos N & Geider RJ (2004) Effects of nitrate:phosphate supply ratio and irradiance on the C:N:P stoichiometry of Chaetoceros muelleri. European Journal of Phycology. 39: 173-180.
DOI: 10.1080/0967026042000201867
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Maberly SC, Ball LA, Raven JA & Sültemeyer D (2009) Inorganic carbon acquisition by Chrysophytes. Journal of Phycology. 45: 1052-1061.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00734.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakada T & Nozaki H (2009) Taxonomic study of two new genera of fusiform green flagellates, Tabris gen. nov. and Hamakko gen. nov. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 45: 482-492.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00652.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakada T, Nozaki H & Pröschold T (2008) Molecular phylogeny, ultrastructure, and taxonomic revision of Chlorogonium (Chlorophyta): Emendation of Chlorogonium and description of Gungnir gen. nov. and Rusalka gen. nov. Journal of Phycology. 44: 751-760.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00525.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakada T, Suda S & Nozaki H (2007) A taxonomic study of Hafniomonas (Chlorophyceae) based on a comparative examination of cultured material. Journal of Phycology. 43: 397-411.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00328.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Phipps KD, Donaher NA, Lane CE & Archibald JM (2008) Nucleomorph karyotype diversity in the freshwater cryptophyte genus Cryptomonas. Journal of Phycology. 44: 11-14.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00434.x
Abstract:
Keywords: cryptomonas, cryptophyte, genome evolution, nucleomorph, secondary endosymbiosis

 

Qiao H, Wang G & Zhang X (2009) Isolation and characterization of Chlorella sorokiniana GXNN01 (Chlorophyta) with the properties of heterotrophic and microaerobic growth. Journal of Phycology. 45: 1153-1162.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00736.x
Abstract:
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Rengefors K & Legrand C (2007) Broad allelopathic activity in Peridinium aciculiferum (Dinophyceae). European Journal of Phycology. 42(4): 341-349.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260701529604
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Richert L, Golubic S, Le Guédès R, Hervé A & Payri C (2006) Cyanobacterial populations that build 'kopara' microbial mats in Rangiroa, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia. European Journal of Phycology. 41(3): 259-279.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260600804868
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sarno D, Kooistra WHCF, Balzano S, Hargraves PE & Zingone A (2007) Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae). III. Phylogenetic position and morphological variability of Skeletonema costatum and Skeletonema grevillei with the description of Skeletonema ardens sp. nov. Journal of Phycology. 43: 156-170.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00305.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Segovia M & Berges JA (2009) Inhibition of caspase-like activities prevents the appearance of reactive oxygen species and dark-induced apoptosis in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta. Journal of Phycology. 45: 1116-1126.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00733.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Summerer M, Sonntag B & Sommaruga R (2008) Ciliate-symbiont specificity of freshwater endosymbiotic Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 44: 77-84.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00455.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Tardio M, Ellegaard M, Lundholm N, Sangiorgi F & Di Giuseppe G (2009) A hypocystal archeopyle in a freshwater dinoflagellate from the Peridinium umbonatum group (Dinophyceae) from Lake Nero di Cornisello, South Eastern Alps, Italy. European Journal of Phycology. 44(2): 241-250.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260802588442
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Thamatrakoln K, Alverson AJ & Hildebrand M (2006) Comparative sequence analysis of diatom silicon transporters: Toward a mechanistic model of silicon transport. Journal of Phycology. 42: 822-834.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00233.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Vanormelingen P, Hegewald E, Braband A, Kitschke M, Friedl T, Sabbe K & Vyverman W (2007) The systematics of a small spineless Desmodesmus species, D. costato-granulatus (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), based on ITS2 rDNA sequence analyses and cell wall morphology. Journal of Phycology. 43: 378-396.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00325.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Pröschold T, Bock C, Luo W & Krienitz L (2010) Polyphyletic distribution of bristle formation in Chlorellaceae: Micractinium, Diacanthos, Didymogenes and Hegewaldia gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research. 58: 1-8.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2009.00552.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Luo W, Pröschold T, Bock C & Krienitz L (2010) Generic concept in Chlorella-related coccoid green algae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Plant Biology. 12: 545-553.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2009.00221.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Peters AF, van Wijk SJ, Cho GY, Scornet D, Hanyuda T, Kawai H, Schroeder DC, Cock JM & Boo SM (2010) Reinstatement of Ectocarpus crouaniorum Thuret in Le Jolis as a third common species of Ectocarpus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Western Europe, and its phenology at Roscoff, Brittany. Phycological Research. 58: 1-14.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2010.00574.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cock JM et al. (2010) The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in brown algae. Nature. 465: 617-621.
DOI: 10.1038/nature09016
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ferreira D, Pinto F, Moradas-Ferreira P, Mendes MV & Tamagnini P (2009) Transcription profiles of hydrogenases related genes in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4. BMC Microbiology. 9: 67.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-67
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ferreira D, Leitão E, Sjöholm J, Oliveira P, Lindblad P, Moradas-Ferreira P & Tamagnini P (2007) Transcription and regulation of the hydrogenase(s) accessory genes, hypFCDEAB, in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4. Archives of Microbiology. 188: 609-617.
DOI: 10.1007/s00203-007-0281-2609-617
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Leitão E, Oxelfelt F, Oliveira P, Moradas-Ferreira P & Tamagnini P (2005) Analysis of the hupSL operon of the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1146/4: Regulation of transcription and expression under a light-dark regimen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71(8): 4567-4576.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.8.4567-4576.2005
Abstract: This work presents the characterization of an uptake hydrogenase from a marine filamentous nonheterocystous cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4. The structural genes encoding the uptake hydrogenase (hupSL) were isolated and characterized, and regulatory sequences were identified upstream of hupS. In silico analysis highlighted various sets of long repetitive sequences within the hupSL intergenic region and downstream of hupL. The transcriptional regulator that operates global nitrogen control in cyanobacteria (NtcA) was shown to bind to the promoter region, indicating its involvement in the transcriptional regulation of hupSL. Under N2-fixing conditions and a 12-h light/12-h dark regime, H2 uptake activity was shown to follow a daily pattern with a clear maximum towards the end of the dark period, preceded by an increase in the transcript levels initiated in the end of the light phase. Novel antibodies directed against HupL of Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4 were used to monitor the protein levels throughout the 24-h period. The results suggest that protein turnover occurs, with degradation taking place during the light phase and de novo synthesis occurring during the dark phase, coinciding with the pattern of H2 uptake. Taking into account our results and the established correlation between the uptake hydrogenase activity and N2 fixation in cyanobacteria, it seems probable that both processes are confined to the dark period in aerobically grown cells of Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4.
Keywords:

 

Leitão E, Pereira S, Bondoso J, Ferreira D, Pinto F, Moradas-Ferreira P & Tamagnini P (2006) Genes involved in the maturation of hydrogenase(s) in the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 31: 1469-1477.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.06.012
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Olmos J, Ochoa L, Paniagua-Michel J & Contreras R (2009) DNA fingerprinting differentiation between ?-carotene hyperproducer straisn of Dunaliella from around the world. Saline Systems. 5: -.
DOI: 10.1186/1746-1448-5-5
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Liu Y, Steenkamp ET, Brinkmann H, Forget L, Philippe H & Lang BF (2009) Phylogenomic analyses predict sistergroup relationship of nucleariids and fungi and paraphyly of zygomycetes with significant support. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 272.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-272
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lerche K & Hallmann A (2009) Stable nuclear transformation of Gonium pectorale. BMC Biotechnology. 9: 64.
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-9-64
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hodaifa G, Martinez ME & Sánchez S (2008) Use of industrial wastewater from olive-oil extraction for biomass production of Scenedesmus obliquus. Bioresource Technology. 99: 1111-1117.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.02.020
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nassonova E, Smirnov A, Fahrni J & Pawlowski J (2010) Barcoding amoebae: Comparison of SSU, ITS and COI genes as tools for molecular identification of naked lobose amoebae. Protist. 161: 102-115.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.07.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kleinegris DMM, Janssen M, Brandenburg WA & Wijffels RH (2010) The selectivity of milking of Dunaliella salina Marine Biotechnology. 12: 14-23.
DOI: 10.1007/s10126-009-9195-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bass D, Howe AT, Mylnikov AP, Vickerman K, Chao E-EY, Edwards Smallbone J, Snell J, Cabral Jr C & Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas and Cavernomonas gen. nov. Protist. 160: 483-451.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.01.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Peck RK (2010) Structure of loricae and stalks of several bacterivorous Chrysomonads (Chrysophyceae): Taxonomical importance and possible ecological significance. Protist. 161: 148-159.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.07.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Dean AP, Sigee DC, Estrada B & Pittman JK (2010) Using FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of lipid accumulation in response to nitrogen limitation in freshwater microalgae. Bioresource Technology. 101: 4499-4507.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.065
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sun Z, Peng X, Liu J, Fan K-W, Wang M & Chen F (2010) Inhibitory effects of microalgal extracts on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Food Chemistry. 120: 261-267.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.10.018
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lawton LA, Chambers H, Edwards C, Nwaopara AA & Healy M (2010) Rapid detection of microcystins in cells and water. Toxicon. 55: 973-978.
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.05.030
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Devine E, Holmqvist M, Stensjö K & Lindblad P (2009) Diversity and transcription of proteases involved in the maturation of hydrogenases in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. BMC Microbiology. 9: 53.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-53
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Maistro S, Broady PA, Andreoli C & Negrisolo E (2009) Phylogeny and taxonomy of Xanthophyceae (Stramenopiles, Chromalveolata). Protist. 160: 412-426.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.02.002
Abstract:
Keywords: evolution, molecular phylogeny, systematics, taxonomy, Xanthophyceae

 

Dittami SM, Scornet D, Petit J-L, Ségurens B, Da Silva C, Corre E, Dondrup M, Glatting K-H, König R, Sterck L, Rouzé P, Van de Peer Y, Cock JM, Boyen C & Tonon T (2009) Global expression analysis of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) reveals large-scale reprogramming of the transcriptome in response to abiotic stress. Genome Biology. 10: 66.
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-6-r66
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Roberts JF, van Egmond R & Price OR (2010) Toxicity of haloacetic acids to freshwater algae. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 73: 56-61.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.09.013
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Herbstová M, Litvín R, Gardian Z, Komenda J & Vácha F (2010) Localization of Pcb antenna complexes in the photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorothrix hollandica. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 1797: 89-97.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2009.09.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Moniz MBJ & Kaczmarska I (2010) Barcoding of diatoms: Nuclear encoded ITS revisited. Protist. 161: 7-34.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.07.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fiore-Donno AM, Nikolaev SI, Nelson M, Pawlowski J, Cavalier-Smith T & Baldauf SL (2010) Deep phylogeny and evolution of slime moulds (Mycetozoa). Protist. 161: 55-70.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.05.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Rampen SW, Schouten S, Schefu? E & Sinninghe Damsté JS (2009) Impact of temperature on long chain diol and mid-chain hydroxy methyl alkanoate composition in Proboscia diatoms: Results from culture and field studies. Organic Geochemistry. 40: 1124-1131.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.08.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Holmqvist M, Stensjö K, Oliveira P, Lindberg P & Lindblad P (2009) Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. BMC Microbiology. 9: 54.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-54
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kodner RB, Summons RE & Knoll AH (2009) Phylogenetic investigation of the aliphatic, non-hydrolyzable biopolymer algaenan, with a focus on green algae. Organic Geochemistry. 40: 854-862.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.05.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Shadwick LL, Spiegel FW, Shadwick JDL, Brown MW & Silberman JD (2009) Eumycetozoa = Amoebozoa?: SSUrDNA phylogeny of Protosteloid Slime Molds and its significance for the Amoebozoan supergroup. PLoS ONE. 4(8): e6754.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006754
Abstract: Amoebae that make fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk and spores and classified as closely related to the myxogastrids have classically been placed in the taxon Eumycetozoa. Traditionally, there are three groups comprising Eumycetozoa: myxogastrids, dictyostelids, and the so-called protostelids. Dictyostelids and myxogastrids both make multicellular fruiting bodies that may contain hundreds of spores. Protostelids are those amoebae that make simple fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk and one or a few spores. Protostelid-like organisms have been suggested as the progenitors of the myxogastrids and dictyostelids, and they have been used to formulate hypotheses on the evolution of fruiting within the group. Molecular phylogenies have been published for both myxogastrids and dictyostelids, but little molecular phylogenetic work has been done on the protostelids. Here we provide phylogenetic trees based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU) that include 21 protostelids along with publicly available sequences from a wide variety of amoebae and other eukaryotes. SSU trees recover seven well supported clades that contain protostelids but do not appear to be specifically related to one another and are often interspersed among established groups of amoebae that have never been reported to fruit. In fact, we show that at least two taxa unambiguously belong to amoebozoan lineages where fruiting has never been reported. These analyses indicate that we can reject a monophyletic Eumycetozoa, s.l. For this reason, we will hereafter refer to those slime molds with simple fruiting as protosteloid amoebae and/or protosteloid slime molds, not as protostelids. These results add to our understanding of amoebozoan biodiversity, and demonstrate that the paradigms for understanding both nonfruiting and sporulating amoebae must be integrated. Finally, we suggest strategies for future research on protosteloid amoebae and nonfruiting amoebae, and discuss the impact of this work for taxonomists and phylogenomicists.
Keywords:

 

Rindi F, Lam DW & López-Bautista JM (2009) Phylogenetic relationships and species circumscription in Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 52: 329-339.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.01.009
Abstract:
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Chankova SG, Yurina NP, Dimova EG, Ermohina OV, Oleskina YP, Dimitrova MT & Bryant PE (2009) Pretreatment with heat does not affect double-strand breaks DNA rejoining in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Journal of Thermal Biology. 34: 332-336.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2009.06.002
Abstract:
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Tooming-Klunderud A, Fewer DP, Rohrlack T, Jokela J, Rouhiainen L, Sivonen K, Kristensen T & Jakobsen KS (2008) Evidence for positive selection acting on microcystin synthetase adenylation domains in three cyanobacterial genera. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 256.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-256
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Whan L, Grant IR & Rowe MT (2006) Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa. BMC Microbiology. 6: 63.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-63
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Wilson RC, Watts SJ, Vives i Batlle J & McDonald P (2009) Laboratory and field studies of polonium and plutonium in marine plankton. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 100: 665-669.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.05.007
Abstract:
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Howe AT, Bass D, Vickerman K, Chao EE & Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Phylogeny, taxonomy, and astounding genetic diversity of Glissomonadida ord. nov., the dominant gliding zooflagellates in soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa). Protist. 160: 159-189.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.11.007
Abstract:
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Moriceau B, Goutx M, Guigue C, Lee C, Armstrong R, Duflos M, Tamburini C, Charrière & Ragueneau O (2009) Si-C interactions during degradation of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi. Deep-Sea Research II. 56: 1381-1395.
DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.026
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bosch C, Olivares A, Faria M, Navas JM, del Olmo I, Grimalt JO, Piña B & Barata C (2009) Identification of water soluble and particle bound compounds causing sublethal toxic effects. A field study on sediments affected by a chlor-alkali industry. Aquatic Toxicology. 94: 16-27.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.05.011
Abstract:
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Kurmayer R & Gumpenberger M (2006) Diversity of microcystin genotypes among populations of the filamentous cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens and Planktothrix agardhii. Molecular Ecology. 15: 3849-3861.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03044.x
Abstract:
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Ozkoc S, Tuncay S, Bayram Delibas S, Akisu C, Ozbek Z, Durak I & Walochnik J (2008) Identification of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and Paravahlkampfia sp. from two clinical samples. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 57: 392-396.
DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47650-0
Abstract:
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Troedsson C, Ganot P, Bouquet J-M, Aksnes DL & Thompson EM (2007) Endostyle cell recruitment as a frame of reference for development and growth in the Urochordate Oikopleura dioica. The Biological Bulletin. 213: 325-334.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Walochnik J, Aichelburg A, Assadian O, Steuer A, Visvesvara G, Vetter N & Aspöck H (2008) Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba amoebae of genotype T2 in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46: 338-340.
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01177-07
Abstract: Acanthamoeba amoebae of genotype T2 were identified as the causative agent of Acanthamoeba skin lesions and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient with underlying tuberculosis. To our knowledge this, is the first case of GAE involving genotype T2.
Keywords:

 

Christophersen G, Torkildsen L & van der Meeren T (2006) Effect of increased water recirculation rate on algal supply and post-larval performance of scallop (Pecten maximus) reared in a partial open and continuous feeding system. Aquacultural Engineering. 35: 271-282.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2006.03.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gile GH, Faktorová D, Castlejohn CA, Burger G, Lang BF, Farmer MA, Lukes J & Keeling PJ (2009) Distribution and phylogeny of EFL and EF-1? in Euglenozoa suggest ancestral co-occurrence followed by differential loss. PLoS ONE. 4(4): e5162.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005162
Abstract: Background: The eukaryotic elongation factor EF-1a (also known as EF1A) catalyzes aminoacyl-tRNA binding by the ribosome during translation. Homologs of this essential protein occur in all domains of life, and it was previously thought to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. Recently, however, a number of eukaryotes were found to lack EF-1a and instead encode a related protein called EFL (for EF-Like). EFL-encoding organisms are scattered widely across the tree of eukaryotes, and all have close relatives that encode EF-1a. This intriguingly complex distribution has been attributed to multiple lateral transfers because EFL?s near mutual exclusivity with EF-1a makes an extended period of co-occurrence seem unlikely. However, differential loss may play a role in EFL evolution, and this possibility has been less widely discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings: We have undertaken an EST- and PCR-based survey to determine the distribution of these two proteins in a previously under-sampled group, the Euglenozoa. EF-1a was found to be widespread and monophyletic, suggesting it is ancestral in this group. EFL was found in some species belonging to each of the three euglenozoan lineages, diplonemids, kinetoplastids, and euglenids. Conclusions/Significance: Interestingly, the kinetoplastid EFL sequences are specifically related despite the fact that the lineages in which they are found are not sisters to one another, suggesting that EFL and EF-1a co-occurred in an early ancestor of kinetoplastids. This represents the strongest phylogenetic evidence to date that differential loss has contributed to the complex distribution of EFL and EF-1a.
Keywords:

 

Kana R, Prasil O & Mullineaux CW (2009) Immobility of phycobilins in the thylakoid lumen of a cryptophyte suggests that protein diffusion in the lumen is very restricted. FEBS Letters. 583: 670-674.
DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.01.016
Abstract: The thylakoid lumen is an important photosynthetic compartment which is the site of key steps in photosynthetic electron transport. The fluidity of the lumen could be a major constraint on photosynthetic electron transport rates. We used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching in cells of the cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina to probe the diffusion of phycoerythrin in the lumen and chlorophyll complexes in the thylakoid membrane. In neither case was there any detectable diffusion over a timescale of several minutes. This indicates very restricted phycoerythrin mobility. This may be a general feature of protein diffusion in the thylakoid lumen.
Keywords: Cryptophyte (Rhodomonas salina), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, protein diffusion, thylakoid lumen, phycobilin, phycoerythrin

 

Agervald A, Stensjö K, Holmqvist M & Lindblad P (2008) Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. BMC Microbiology. 8: 69.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-69
Abstract:
Keywords: hyp-operon, hyp-genes

 

Suggett DJ, Moore CM, Hickman AE & Geider RJ (2009) Interpretation of fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorescence: Signatures of phytoplankton community structure versus physiological state. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 376: 1-19.
DOI: 10.3354/meps07830
Abstract:
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Keller A, Schleicher T, Förster F, Ruderisch B, Dandekar T, Müller T & Wolf M (2008) ITS2 data corroborate a monophyletic chlorophycean DO-group (Sphaeropleales). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 218.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-218
Abstract:
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Le Bail A, Dittami SM, de Franco P-O, Rousvoal S, Cock MJ, Tonon T & Charrier B (2008) Normalisation genes for expression analyses in the brown alga model Ectocarpus siliculosus. BMC Molecular Biology. 9: 75.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-9-75
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Christiansen G, Molitor C, Philmus B & Kurmayer R (2008) Nontoxic strains of cyanobacteria are the result of major gene deletion events induced by a transposable element. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25: 1695-1704.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msn120
Abstract:
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Bass D, Richards TA, Matthai L, Marsh V & Cavalier-Smith T (2007) DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 162.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-162
Abstract:
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Gião MS, Wilks SA, Azevedo NF, Vieira MJ & Keevil CW (2009) Validation of SYTO 9/propidium iodide uptake for rapid detection of viable but noncultivable Legionella pneumophila Microbial Ecology. 58: 56-62.
DOI: 10.1007/s00248-008-9472-x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Maistro S, Broady PA, Andreoli C & Negrisolo E (2007) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the order Tribonematales (Heterokonta, Xanthophyceae) based on analysis of plastidial genes rbcL and psaA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43: 407-417.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.014
Abstract:
Keywords: Xanthophyceae, Tribonematales, rbcL, psaA, molecular phylogeny

 

Zhang Z & Sachs JP (2007) Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species. Organic Geochemistry. 38: 582-608.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.12.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Krienitz L & Wirth M (2006) The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Nannochloropsis limnetica (Eustigmatophyceae) and its implication for food web interactions, freshwater aquaculture and biotechnology. Limnologica. 36: 204-210.
DOI: 10.1016/j.limno.2006.05.002
Abstract: In the eustigmatophycean Nannochloropsis limnetica the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is extremely high in comparison to different planktonic green algal taxa in freshwater ecosystems. The sums of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in N. limnetica were ten-fold higher than in the other picoplankton Choricystis minor and Pseudodictyosphaerium jurisii, and higher than in the nanoplanktonic green algae Chlorella vulgaris, Monoraphidium neglectum and Scenedesmus obtusiusculus. The content of fatty acids in N. limnetica was highly variable under different culture conditions. The highest concentrations of PUFA in N. limnetica were found in non-aerated suspension cultures, with a high content of phosphate (40 mg l1 K2HPO4) in the culture medium: linoleic acid 22.19 mg g1 DW, arachidonic acid 10.52 mg g1 DW, and eicosapentaenoic acid 55.56 mg g1 DW. N. limnetica represent a high-quality food resource in freshwater food chains. Furthermore, cultures of this eustigmatophycean alga have a high potential for use in biotechnology and aquaculture.
Keywords: Chlorophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Nannochloropsis, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Food web interactions, Picoplankton, Aquaculture, Biotechnology

 

Lorenzo-Morales J, Ortega-Rivas A, Martínez E, Khoubbane M, Artigas P, Periago MV, Foronda P, Abreu-Acosta N, Valladares B & Mas-Coma S (2006) Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to T1, T2, T3, T4 and T7 genotypes from environmental samples in the Nile Delta region, Egypt. Acta Tropica. 100: 63-69.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2006.09.008
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Chance R, Malin G, Jickells T & Baker AR (2007) Reduction of iodate to iodide by cold water diatom cultures. Marine Chemistry. 105: 169-180.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marchem.2006.06.008
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Janssen M, Wijffels R & von Stockar U (2007) Biocalorimetric monitoring of photoautotrophic batch cultures. Thermochimica Acta. 458: 54-64.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tca.2007.01.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Wilson RC, Vives i Batlle J, Watts SJ, McDonald P & Parker TG (2007) Uptake and depuration of 131I from labelled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) to the edible periwinkle (Littorina littorea). Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 96: 75-84.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2007.01.018
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Roy J, Faktorová D, Lukes J & Burger G (2007) Unusual mitochondrial genome structures throughout the Euglenozoa. Protist. 158: 385-396.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.03.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Walsby AE & Holland DP (2006) Sinking velocities of phytoplankton measured on a stable density gradient by laser scanning. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 3: 429-439.
DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2005.0106
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

De Schamphelaere KAC, Forrez I, Dierckens K, Sorgeloos P & Janssen CR (2007) Chronic toxicity of dietary copper to Daphnia magna. Aquatic Toxicology. 81: 409-418.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.01.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Yamada T, Onimatsu H & Van Etten JL (2006) Chlorella viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 66: 293-336.
DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3527(06)66006-5
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Martel CM (2009) Nitrogen-deficient microalgae are rich in cell-surface mannose: Potential implications for prey biorecognition by phagotrophic protozoa. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 40: 86-89.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

López-Bautista JM & Chapman RL (2003) Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53: 2099-2106.
DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02256-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Howard MDA, Smith GJ & Kudela RM (2009) Phylogenetic relationships of yessotoxin-producing dinoflagellates, based on the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA domains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75: 54-63.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00818-08
Abstract: Yessotoxin (YTX) is a globally distributed marine toxin produced by some isolates of the dinoflagellate species Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Gonyaulax spinifera within the order Gonyaulacales. The process of isolating cells and testing each isolate individually for YTX production during toxic blooms are labor intensive, and this impedes our ability to respond quickly to toxic blooms. In this study, we used molecular sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer genomic regions in the ribosomal operon of known YTX-producing dinoflagellates to determine if genetic differences exist among geographically distinct populations or between toxic and nontoxic isolates within species. In all analyses, all three YTX-producing species fell within the Gonyaulacales order in agreement with morphological taxonomy. Phylogenetic analyses of available rRNA gene sequences indicate that the capacity for YTX production appears to be confined to the order Gonyaulacales. These findings indicate that Gonyaulacoloid dinoflagellate species are the most likely to produce YTX and thus should be prioritized for YTX screening during events. Dinoflagellate species that fall outside of the Gonyaulacales order are unlikely to produce YTX. Although the rRNA operon offers multiple sequence domains to resolve species level diversification within this dinoflagellate order, these domains are not sufficiently variable to provide robust markers for YTX toxicity.
Keywords:

 

Kuiper MW, Valster RM, Wullings BA, Boonstra H, Smidt H & van der Kooij D (2006) Quantitative detection of the free-living amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water by using real-time PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72: 5750-5756.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00085-06
Abstract: A real-time PCR-based method targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for the quantitative detection of Hartmannella vermiformis, a free-living amoeba which is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila in warm water systems and cooling towers. The detection specificity was validated using genomic DNA of the closely related amoeba Hartmannella abertawensis as a negative control and sequence analysis of amplified products from environmental samples. Real-time PCR detection of serially diluted DNA extracted from H. vermiformis was linear for microscopic cell counts between 1.14  101 and 1.14  104 cells per PCR. The genome of H. vermiformis harbors multiple copies of the 18S rRNA gene, and an average number (with standard error) of 1,330  127 copies per cell was derived from real-time PCR calibration curves for cell suspensions and plasmid DNA. No significant differences were observed between the 18S rRNA gene copy numbers for trophozoites and cysts of strain ATCC 50237 or between the copy numbers for this strain and strain KWR-1. The developed method was applied to water samples (200 ml) collected from a variety of lakes and rivers serving as sources for drinking water production in The Netherlands. Detectable populations were found in 21 of the 28 samples, with concentrations ranging from 5 to 75 cells/liter. A high degree of similarity (>98%) was observed between sequences of clones originating from the different surface waters and between these clones and the reference strains. Hence, H. vermiformis, which is highly similar to strains serving as hosts for L. pneumophila, is a common component of the microbial community in fresh surface water.
Keywords:

 

Gómez PI & González MA (2005) The effect of temperature and irradiance on the growth and carotenogenic capacity of seven strains of Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) cultivated under laboratory conditions. Biological Research. 38: 151-162.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lorenzo-Morales J, Ortega-Rivas A, Foronda P, Martínez E & Valladares B (2005) Isolation and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain from water sources. Parasitology Research. 95: 273-277.
DOI: 10.1007/s00436-005-1301-2
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

González MA, Cifuentes AS & Gómez PI (2009) Growth and total carotenoid content in four Chilean strains of Haematococcus pluvialis Flowtow, under laboratory conditions. Gayana Botánica. 66: 58-70.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cifuentes AS, González MA, Vargas S, Hoeneisen M & González N (2003) Optimization of biomass, total carotenoids and astaxanthin production in Haematococcus pluvialis Flowtow strain Steptoe (Nevada, USA) under laboratory conditions. Biological Research. 36: 343-357.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Popescu CE, Borza T, Bielawski JP & Lee RW (2006) Evolutionary rates and expression level in Chlamydomonas. Genetics. 172: 1567-1576.
DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.047399
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Flors C, Fryer MJ, Waring J, Reeder B, Bechtold U, Mullineaux PM, Nonell S, Wilson MT & Baker NR (2006) Imaging the production of singlet oxygen in vivo using a new fluorescent sensor, Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green ? Journal of Experimental Botany. 57: 1725-1734.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erj181
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Garate M, Marchant J, Cubillos I, Cao Z, Khan NA & Panjwani N (2006) In vitro pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba is associated with the expression of the mannose-binding protein. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 47: 1056-1062.
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-0477
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mura M, Bull TJ, Evans H, Sidi-Boumedine K, McMinn L, Rhodes G, Pickup R & Hermon-Taylor J (2006) Replication and long-term persistence of bovine and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72: 854-859.
DOI: 10.1128/aem.72.1.854-859.2006
Abstract: Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne?s disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn?s disease are infected with this chronic enteric pathogen. Subclinical infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in domestic livestock. Infected animals excrete large numbers of robust organisms into the environment, but little is known about their ability to replicate and persist in protists. In the present study we fed laboratory cultures of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with bovine and human strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Real-time PCR showed that the numbers of the pathogens fell over the first 4 to 8 days and recovered by 12 to 16 days. Encystment of the amoebic cultures after 4 weeks resulted in a 2-log reduction in the level of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which returned to the original level by 24 weeks. Extracts of resection samples of human gut from 39 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were fed to cultures of A. polyphaga. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detected by nested IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing and visualized by IS900 in situ hybridization and auramine-rhodamine staining was found in cultures derived from 13 of the patients and was still present in the cultures after almost 4 years of incubation. Control cultures were negative. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has the potential for long-term persistence in environmental protists.
Keywords:

 

Maghsood AH, Sissons J, Rezaian M, Nolder D, Warhurst D & Khan NA (2005) Acanthamoeba genotype T4 from the UK and Iran and isolation of the T2 genotype from clinical isolates. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 54: 755-759.
DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.45970-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Dykova I, Nowak BF, Peckova H, Fiala I, Crosbie PBB & Dvorakova H (2007) Phylogeny of Neoparamoeba strains isolated from marine fish and invertebrates as inferred from SSU rDNA sequences. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 74: 57-65.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: neoparamoeba strains, paramoeba eilhardi, phylogeny, invertebrate infections

 

Hu Q, Westerhoff P & Vermaas W (2000) Removal of nitrate from groundwater by cyanobacteria: Quantitative assessment of factors influencing nitrate uptake. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66: 133-139.
DOI: 10.1128/aem.66.1.133-139.2000
Abstract: The feasibility of biologically removing nitrate from groundwater was tested by using cyanobacterial cultures in batch mode under laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated that nitrate-contaminated groundwater, when supplemented with phosphate and some trace elements, can be used as growth medium supporting vigorous growth of several strains of cyanobacteria. As cyanobacteria grew, nitrate was removed from the water. Of three species tested, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 displayed the highest nitrate uptake rate, but all species showed rapid removal of nitrate from groundwater. The nitrate uptake rate increased proportionally with increasing light intensity up to 100 mmol of photons m22 s21, which parallels photosynthetic activity. The nitrate uptake rate was affected by inoculum size (i.e., cell density), fixed-nitrogen level in the cells in the inoculum, and aeration rate, with vigorously aerated, nitrate-sufficient cells in mid-logarithmic phase having the highest long-term nitrate uptake rate. Average nitrate uptake rates up to 0.05 mM NO3 2 h21 could be achieved at a culture optical density at 730 nm of 0.5 to 1.0 over a 2-day culture period. This result compares favorably with those reported for nitrate removal by other cyanobacteria and algae, and therefore effective nitrate removal from groundwater using this organism could be anticipated on large-scale operations.
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Paulsrud P & Lindblad P (1998) Sequence variation of the tRNALeu intron as a marker for genetic diversity and specificity of symbiotic cyanobacteria in some lichens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64: 310-315.
DOI:
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Keywords:

 

Nimer NA, Brownlee C & Merrett MJ (1999) Extracellular carbonic anhydrase facilitates carbon dioxide availability for photosynthesis in the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. Plant Physiology. 120: 105-111.
DOI:
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Keywords:

 

Tsvetkova N, Schild M, Panaiotov S, Kurdova-Mintcheva R, Gottstein B, Walochnik J, Aspöck H, Lucas MS & Müller N (2004) The identification of free-living environmental isolates of amoebae from Bulgaria. Parasitology Research. 92: 405-413.
DOI: 10.1007/s00436-003-1052-x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Israel AA & González EL (1996) Photosynthesis and inorganic carbon utilization in Pleurochrysis sp. (Haptophyta), a coccolithophorid alga. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 137: 243-250.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Huysman MJJ, Martens C, Vandepoele K, Gillard J, Rayko E, Heijde M, Bowler C, Inzé D, Van de Peer Y, De Veylder L & Vyverman W (2010) Genome-wide analysis of the diatom cell cycle unveils a novel type of cyclins involved in environmental signaling. Genome Biology. 11: R17.
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-2-r17
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sugden MA, Talbot HM & Farrimond P (2005) Flash pyrolysis - a rapid method for screening bacterial species for the presence of bacteriohopanepolyols. Organic Geochemistry. 36: 975-979.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.12.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Wylezich C, Nies G, Mylnikov AP, Tautz D & Arndt H (2010) An evaluation of the use of the LSU rRNA D1-D5 domain for DNA-based taxonomy of eukaryotic protists. Protist. 161: 342-352.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010-01-003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

De Jonckheere JF, Brown S, Walochnik J, Aspöck H & Michel R (2005) Morphological investigation of three Tetramitus spp. which are phylogenetically ver closely related: Tetramitus horticolus, Tetramitus russelli n. comb. and Tetramitus pararusselli n. sp. European Journal of Protistology. 41: 139-150.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2004.12.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Smirnov AV & Kudryavtsev AA (2005) Pellitidae n. fam. (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia) - a new family, accommodating two amoebae with an unusual cell coat and an original mode of locomotion, Pellita catalonica n.g., n.sp. and Pellita digitata comb. nov. European Journal of Protistology. 41: 257-267.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2005.05.002
Abstract:
Keywords: amoeba, protist, glycocalyx, ultrastructure, lobosea, gymnamoebia

 

Hejazi MA, Barzegari A, Gharajeh NH & Hejazi MS (2010) Introduction of a novel 18S rDNA gene arrangement along with distinct ITS region in the saline water microalga Dunaliella. Saline Systems. 6: 4.
DOI: 10.1186/1746-1448-6-4
Abstract:
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Zubkov MV & Leakey RJG (2009) Evaluation of the efficiency of metabolism of dinoflagellate phosphorus and carbon by a planktonic ciliate. European Journal of Protistology. 45: 166-173.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2008.09.003
Abstract:
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Dudley R, Matin A, Alsam S, Sissons J, Maghsood AH & Khan NA (2005) Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to T1, T2, T3, T4 but not T7 encyst in response to increased osmolarity and cysts do not bind to human corneal epithelial cells. Acta Tropica. 95: 100-108.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.05.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Leflaive J, Céréghino R, Danger M, Lacroix G & Ten-Hage L (2005) Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 62: 89-102.
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2005.02.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bossuyt BTA & Janssen CR (2005) Copper regulation and homeostasis of Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: Influence of acclimation. Environmental Pollution. 136: 135-144.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.11.024
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mulderij G, Mooij WM, Smolders AJP & Van Donk E (2005) Allelopathic inhibition of phytoplankton by exudates from Stratiotes aloides. Aquatic Botany. 82: 284-296.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.04.001
Abstract:
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Morelli E, Marangi ML & Fantozzi L (2009) A phytochelatin-based bioassay in marine diatoms useful for the assessment of bioavailability of heavy metals released by polluted sediments. Environmental International. 35: 532-538.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.09.012
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bass D, Chao EE-Y, Nikolaev S, Yabuki A, Ishida K-I, Berney C, Pakzad U, Wylezich C & Cavalier-Smith T (2009) Phylogeny of novel naked filose and reticulose cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea revised. Protist. 160: 75-109.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.07.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Robertson PKJ, Black KD, Adams M, Willis K, Buchan F, Orr H, Lawton L & McCullagh C (2009) A new generation of biocides for control of crustacea in fish farms. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 95: 58-63.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2008.12.009
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Deleebeeck NME, De Schamphelaere KAC & Janssen CR (2009) Effects of Mg2+ and H+ on the toxicity of Ni2+ to the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: Model development and validation with surface waters. Science of the Total Environment. 407: 1901-1914.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.11.052
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Zhang Z, Sachs JP & Marchetti A (2009) Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects. Organic Geochemistry. 40: 428-439.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.11.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

van Wijk D, Gyimesi-van den Bos M, Garttener-Arends I, Geurts M, Kamstra J & Thomas P (2009) Bioavailability and detoxification of cationics: I. Algal toxicity of alkyltrimethyl ammonium salts in the presence of suspended sediment and humic acid. Chemosphere. 75: 303-309.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.047
Abstract:
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Rampen SW, Schouten S, Hopmans EC, Abbas B, Noordeloos AAM, Geenevasen JAJ, Moldowan JM, Denisevich P & Sinninghe Damsté JS (2009) Occurrence and biomarker potential of 23-methyl steroids in diatoms and sediments. Organic Geochemistry. 40: 219-228.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.10.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nguyen-Ngoc H, Durrieu C & Tran-Minh C (2009) Synchronous-scan fluorescence of algal cells for toxicity assessment of heavy metals and herbicides. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 72: 316-320.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.04.016
Abstract:
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Dyková I, Fiala I & Pecková H (2008) Neoparamoeba spp. and their eukaryotic endosymbionts similar to Perkinsela amoebae (Hollande, 1980): Coevolution demonstrated by SSU rDNA gene phylogenies. European Journal of Protistology. 44: 269-277.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2008.01.004
Abstract:
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Fai PB, Grant A & Reid BJ (2009) Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays. Environmental Pollution. 157: 135-140.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.07.015
Abstract:
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Chantangsi C & Lynn DH (2008) Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Tetrahymena inferred from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49: 979-987.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.09.017
Abstract:
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Hoef-Emden K & Melkonian M (2008) Corrigendum to "Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae): A combination of molecular phylogeny and morphology provides insights into a long-hidden dimorphism" [Protist 154 (2003) 371-409]. Protist. 159: 507.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.04.003
Abstract:
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Hoef-Emden K & Melkonian M (2003) Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae): A combination of molecular phylogeny and morphology provides insights into a long-hidden dimorphism. Protist. 154: 371-409.
DOI: 10.1078/143446103322454130
Abstract:
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Donaher N, Tanifuji G, Onodera NT, Malfatti SA, Chain PSG, Hara Y & Archibald JM (2010) The complete plastid genome sequence of the secondarily nonphotosynthetic alga Cryptomonas paramecium: Reduction, compaction, and accelerated evolutionary rate. Genome Biology and Evolution. 1: 439-448.
DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evp047
Abstract:
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Mojaat M, Foucault A, Pruvost J & Legrand J (2008) Optimal selection of organic solvents for biocompatible extraction of ?-carotene from Dunaliella salina Journal of Biotechnology. 133: 433-441.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.11.003
Abstract:
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Medlin LK, Sáez AG & Young JR (2008) A molecular clock for coccolithophores and implications for selectivity of phytoplankton extinctions across the K/T boundary. Marine Micropaleontology. 2008: 69-86.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marmicro.2007.08.007
Abstract:
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Martín-Cereceda M, Guinea A, Bonaccorso E, Dyal P, Novarino G & Foissner W (2007) Classification of the peritrich ciliate Opisthonecta matiensis (Martín-Cereceda et al. 1999) as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb., based on new observations and SSU rDNA phylogeny. European Journal of Protistology. 43: 265-279.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2007.04.003
Abstract:
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Fawley KP & Fawley MW (2007) Observations on the diversity and ecology of freshwater Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae), with descriptions of new taxa. Protist. 158: 325-336.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.03.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

De Jonckheere JF (2007) Molecular identification of free-living amoebae of the Vahlkampfiidae and Acanthamoebidae isolated in Arizona (USA) European Journal of Protistology. 43: 9-15.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2006.09.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hoshina R & Imamura N (2008) Multiple origins of the symbioses in Paramecium bursaria. Protist. 159: 53-63.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.08.002
Abstract:
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Cassar N, Laws EA & Popp BN (2006) Carbon isotopic fractionation by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-limited growth conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 70: 5323-5335.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.08.024
Abstract:
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Cecutti C & Agius D (2008) Ecotoxicity and biodegradability in soil and aqueous media of lubricants used in forestry applications. Bioresource Technology. 99: 8492-8496.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.03.050
Abstract:
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Rezanka T, Nedbalová L & Sigler K (2008) Odd-numbered very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae identified by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytochemistry. 69: 2849-2855.
DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.8.021
Abstract:
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Zeman FA, Gilbin R, Alonzo F, Lecomte-Pradines C, Garnier-Laplace J & Aliaume C (2008) Effects of waterborne uranium on survival, growth, reproduction and physiological processes of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Aquatic Toxicology. 86: 370-378.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.11.018
Abstract:
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Luo W, Pflugmacher S, Pröschold T, Walz N & Krienitz L (2006) Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist. 157: 315-333.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2006.05.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nguyen-Ngoc H & Tran-Minh C (2007) Fluorescent biosensor using whole cells in an inorganic translucent matrix. Analytica Chimica Acta. 583: 161-165.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.10.005
Abstract:
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Logares R, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Boltovskoy A & Rengefors K (2007) Extensive dinoflagellate phylogenies indicate infrequent marine-freshwater transitions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45: 887-903.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.08.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Smirnov AV, Nassonova ES & Cavalier-Smith T (2008) Correct identification of species makes the amoebozoan rDNA treee congruent with morphology for the order Leptomyxida Page 1987; with description of Acramoeba dendroida n. g., n. sp., originally misidentified as 'Gephryamoeba sp.' European Journal of Protistology. 44: 35-44.
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Talbot HM, Summons RE, Jahnke LL, Cockell CS, Rohmer M & Farrimond P (2008) Cyanobacterial bacteriohopanepolyol signatures from cultures and natural environmental settings. Organic Geochemistry. 39: 232-263.
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Karadjova IB, Slaveykova VI & Tsalev DL (2008) The biouptake and toxicity of arsenic species on the green microalga Chlorella salina in seawater. Aquatic Toxicology. 87: 264-271.
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Keywords:

 

Sandaa R-A, Brunvold L, Magnesen T & Bergh ø (2008) Monitoring the opportunistic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. LT-13 in a great scallop, Pecten maximus hatchery. Aquaculture. 276: 14-21.
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Keywords:

 

Scragg AH (2006) The effect of phenol on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella VT-1. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 39: 796-799.
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Keywords:

 

Sandnes JM, Ringstad T, Wenner D, Heyerdahl PH, Källqvist T & Gislerød HR (2006) Real-time monitoring and automatic density control of large-scale microalgal cultures using near infrared (NIR) optical density sensors. Journal of Biotechnology. 122: 209-215.
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Keywords:

 

Smirnov AV, Nassonova ES, Chao E & Cavalier-Smith T (2007) Phylogeny, evolution and taxonomy of vannellid amoebae. Protist. 158: 295-324.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.04.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mojaat M, Pruvost J, Foucault A & Legrand J (2008) Effect of organic carbon sources and Fe2+ ions on growth and ?-carotene accumulation by Dunaliella salina. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 39: 177-184.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kudryavtsev A & Smirnov A (2006) Cochliopodium gallicum n. sp. (Himatismenida), an amoeba bearing unique scales, from cyanobacterial mats in the Camargue (France). European Journal of Protistology. 42: 3-7.
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Keywords:

 

García-Malea MC, Del Río E, Casas JL, Acién FG, Fernández JM, Rivas J, Guerrero MG & Molina E (2006) Comparative analysis of the outdoor culture of Haematococcus pluvialis in tubular and bubble column photobioreactors. Journal of Biotechnology. 123: 329-342.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

García-Malea MC, Acién FG, Fernández JM, Cerón MC & Molina E (2006) Continuous production of green cells of Haematococcus pluvialis: Modeling of the irradiance effect. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 38: 981-989.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.08.031
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

García-Malea MC, Brindley C, Del Río E, Acién FG, Fernández JM & Molina E (2005) Modelling of growth and accumulation of carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis as a function of irradiance and nutrients supply. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 26: 107-114.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2005.04.007
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Karpov SA, Bass D, Mylnikov AP & Cavalier-Smith T (2006) Molecular phylogeny of Cercomonadidae and kinetid patterns of Cercomonas and Eocercomonas gen. nov. (Cercomonadida, Cercozoa). Protist. 157: 125-158.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2006.01.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kutser T, Metsamaa L, Strömbeck N & Vahtmäe E (2006) Monitoring cyanobacterial blooms by satellite remote sensing. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 67: 303-312.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.11.024
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Darienko T, Gustavs L, Mudimu O, Rad Menendez C, Schumann R, Karsten U, Friedl T & Pröschold T (2010) Chloroidium, a common terrestrial coccoid green alga previously assigned to Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology. 45: 79-95.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260903362820
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Crossman ZM, Ineson P & Evershed RP (2005) The use of 13C labelling of bacterial lipids in the characterisation of ambient methane-oxidising bacteria in soils. Organic Geochemistry. 36: 769-778.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.12.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

De Jonckheere JF & Brown S (2005) Isolation of a vahlkampfiid amoeba from a contact lens: Tetramitus ovis (Schmidt, 1913) n. comb. European Journal of Protistology. 41: 93-97.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2004.11.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Devos M, Poisson L, Ergan F & Pencreac'h G (2006) Enzymatic hydrolysis of phospholipids from Isochrysis galbana for docosahexaenoic acid enrichment. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 39: 548-554.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.08.040
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Andreozzi R, Canterino M, Lo Giudice R, Marotta R, Pinto G & Pollio A (2006) Lincomycin solar photodegradation, algal toxicity and removal from wastewaters by means of ozonation. Water Research. 40: 630-638.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.11.023
Abstract:
Keywords: Lincomycin, antibiotics, photodegradation, algal toxicity, ozonation, semicontinuous apparatus

 

Liu X-J, Jiang Y & Chen F (2005) Fatty acid profile of the edible filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme at different temperatures and developmental stages in liquid suspension culture. Process Biochemistry. 40: 371-377.
DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.018
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Domínguez A, Ferreira M, Coutinho P, Fábregas J & Otero A (2005) Delivery of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis to the aquaculture food chain. Aquaculture. 250: 424-430.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.08.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Choi H-J, Kim B-H, Kim J-D & Han M-S (2005) Streptomyces neyagawaensis as a control for the hazardous biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in eutrophic freshwaters. Biological Control. 33: 335-343.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.03.007
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Campanella L, Martini E & Tomassetti M (2005) Antioxidant capacity of the algae using a biosensor method. Talanta. 66: 902-911.
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2004.12.052
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Auvray F, van Hullebusch ED, Deluchat V & Baudu M (2006) Laboratory investigation of the phosphorous removal (SRP and TP) from eutrophic lake water treated with aluminium. Water Research. 40: 2713-2719.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.04.042
Abstract:
Keywords: eutrophic lake water, aluminium, phosphorus removal, flocculation, phosphorus

 

Marin B & Melkonian M (2010) Molecular phylogeny and classification of the Mamiellophyceae class. nov. (Chlorophyta) based on sequence comparisons of the nuclear- and plastid-encoded rRNA operons. Protist. 161: 304-336.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.10.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Moreau D, Tomasoni C, Jacquot C, Kaas R, Le Guedes R, Cadoret J-P, Müller-Feuga A, Kontiza I, Vagias C, Roussis V & Roussakis C (2006) Cultivated microalgae and the carotenoid fucoxanthin from Odontella aurita as potent anti-proliferative agents in bronchopulmonary and epithelial cell lines. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 22: 97-103.
DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2006.01.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Marques A, Thanh TH, Sorgeloos P & Bossier P (2006) Use of microalgae and bacteria to enhance protection of gnotobiotic Artemia against different pathogens. Aquaculture. 258: 116-126.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.04.021
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Orosa M, Franqueira D, Cid A & Abalde J (2005) Analysis and enhancement of astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis. Bioresource Technology. 96: 373-378.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.04.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Rezanka T, Nedbalova L & Sigler K (2008) Identification of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from Amphidinium carterae by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Phytochemistry. 69: 2391-2399.
DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.011
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lorenzo-Morales J, Ortega-Rivas A, Foronda P, Abreu-Acosta N, Ballart D, Martínez E & Valladares B (2005) RNA interference (RNAi) for the silencing of extracellular serine proteases genes in Acanthamoeba: Molecular analysis and effect on pathogenicity. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 144: 10-15.
DOI: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.07.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Dyková I, Lom J & Machá?ková B (1998) Cochliopodium minus, a scale-bearing amoeba isolated from organs of perch Perca fluviatilis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 34: 205-210.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakisah MA, Fatimah H, Manaf AM & Aspollah MS (2008) Observation on the cytotoxicity of a plant compound labeled as MK2 on morphology of Acanthamoeba by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Annals of Microscopy. 8: 73-76.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Beattie TK & Tomlinson A (2009) The effect of surface treatment of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on the attachment of Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 35(6): 316-319.
DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e3181becce6
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hoshina R, Kato Y, Kamako S & Imamura N (2005) Genetic evidence of "American" and "European" type symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg. Plant Biology. 7: 526-532.
DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-865912
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Seabra R, Santos A, Pereira S, Moradas-Ferreira P & Tamagnini P (2009) Immunolocalization of the uptake hydrogenase in the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4 and two Nostoc strains. Fems Microbiology Letters. 292: 57-62.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01471.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hodaifa G, Martínez ME & Sánchez S (2009) Daily doses of light in relation to the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in diluted three-phase olive mill wastewater. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 84: 1550-1558.
DOI: 10.1002/jctb.2219
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Pinzon NM & Ju L-K (2006) Modeling culture profiles of the heterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. Biotechnology Progress. 22: 1532-1540.
DOI: 10.1021/bp060163c
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lonnen J, Heaselgrave W, Nomachi M, Mori O & Santodomingo-Rubido J (2010) Disinfection efficacy and encystment rate of soft contact lens multipurpose solutions against Acanthamoeba Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 36(1): 26-32.
DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e3181c6e184
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

García-Malea MC, Acién FG, Del Río E, Fernández JM, Cerón MC, Guerrero MG & Molina-Grima E (2009) Production of astaxanthin by Haematococcus pluvialis: taking the one-step system outdoors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 102: 651-657.
DOI: 10.1002/bit.22076
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Carslake D, Townley S & Hodgson DJ (2009) Predicting the impact of stage-specific harvesting on population dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 1076-1085.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01569.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kruskopf M & Flynn KJ (2006) Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to guage reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate. New Phytologist. 169: 525-536.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01601.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hammill E & Beckerman AP (2010) Reciprocity in predator-prey interactions: Exposure to defended prey and predation risk affects intermediate predator life history and morphology. Oecologia. 163: 193-202.
DOI: 10.1007/s00442-009-1508-5
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Beckerman AP, Wieski K & Baird DJ (2007) Behavioural versus physiological mediation of life history under predation risk. Oecologia. 152: 335-343.
DOI: 10.1007/s00442-006-0642-6
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hammill E, Rogers A & Beckerman AP (2008) Costs, benefits and the evolution of inducible defences: A case study with Daphnia pulex. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 21: 705-715.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01520.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Esteban GF, Finlay BJ & Clarke KJ (2009) Sequestered organelles sustain aerobic microbial life in anoxic environments. Environmental Microbiology. 11: 544-550.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01797.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Pittman JK, Edmond C, Sunderland PA & Bray CM (2009) A cation-regulated and proton gradient-dependent cation transporter from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a role in calcium and sodium homeostasis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284: 525-533.
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M807173200
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Montsant A, Maheswari U, Bowler C & Lopez PJ (2005) Diatomics: Toward diatom functional genomics. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 5: 1-11.
DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2005.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Alvarez LA, Exton DA, Timmis KN, Suggett DJ & McGenity TJ (2009) Characterization of marine isoprene-degrading communities. Environmental Microbiology. 11: 3280-3291.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02069.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Evans C, Kadner S, Darroch LJ, Wilson WH, Liss PS & Malin G (2007) The relative significance of viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing as pathways of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage: An Emiliania huxleyii culture study. Limnology and Oceanography. 52(3): 1036-1045.
DOI: 10.4319/lo.2007.52.3.1036
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fistarol GO, Legrand C, Selander E, Hummert C, Stolte W & Granéli E (2004) Allelopathy in Alexandrium spp.: Effect on a natural plankton community and on algal monocultures. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 35: 45-56.
DOI: 10.3354/ame035045
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Flynn K, Flynn KJ & Jones KJ (1993) Changes in dinoflagellate intracellular amino acids in response to diurnal changes in light and N supply. Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 100: 245-252.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fuentes-Grünewald C, Garcés E, Rossi S & Camp J (2009) Use of the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum as a sustainable source of biodiesel production. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 36: 1215-1224.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hatton AD & Wilson ST (2007) Particulate dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylsulphoniopropionate in phytoplankton cultures and Scottish coastal waters. Aquatic Sciences - Research Across Boundaries. 69: 330-340.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Moheimani NR (2005) The culture of coccolithophorid algae for carbon dioxide bioremediation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Murdoch University. -: -.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sheehan J, Dunahay T, Benemann J & Roessler P (1998) A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program - Biodiesel from Algae. Available from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190.pdf. -: -.
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Keywords:

 

Muramoto K, Nakada T, Shitara T, Hara Y & Nozaki H (2010) Re-examination of the snow algal species Chloromonas miwae (Fukushima) Muramoto et al., comb. nov. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae) from Japan, based on molecular phylogeny and cultured material. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 27-37.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260903272607
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Nakada T, Soga T, Tomita M & Nozaki H (2010) Chlorogonium complexum sp. nov. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae), and morphological evolution of Chlorogonium. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 97-106.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260903383263
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Leão PN, Pereira AR, Liu W-T, Ng J, Pevzner PA, Dorrestein PC, König GM, Vasconcelos VM & Gerwick WH (2010) Synergistic allelochemicals from a freshwater cyanobacterium. PNAS. 107(25): 11183-11188.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0914343107
Abstract: The ability of cyanobacteria to produce complex secondary metabolites with potent biological activities has gathered considerable attention due to their potential therapeutic and agrochemical applications. However, the precise physiological or ecological roles played by a majority of these metabolites have remained elusive. Several studies have shown that cyanobacteria are able to interfere with other organisms in their communities through the release of compounds into the surrounding medium, a phenomenon usually referred to as allelopathy. Exudates from the freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. had previously been shown to inhibit the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. In this study, we observed that maximal allelopathic activity is highest in early growth stages of the cyanobacterium, and this provided sufficient material for isolation and chemical characterization of active compounds that inhibited the growth of C. vulgaris. Using a bioassay-guided approach, we isolated and structurally characterized these metabolites as cyclic peptides containing several unusually modified amino acids that are found both in the cells and in the spent media of Oscillatoria sp. cultures. Strikingly, only the mixture of the two most abundant metabolites in the cells was active toward C. vulgaris. Synergism was also observed in a lung cancer cell cytotoxicity assay. The binary mixture inhibited other phytoplanktonic organisms, supporting a natural function of this synergistic mixture of metabolites as allelochemicals.
Keywords: allelopathy, chemical ecology, Oscillatoria, cyclic peptides, synergism

 

Newman JR & Barrett PRF (1993) Control of Microcystis aeruginosa by decomposing barley straw. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 31: 203-206.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Simon N, Campbell L, örnolfsdottir E, Groben R, Guillou L, Lange M & Medlin LK (2000) Oligonucleotide probes for the identification of three algal groups by dot blot and fluorescent whole-cell hybridization. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 47(1): 76-84.
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Keywords:

 

Tengs T, Dahlberg OJ, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Klaveness D, Rudi K, Delwiche CF & Jakobsen KS (2000) Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 19'hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates have tertiary plastids of haptophyte origin. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 17(5): 718-729.
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Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kooistra WHCF, Sarno D, Balzano S, Gu H, Andersen RA & Zingone A (2008) Global diversity and biogeography of Skeletonema species (Bacillariophyta). Protist. 159: 177-193.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.09.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cock JM, Coelho SM, Brownlee C & Taylor AR (2010) The Ectocarpus genome sequence: insights into brown algal biology and the evolutionary diversity of the eukaryotes. New Phytologist. 188: 1-4.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Peters AF, Mann AD, Córdova CA, Brodie J, Correa JA, Schroeder DC & Cock JM (2010) Genetic diversity of Ectocarpus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Peru and northern Chile, the area of origin of the genome-sequenced strain. New Phytologist. 188: 30-41.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03303.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Heesch S, Cho GY, Peters AF, Le Corguillé G, Falentin C, Boutet G, Coëdel S, Jubin C, Samson G, Corre E, Coelho SM & Cock JM (2010) A sequence-tagged genetic map for the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus provides large-scale assembly of the genome sequence. New Phytologist. 188: 42-51.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03273.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gravot A, Dittami SM, Rousvoal S, Lugan R, Eggert A, Collén J, Boyen C, Bouchereau A & Tonon T (2010) Diurnal oscillations of metabolite abundances and gene analysis provide new insights into central metabolic processes of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. New Phytologist. 188: 98-110.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03400.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bothwell JH, Marie D, Peters AF, Cock JM & Coelho SM (2010) Role of endoreduplication and apomeiosis during parthenogenetic reproduction in the model brown alga Ectocarpus. New Phytologist. 188: 111-121.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.033573.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Weinberger F, Guillemin M-L, Destombe C, Valero M, Faugeron S, Correa JA, Pohnert G, Pehlke C, Kloareg B & Potin P (2010) Defense evolution in the Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta): Substrate-regulated oxidation of agar oligosaccharides is more ancient than the oligoagar-activated oxidative burst. Journal of Phycology. 46: -.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00887.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Pröschold T, Darienko T, Silva PC, Reisser W & Krienitz L (2011) The systematics of Zoochlorella revisited employing an integrative approach. Environmental Microbiology. 13: 350-364.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02333.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gerloff-Elias A, Spijkerman E & Pröschold T (2005) Effect of external pH on the growth, photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport of Chlamydomonas acidophila Negoro, isolated from an extremely acidic lake (pH 2.6). Plant, Cell and Environment. 28: 1218-1229.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01357.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kheder RB, Quéré C, Moal J & Robert R (2010) Effect of nutrition on Crassostrea gigas larval development and the evolution of physiological indices. Part B: Effects of temporary food deprivation. Aquaculture. 308: 174-182.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.08.030
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cavalier-Smith T & Chao EE (2010) Phylogeny and evolution of Apusomonadida (Protozoa: Apusozoa): New general and species. Protist. 161: 549-576.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.04.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Linton EW, Karnkowska-Ishikawa A, Kim JI, Shin W, Bennett MS, Kwiatowski J, Zakrys B & Triemer RE (2010) Reconstructing euglenoid evolutionary relationships using three genes: nuclear SSU and LSU, and chloroplast SSU rDNA sequences and the description of Euglenaria gen. nov. (Euglenophyta). Protist. 161: 603-619.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.02.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Alkayal F, Albion RL, Tillett RL, Hathwaik LT, Lemos MS & Cushman JC (2010) Expressed sequence tag (EST) profiling in hyper saline shocked Dunaliella salina reveals high expression of protein synthetic apparatus components. Plant Science. 179: 437-449.
DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.07.001
Abstract:
Keywords: salinity, halotolerance, salt stress, ESTs, Dunaliella salina

 

Ahmad AL, Mat Yasin NH, Derek CJC & Lim JK (2011) Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15: 584-593.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.018
Abstract:
Keywords: Microalgae, sustainable energy, biodiesel feedstocks, biomass, palm oil, biodiesel, biofuel

 

Corsaro D, Michel R, Walochnik J, Müller K-D & Greub G (2010) Saccamoeba lacustris, sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Lobosea: Hartmannellidae), a new lobose amoeba, parasitized by the novel chlamydia 'Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris' (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae). European Journal of Protistology. 46: 86-95.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2009.11.002
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebozoa, saccamoeba, metachlamydia, variovorax, endosymbiont

 

Bougaran G, Bernard O & Sciandra A (2010) Modeling continuous cultures of microalgae colimited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 265: 443-454.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.04.018
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Breglia SA, Yubuki N, Hoppenrath M & Leander BS (2010) Ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of a novel euglenozoan with extrusive episymbiotic bacteria: Bihospites bacati n. gen. et sp. (Symbiontida). BMC Microbiology. 10: 145.
DOI:
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Keywords:

 

Chen C-Y, Yeh K-L, Aisyah R, Lee D-J & Chang J-S (2011) Cultivation, photobioreactor design and harvesting of microalgae for biodiesel production: A critical review. Bioresource Technology. 102: 71-81.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.159
Abstract:
Keywords: microalgae, oil/lipid, light sources, photobioreactor, harvesting

 

Bale NJ, Llewellyn CA & Airs RL (2010) Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of type II chlorophyll-? transformation products: Diagnostic fragmentation patterns. Organic Geochemistry. 41: 473-481.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2010.01.007
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Erga SR, Lie GC, Aarø LH, Aursland K, Olseng CD, Frette ø & Hamre B (2010) Fine scale vertical displacement of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) in stratified waters: Influence of halocline and day length on buoyancy control. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 384: 7-17.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.11.017
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fenchel T (2010) The life history of Flabellula baltica Smirnov (Gymnamoebae, Rhizopoda): Adaptations to a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. Protist. 161: 279-287.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.10.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Glücksman E, Snell EA, Berney C, Chao EE, Bass D & Cavalier-Smith T (2010) The novel marine gliding zooflagellate genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa). Protist. 162: 207-221.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.06.004
Abstract:
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Fournier E, Adam-Guillermin C, Potin-Gautier M & Pannier F (2010) Selenate bioaccumulation and toxicity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Influence of ambient sulphate ion concentration. Aquatic Toxicology. 97: 51-57.
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Abstract:
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Henderson RK, Parsons SA & Jefferson B (2010) The impact of differing cell and algogenic organic matter (AOM) characteristics on the coagulation and flotation of algae. Water Research. 44: 3617-3624.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.04.0163
Abstract:
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Heger TJ, Pawlowski J, Lara E, Leander BS, Todorov M, Golemansky V & Mitchell EAD (2011) Comparing potential COI and SSU rDNA barcodes for assessing the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of cyphoderiid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida). Protist. 162: 131-141.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.05.002
Abstract:
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Hodaifa G, Martínez ME, órpez R & Sánchez S (2010) Influence of hydrodynamic stress in the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus using a culture medium based on olive-mill wastewater. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 49: 1161-1168.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2010.08.017
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Hulatt CJ & Thomas DN (2010) Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microalgal photobioreactors: A potential loss in solar energy conversion? Bioresource Technology. 101: 8690-8697.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.086
Abstract:
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Axelsson-Olsson D, Olofsson J, Svensson L, Griekspoor P, Waldenström J, Ellström P & Olsen B (2010) Amoebae and algae can prolong the survival of Campylobacter species in co-culture. Experimental Parasitology. 126: 59-64.
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2009.12.016
Abstract:
Keywords: protozoa, amoebae, algae, interactions, campylobacter, acanthamoebae, co-culture, host, ACC-method

 

Kheder RB, Moal J & Robert R (2010) Impact of temperature on larval development and evolution of physiological indices in Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture. 309: 286-289.
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Lowe CD, Montagnes DJS, Martin LE & Watts PC (2010) Patterns of genetic diversity in the marine heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Alveolata: Dinophyceae). Protist. 161: 212-221.
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Mairet F, Bernard O, Masci P, Lacour T & Sciandra A (2011) Modelling neutral lipid production by the microalga Isochrysis aff. galbana under nitrogen limitation. Bioresource Technology. 102: 142-149.
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Ihnken S, Eggert A & Beardall J (2010) Exposure times in rapid light curves affect photosynthetic parameters in algae. Aquatic Botany. 93: 185-194.
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Müller H, Achilles-Day UEM & Day JG (2010) Tolerance of the resting cysts of Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Colpodea) and Meseres corlissi (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) to desiccation and freezing. European Journal of Protistology. 46: 133-142.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2009.12.004
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Moniz MBJ & Kaczmarska I (2010) Barcoding of diatoms: Nuclear encoded ITS revisted. Protist. 161: 7-34.
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Mutanda T, Ramesh D, Karthikeyan S, Kumari S, Anandraj A & Bux F (2011) Bioprospecting for hyper-lipid producing microalgal strains for sustainable biofuel production. Bioresource Technology. 102: 57-70.
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Pete R, Davidson K, Hart MC, Gutierrez T & Miller AEJ (2010) Diatom derived dissolved organic matter as a driver of bacterial productivity: The role of nutrient limitation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 391: 20-26.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2010.06.002
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Murase J, Kawasaki M & De Jonckheere JF (2010) Isolation of a new heterolobosean amoeba from a rice field soil: Vrihiamoeba italica gen. nov., sp. nov. European Journal of Protistology. 46: 164-170.
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Abstract:
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Smith DR, Lee RW, Cushman JC, Magnuson JK, Tran D & Polle JEW (2010) The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: Large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA. BMC Plant Biology. 10: 83.
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Thurman J, Parry JD, Hill PJ & Laybourn-Parry J (2010) The filter-feeding ciliates Colpidium striatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis display selective feeding behaviours in the presence of mixed, equally-sized, bacterial prey. Protist. 161: 577-588.
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Abstract:
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van Wijngaarden RPA, Arts GHP, Belgers JDM, Boonstra H, Roessink I, Schroer AFW & Brock TCM (2010) The species sensitivity distribution approach compared to a microcosm study: A case study with the fungicide fluazinam. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 73: 109-122.
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Rico-Villa B, Bernard I, Robert R & Pouvreau S (2010) A dynamic energy budget (DEB) growth model for Pacific oyster larvae, Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture. 305: 84-94.
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Pruvost J, Van Vooren G, Le Gouic B, Couzinet-Mossion A & Legrand J (2011) Systematic investigation of biomass and lipid productivity by microalgae in photobioreactors for biodiesel application. Bioresource Technology. 102: 150-158.
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Puértolas L, Damásio J, Barata C, Soares AMVM & Prat N (2010) Evaluation of side-effects of glyphosate mediated control of giant reed (Arundo donax) on the structure and function of a nearby Mediterranean river ecosystem. Environmental Research. 110: 556-564.
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Sorhannus U, Ortiz JD, Wolf M & Fox MG (2010) Microevolution and speciation in Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyta). Protist. 161: 237-249.
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Skaloud P & Peksa O (2010) Evolutionary inferences based on ITS rDNA and actin sequences reveal extensive diversity of the common lichen alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54: 36-46.
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Michel R, Müller K-D & Hauröder B (2009) A novel microsporidian endoparasite replicating within the nucleus of Saccamoeba limax isolated from a pond. Endocytobiosis Cell Research. 19: 120-126.
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Michel R, Müller K-D, Hauröder B & Zöller L (2006) Isolation of Saccamoeba limax simultaneously harboring both a Chlamydia-like endoparasite and a rod-shaped bacterium as endosymbionts. Endocytobiosis Cell Research. 17: 171-179.
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Thomas JH, Mullineaux PM, Cronshaw AD, Chaplin AE & Gallon JR (1982) The effects of structural analogues of amino acids on ammonium assimilation and acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) in Gloeocapsa (Gloeothece) sp. CCAP 1430/3. Journal of General Microbiology. 128: 885-893.
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Beaton MJ & Cavalier-Smith T (1999) Eukaryotic non-coding DNA is functional: Evidence from the differential scaling of cryptomonad genomes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 266: 2053-2059.
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McLarnon-Riches CJ, Rolph CE, Greenway DLA & Robinson PK (1998) Effects of environmental factors and metals on Selenastrum capricornutum lipids. Phytochemistry. 49: 1241-1247.
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Isik O, Sarihan E, Kusvuran E, Gül ö & Erbatur O (1999) Comparison of the fatty acid composition of the freshwater fish larvae Tilapia zillii, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, and the microalgae Scenedesmus abundans, Monoraphidium minitum and Chlorella vulgaris in the algae-roti Aquaculture. 174: 299-311.
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Williams TD & Jones MB (1999) Effects of temperature and food quantity on the reproduction of Tisbe battagliai (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 236: 273-290.
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Beveridge CM, Parr ACS, Smith MJ, Kerr A, Cowling MJ & Hodgkiess T (1998) The effect of benzalkonium chloride concentrations on nine species of marine diatom. Environmental Pollution. 103: 31-36.
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Nyström B, Björnsäter B & Blanck H (1999) Effects of sulfonylurea herbicides on non-target aquatic micro-organisms. Growth inhibition of micro-algae and short-term inhibition of adenine and thymidine incorporation in periphyton communities. Aquatic Toxicology. 47: 9-22.
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Maurin C & Le Gal Y (1997) Glutamine synthetase in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae): Regulation of activity in relation to light and nitrogen availability. Plant Science. 122: 61-69.
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Nyström B & Blanck H (1998) Effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl on growth and macromolecular synthesis in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. Aquatic Toxicology. 43: 25-39.
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Takeda H (1988) Classification of Chlorella strains by means of the sugar components of the cell wall. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 16: 367-371.
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Whitehead PR & Brown NL (1985) Three restriction endonucleases from Anabaena flos-aquae. Journal of General Microbiology. 131: 951-958.
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De Jonckheere JF (1988) Geographic origin and spread of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri deduced from restriction enzyme patterns of repeated DNA. BioSystems. 21: 269-275.
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Kite GC, Rothschild LJ & Dodge JD (1988) Nuclear and plastid DNAs from the binucleate dinoflagellates Glenodinium (Peridinium) foliaceum and Peridinium balticum. BioSystems. 21: 151-163.
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Houghton G, Healey LJ & Matthews RA (1992) The cellular proliferative response, humoral antibody response, and cross reactivity studies of Tetrahymena pyriformis with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 16: 301-312.
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Williams TD & Jones MB (1994) Effects of temperature and food quantity on postembryonic development of Tisbe battagliai (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 183: 283-298.
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Brickley MR, Weise V, Hawes C & Cobb AH (2010) Morphology and dynamics of mitochondria in Mougeotia sp. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 258-266.
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Keywords:

 

Bock C, Pröschold T & Krienitz L (2010) Two new Dictyosphaerium-morphotype lineages of the Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae): Heynigia gen. nov. and Hindakia gen. nov. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 267-277.
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Keywords:

 

Draisma SGA, Prud'homme Van Reine WF & Kawai H (2010) A revised classification of the Sphacelariales (Phaeophyceae) inferred from a psbC and rbcL based phylogeny. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 308-326.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2010.490959
Abstract:
Keywords: Battersia, Chaetopteris, Cladostephaceae, Herpodiscus, Protohalopteris gen. nov., psbC, rbcL, sphacelariales, sphacelodermaceae fam. nov., Sphacelorbus gen. nov.

 

Ehara M, Kitayama T, Watanabe KI, Inagaki Y, Hayashi-Ishimaru Y & Ohama T (1999) Comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of a heterokont alga (NIES 548) using genes from all three cellular compartments. Phycological Research. 47: 225-231.
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Yang EC, Scott J, West JA, Orlova E, Gauthier D, Küpper FC, Yoon HS & Karsten U (2010) New taxa of the Porphyridiophyceae (Rhodophyta): Timspurckia oligopyrenoides gen. et sp. nov. and Erythrolobus madagascarensis sp. nov. Phycologia. 49: 604-616.
DOI: 10.2216/09-105.1
Abstract: Two new marine unicellular red algae are described: Timspurckia oligopyrenoides gen. et sp. nov. isolated from southeastern Australia and Erythrolobus madagascarensis sp. nov. isolated from Madagascar. Timspurckia oligopyrenoides cells are spherical, 7?11 mm in diameter, greyish red to reddish brown and surrounded by a conspicuous fibrillar matrix about 2 mm thick. Cells exhibit positive phototaxis. In the single chloroplast the lobes extend from several pyrenoids to occupy most of the cell. A peripheral thylakoid is absent. The pyrenoid matrices are filled with tubular thylakoids and are usually surrounded by starch sheaths in the adjacent cytoplasm. The nucleus is peripheral with a nucleolus appressed to the nuclear envelope usually closest to the cell center. Golgi bodies are associated with mitochondria usually at the cell periphery. Erythrolobus madagascarensis cells are spherical, 5?8 mm in diameter, greyish red to reddish brown and surrounded by a thin conspicuous fibrillar sheath. Cells exhibit positive phototaxis. Each cell has a single chloroplast with several lobes extending from an eccentric pyrenoid forming a complex parietal layer. A peripheral thylakoid is absent. The pyrenoid matrix is filled with tubular thylakoids, and a starch sheath is visible in the adjacent cytoplasm. The nucleus is eccentric and has a central nucleolus. Golgi bodies are associated with mitochondria usually at the cell periphery. Numerous conspicuous, electron-transparent, fibrous vesicles are always present in the cells. The sequence divergences of psaA and psbA genes and phylogeny support that E. madagascarensis sp. nov. and T. oligopyrenoides gen. et sp. nov. are newly uncovered natural entities within the class Porphyridiophyceae along with Erythrolobus coxiae, Porphyridium spp. and Flintiella sanguinaria. The low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (LMWCs) floridoside, digeneaside and trehalose are present in both taxa. Thus, three independent features ? ultrastructural characters, plastid gene sequences and LMWC patterns ? support the suggested phylogeny and taxonomy of these red algae.
Keywords: carbohydrates, chloroplast, golgi, phototaxis, porphyridiophyceae, pyrenoids, ultrastructure, unicellular red algae

 

Kher CP, Doerder FP, Cooper J, Ikonomi P, Achilles-Day U, Küpper FC & Lynn DH (2010) Barcoding Tetrahymena: Discriminating species and identifying unknowns using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) barcode. Protist. 162: 2-13.
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Abstract:
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Gontcharov AA & Melkonian M (2011) A study of conflict between molecular phylogeny and taxonomy in the Desmidiaceae (Streptophyta, Viridiplantae): Analyses of 291 rbcL sequences. Protist. 162: 253-267.
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Oborník M, Vancová M, Lai D-H, Janouskovec J, Keeling PJ & Lukes J (2011) Morphology and ultrastructure of multiple life cycle stages of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexa, Chromera velia. Protist. 162: 115-130.
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Gallon JR (1978) Calcium and nitrogen fixation by Gloeocapsa. Ecological Bulletins. 26: 60-68.
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Danger M, Oumarou C, Benest D & Lacroix G (2007) Bacteria can control stoichiometry and nutrient limitation of phytoplankton. Functional Ecology. 21: 202-210.
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Katechakis A, Haseneder T, Kling R & Stibor H (2005) Mixotrophic versus photoautotrophic specialist algae as food for zooplankton: The light:nutrient hypothesis might not hold for mixotrophs. Limnology and Oceanography. 50: 1290-1299.
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McCracken DA & Cain JR (1981) Amylose in floridean starch. New Phytologist. 88: 67-71.
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Mason CP, Edwards KR, Carlson RE, Pignatello J, Gleason FK & Wood JM (1982) Isolation of chlorine-containing antibiotic from the freshwater cyanobacterium Scytonema hofmanni. Science. 215: 400-402.
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McAuley PJ & Smith DC (1982) The green hydra symbiosis. V. Stages in the intracellular recognition of algal symbionts by digestive cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 216: 7-23.
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Flynn KJ & Berry LS (1999) The loss of organic nitrogen during marine primary production may be significantly overestimated when using 15N substrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 266: 641-647.
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Ferris PJ, Pavlovic C, Fabry S & Goodenough UW (1997) Rapid evolution of sex-related genes in Chlamydomonas. PNAS. 94: 8634-8639.
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Abstract: Biological speciation ultimately results in prezygotic isolation?the inability of incipient species to mate with one another?but little is understood about the selection pressures and genetic changes that generate this outcome. The genus Chlamydomonas comprises numerous species of unicellular green algae, including numerous geographic isolates of the species C. reinhardtii. This diverse collection has allowed us to analyze the evolution of two sex-related genes: the mid gene of C. reinhardtii, which determines whether a gamete is mating-type plus or minus, and the fus1 gene, which dictates a cell surface glycoprotein utilized by C. reinhardtii plus gametes to recognize minus gametes. Low stringency Southern analyses failed to detect any fus1 homologs in other Chlamydomonas species and detected only one mid homolog, documenting that both genes have diverged extensively during the evolution of the lineage. The one mid homolog was found in C. incerta, the species in culture that is most closely related to C. reinhardtii. Its mid gene carries numerous nonsynonymous and synonymous codon changes compared with the C. reinhardtii mid gene. In contrast, very high sequence conservation of both the mid and fus1 sequences is found in natural isolates of C. reinhardtii, indicating that the genes are not free to drift within a species but do diverge dramatically between species. Striking divergence of sex determination and mate recognition genes also has been encountered in a number of other eukaryotic phyla, suggesting that unique, and as yet unidentified, selection pressures act on these classes of genes during the speciation process.
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Laliberté G & Hellebust JA (1989) Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in Chlorella autotrophica and Chlorella saccharophila in relation to osmoregulation. Plant Physiology. 91: 917-923.
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Maberly SC (1983) The interdependence of photon irradiance and free carbon dioxide or bicarbonate concentration on the photosynthetic compensation points of freshwater plants. New Phytologist. 93: 1-12.
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Clark DR, Merrett MJ & Flynn KJ (1999) Utilization of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the response of the marine flagellate Isochrysis galbana to carbon or nitrogen stress. New Phytologist. 144: 463-470.
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Dixon GK & Merrett MJ (1988) Bicarbonate utilization by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin. New Phytologist. 109: 47-51.
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Gray MW & Boer PH (1988) Organization and expression of algal (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) mitochondrial DNA. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. 319: 135-147.
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Maberly SC & Spence DHN (1983) Photosynthetic inorganic carbon use by freshwater plants. Journal of Ecology. 71: 705-724.
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Hashemi F, Leppard GG & Kushner DJ (1994) Copper resistance in Anabaena variabilis: Effects of phosphate nutrition and polyphosphate bodies. Microbial Ecology. 27: 159-176.
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Sawyer TK, Ghittino P, Andruetto S, Pernin P & Pussard M (1978) Vexillifera bacillipedes Page, 1969, an amphizoic amoeba of hatchery rainbow trout in Italy. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 97: 596-600.
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Ortega-Rivas A, Lorenzo-Morales J, Martínez E, Villa M, Clavel A, Valladares B & del Castillo A (2005) A specific primer pair for the diagnosis and identification of Acanthamoeba astronyxis by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Parasitology. 91: 122-126.
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Schmid-Araya JM (1992) The biochemical composition and calorific content of a rotifer and its algal food: Comparison of a two stage chemostat and batch culture. Oecologia. 92: 327-338.
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Davidson K, Flynn KJ & Cunningham A (1992) Non-steady state ammonium-limited growth of the marine phytoflagellate, Isochrysis galbana Parke. New Phytologist. 122: 433-438.
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Griffiths MSH, Gallon JR & Chaplin AE (1987) The diurnal pattern of dinitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria in situ. New Phytologist. 107: 619-657.
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Stewart WDP, Rowell P, Kerby NW, Reed RH, Machray GC, Cannon FC & Becking J (1987) N2-fixing cyanobacteria and their potential applications [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. 317: 245-258.
DOI:
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Davis PA & Walsby AE (2002) Comparison of measured growth rates with those calculated from rates of photosynthesis in Planktothrix spp. isolated from Blelham Tarn, English Lake District. New Phytologist. 156: 225-239.
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Cowan AK & Rose PD (1991) Abscisic acid metabolism in salt-stressed cells of Dunaliella salina: Possible interrelationship with ?-carotene accumulation. Plant Physiology. 97: 798-803.
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Orset SC & Young AJ (2000) Exposure to low irradiances favors the synthesis of 9-cis ?,?-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Teod.) Plant Physiology. 122: 609-617.
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Ibelings BW, Kroon BMA & Mur LR (1994) Acclimation of photosystem II in a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic green alga to high and fluctuating photosynthetic photon flux densities, simulating light regimes induced by mixing in lakes. New Phytologist. 128: 407-424.
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Iglesias-Rodriguez MD & Merrett MJ (1997) Dissolved inorganic carbon utilization and the development of extracellular carbonic anhydrase by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 135: 163-168.
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Clark DR, Flynn KJ & Owens NJP (2002) The large capacity for dark nitrate-assimilation in diatoms may overcome nitrate limitations of growth. New Phytologist. 155: 101-108.
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Ketola T, Laakso J, Kaitala V & Airaksinen S (2004) Evolution of HSP90 expression in Tetrahymena thermophila (Protozoa, Ciliata) populations exposed to thermally variable environments. Evolution. 58: 741-748.
DOI:
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Walsby AE (1980) The water relations of gas-vacuolate prokaryotes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 208: 73-102.
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Warren PH (1996) The effects of between-habitat dispersal rate on protist communities and metacommunities in microcosms at two spatial scales. Oecologia. 105: 132-140.
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Walsby AE, Ng G, Dunn C & Davis PA (2004) Comparison of the depth where Planktothrix rubescens stratifies and the depth where the daily insolation supports its neutral buoyancy. New Phytologist. 162: 133-145.
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Maestre FT, Martín N, Díez B, López-Poma R, Santos F, Luque I & Cortina J (2006) Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils. Microbial Ecology. 52: 365-377.
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Leander BS, Witek RP & Farmer MA (2001) Trends in the evolution of the euglenid pellicle. Evolution. 55: 2215-2235.
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Thelaus J, Forsman M & Andersson A (2008) Role of productivity and protozoan abundance for the occurrence of predation-resistang bacteria in aquatic systems. Microbial Ecology. 56: 18-28.
DOI: 10.1007/s00248-007-9320-4
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Stern RF, Horak A, Andrew RL, Coffroth M-A, Andersen RA, Küpper FC, Jameson I, Hoppenrath M, Véron B, Kasai F, Brand J, James ER & Keeling PJ (2010) Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments. PLoS ONE. 5(11): e13991.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013991
Abstract: Background: Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known ??species??, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance: COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of natural diversity in dinoflagellates. This highlights the extent to which we underestimate microbial diversity in the environment.
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Kudryavtsev A & Hausmann K (2009) Thecamoeba aesculea n. sp. (Amoebazoa, Thecamoebidae), a terrestrial amoeba with affinities to Th. sphaeronucleolus (Greef, 1891). Acta Protozoologica. 48: 91-96.
DOI:
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Kudryavtsev A, Pawlowski J & Hausmann K (2009) Description and phylogenetic relationships of Spumochlamys perforata n. sp. and Spumochlamys bryora n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 56: 495-503.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2009.00430.x
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Ehara M, Watanabe KI & Ohama T (2000) Distribution of cognates of group II introns detected in mitochondrial cox1 genes of a diatom and a haptophyte. Gene. 256: 157-167.
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Edvardsen B, Eikrem W, Green JC, Andersen RA, Moon-van der Staay SY & Medlin LK (2000) Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Haptophyta inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences and available morphological data. Phycologia. 39: 19-35.
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Sayegh FAQ & Montagnes DJS (2011) Temperatures shifts induce intraspecific variation in microalgal production and biochemical composition. Bioresource Technology. 102: 3007-3013.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.01
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Krienitz L, Bock C, Dadheech PK & Pröschold T (2011) Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Mychonastes (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) including the description of eight new species. Phycologia. 50: 89-106.
DOI: 10.2216/10-15.1
Abstract: The generic concept of the chlorophycean green algae Mychonastes (preferably living solitary) and Pseudodictyosphaerium (preferably living in colonies) is evaluated by means of small-subunit and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequence analyses and microscopical observations. Members of these genera belong to the most common chlorophycean algae of the picoplankton and small-sized nanoplankton of fresh and brackish waters. The morphological difference solitary vs colonial life form is not reflected by molecular phylogenetic data, and it is therefore systematically irrelevant. Consequently, all taxa of the two genera are combined under the generic name Mychonastes. The genus Mychonastes is emended. The synonymy of Mychonastes homosphaera (formerly Chlorella homosphaera) and Chlorella minutissima is confirmed. Eight new species are described from inland waters of Europe, Africa, Asia and South America. Besides certain morphological criteria such as shape and size of the cells and appearance and organization of the mucilaginous strands among the cells of colonies, the main diacritic features are of genetic nature. Comparing the secondary structure of ITS-2, compensatory base changes are found to discriminate the new species. The species of Mychonastes form a monophyletic clade within the Sphaeropleales sensu lato.
Keywords: Chlorella, Dictyosphaerium, ITS, Mychonastes, Pseudodictyosphaerium, phylogeny, SSU, taxonomy

 

Fawley MW, Fawley KP & Hegewald E (2011) Taxonomy of Desmodsemus serratus (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) and related taxa on the basis of morphological and DNA sequence data. Phycologia. 50: 23-56.
DOI: 0.2216/10-16.1
Abstract: The green alga Desmodesmus serratus is a common small Desmodesmus species. The highly variable morphology among strains and natural populations suggested that this taxon was in need of revision using a combination of molecular and morphological characters. Thirty-six isolates that were assigned to D. serratus on the basis of morphology or that were known to be closely related to D. serratus on the basis of the results of DNA sequence analysis were examined. These isolates were evaluated by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, nuclear 5.8S ribosomal DNA, and the plastid rbcL gene. Results of the analyses of ITS and rbcL sequence data were congruent. On the basis of the results of these analyses, we propose the new species Desmodesmus itascaensis, Desmodesmus perdix, Desmodesmus serratoides, Desmodesmus pseudoserratus, and Desmodesmus santosii. Two of these species, D. perdix and D. pseudoserratus, possess morphologies identical to that of D. serratus. However, these species were all clearly separated on the basis of the results of DNA sequence analysis. The new species as well as D. serratus form a monophyletic lineage that is allied with the small, spineless species, Desmodesmus costato-granulatus, Desmodesmus lunatus, Desmodesmus elegans, Desmodesmus ultrasquamatus, and Desmodesmus regularis.
Keywords: Compensatory base change, Desmodesmus itascaensis, Desmodesmus perdix, Desmodesmus pseudoserratus, Desmodesmus santosii, Desmodesmus serratus, Desmodesmus serratoides, Genetic recombination, New species, Phylogeny, rbcL, Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer

 

Marin B, Palm A, Klingberg M & Melkonian M (2003) Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rDNA secondary structure. Protist. 154: 99-145.
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Guillard RRL, Keller MD, O'Kelly CJ & Floyd GL (1991) Pycnococcus provasolii gen. et sp. nov., a coccoid prasinoxanthin-containing phytoplankter from the Western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Phycology. 27: 39-47.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1991.00039.x
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Katsaros CI, Varvarigos V, Gachon CMM, Brand J, Motomura T, Nagasato C & Küpper FC (2011) Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analysis of microtubule organization in Uronema sp., Klebsormidium flaccidum, K. subtilissimum, Stichococcus bacillaris and S. chloranthus (Chlorophyta). Protist. 162: 315-331.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.10.004
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Butrón A, Orive E & Madariaga I (2011) Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: The case of Bilbao Harbour. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62: 747-757.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.01.008
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Cuaresma M, Janssen M, Vílchez C & Wijffels RH (2011) Horizontal or vertical photobioreactors? How to improve microalgae photosynthetic efficiency. Bioresource Technology. 102: 5129-5137.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.01.078
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Toda H & Itoh N (2011) Isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum: Biogenic mechanism of CH3I emissions in ocean Phytochemistry. 72: 337-343.
DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.12.003
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Dittami SM, Proux C, Rousvoal S, Peters AF, Cock JM, Coppée J-Y, Boyen C & Tonon T (2011) Microarray estimation of genomic inter-strain variability in the genus Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae) BMC Molecular Biology. 12: 2.
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Ducruet J-M, Serrano A, Roncel M & Ortega JM (2011) Perculiar properties of chlorophyll thermoluminescence emission of autotrophically or mixotrophically grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 104: 301-307.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.02.014
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Tanifuji G, Onodera NT, Wheeler TJ, Dlutek M, Donaher N & Archibald JM (2010) Complete nucleomorph genome sequence of the nonphotosynthetic alga Cryptomonas paramecium reveals a core nucleomorph gene set. Genome Biology and Evolution. 3: 44-54.
DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evq082
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Howe AT, Bass D, Scoble JM, Lewis R, Vickerman K, Arndt H & Cavalier-Smith T (2011) Novel cultured protists identify deep-branching environmental DNA clades of Cercozoa: New genera Tremula, Micrometopion, Minimassisteria, Nudifila, Peregrinia. Protist. 162: 332-372.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.10.002
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Kleinegris DMM, Janssen M, Brandenburg WA & Wijffels RH (2011) Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 48: 253-259.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.11.005
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Prado R, Rioboo C, Herrero C & Cid á (2011) Characterization of cell response in Chlamydomonas moewusii cultures exposed to the herbicide paraquat: Induction of chlorosis. Aquatic Toxicology. 102: 10-17.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.12.013
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Pocock T, Vetterli A & Falk S (2011) Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic extremophile Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. UWO 241. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62: 1169-1177.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erq347
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De Jonckheere JF, Baumgartner M, Eberhardt S, Opperdoes FR & Stetter KO (2011) Oramoeba fumarolia gen. nov., sp. nov., a new marine heterolobosean amoeboflagellate growing at 54°C. European Journal of Protistology. 47: 16-23.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2010.09.002
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Kleinegris DMM, van Es MA, Janssen M, Brandenburg WA & Wijffels RH (2011) Phase toxicity of dodecane on the microalgae Dunaliella salina. Journal of Applied Phycology. 23: 949-958.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-010-9615-6
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Siaut M, Cuiné S, Cagnon C, Fessler B, Nguyen M, Carrier P, Beyly A, Beisson F, Triantaphylidès, Li-Beisson Y & Peltier G (2011) Oil accumulation in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Characterisation, variability between common laboratory strains and relationship with starch reserves. BMC Biotechnology. 11: 7.
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Ramos V, Seabra R, Brito â, Santos A, Santos CL, Lopo M, Moradas-Ferreira P, Vasconcelos VM & Tamagnini P (2010) Characterization of an intertidal cyanobacterium that constitutes a separate clade together with thermophilic strains. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 394-403.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2010.496495
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Cavalier-Smith T & Chao EE-Y (2003) Molecular phylogeny of centrohelid heliozoa, a novel lineage of bikont eukaryotes that arose by ciliary loss. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 56: 387-396.
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Lowe CD, Keeling PJ, Martin LE, Slamovits CH, Watts PC & Montagnes DJS (2011) Who is Oxyrrhis marina? Morphological and phylogenetic studies on an unusual dinoflagellate. Journal of Plankton Research. 33: 555-567.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbq110
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Lowe CD, Martin LE, Roberts EC, Watts PC, Wootton EC & Montagnes DJS (2011) Collection, isolation and culturing strategies for Oxyrrhis marina. Journal of Plankton Research. 33: 569-578.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbq161
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Watts PC, Martin LE, Kimmance SA, Montagnes DJS & Lowe CD (2011) The distribution of Oxyrrhis marina: A global disperser or poorly characterized endemic? Journal of Plankton Research. 33: 579-589.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbq148
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Evens TJ & Niedz RP (2010) Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae). European Journal of Phycology. 45: 247-257.
DOI: 10.1080/09670261003754577
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Forberg T, Arukwe A & Vadstein O (2011) A protocol and cultivation system for gnotobiotic Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.) as a tool to study host microbe interactions. Aquaculture. 315: 222-227.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.02.047
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Van Hoecke K, De Schamphelaere KAC, Ramirez-Garcia S, Van der Meeren P, Smagghe G & Janssen CR (2011) Influence of alumina coating on characteristics and effects of SiO2 nanoparticles in algal growth inhibition assays at various pH and organic matter contents. Environment International. 37: 1118-1125.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.02.009
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Simionato D, Sforza E, Corteggiani-Carpinelli E, Bertucco A, Giacometti M & Morosinotto T (2011) Acclimation of Nannochloropsis gaditana to different illumination regimes: Effects on lipids accumulation. Bioresource Technology. 102: 6026-6032.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.02.100
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Rampen SW, Schouten S & Sinninghe Damsté JS (2011) Occurrence of longchain 1,14-diols in Apedinella radians. Organic Geochemistry. 42: 572-574.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.03.009
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Zimmerman WB, Zandi M, Bandulasena HCH, Tesar V, Gilmour DJ & Ying K (2011) Design of an airlift loop bioreactor and pilot scales with fluidic oscillator induced microbubbles for growth of a microalgae Dunaliella salina. Applied Energy. 88: 3357-3369.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.02.013
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Nitschke U, Boedeker C, Karsten U, Hepperle D & Eggert A (2010) Does the lack of mannitol accumulation in an isolate of Rhodella maculata (Rhodellophyceae, Rhodophyta) from the brackish Baltic Sea indicate a stressed population at the distribution limit? European Journal of Phycology. 45: 436-449.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2010.501908
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Brown L, Bresnan E, Graham J, Lacaze J-P, Turrell E & Collins C (2010) Disribution, diversity and toxin composition of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. European Journal of Phycology. 45: 375-393.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2010.495164
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Caisová L, Marin B, Sausen N, Pröschold T & Melkonian M (2011) Polyphyly of Chaetophora and Stigeoclonium within the Chaetophorales (Chlorophyceae), revealed by sequence comparisons of nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA genes. Journal of Phycology. 47: 164-177.
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Ota S, Eikrem W & Edvardsen B (2011) Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of thaumatomonads (Cercozoa) with emphasis on Thaumatomastix salina from the Oslofjord, Norway. Protist. In press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.10.007
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Brown MW, Silberman JD & Spiegel FW (2011) "Slime Molds" among the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa): Molecular systematics and taxonomy of Copromyxa Protist. 162: 277-287.
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Abstract:
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Bale N, Airs RL & Llewellyn C (2011) Type I and Type II chlorophyll-a transformation products associated with algal senescence. Organic Geochemistry. 42: 451-464.
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Carrieri D, Wawrausek K, Eckert C, Yu J & Maness P-C (2011) The role of the bidirectional hydrogenase in Cyanobacteria. Bioresource Technology. 102: 8368-8377.
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Abstract:
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Heiss AA, Walker G & Simpson AGB (2011) The ultrastructure of Ancyromonas, a eukaryote without supergroup affinities. Protist. 162: 373-393.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2010.08.004
Abstract:
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Gleason FH, Küpper FC, Amon JP, Picard K, Gachon CMM, Marano AV, Sime-Ngando T & Lilje O (2011) Zoosporic true fungi in marine ecosystems: A review. Marine and Freshwater Research. 62: 383-393.
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Abstract:
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Park JS & Simpson AGB (2011) Characterization of Pharyngomonas kirbyi (="Macropharyngomonas halophila" nomen nudum), a very deep-branching, obligately halophilic heterolobosean. Protist. 162: 691-709.
DOI: 10.1061/j.protis.2011.05.004
Abstract:
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Stache-Crain B, Müller DG & Goff LJ (1997) Molecular systematics of Ectocarpus and Kuckuckia (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid-encoded DNA sequences. Journal of Phycology. 33: 152-168.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.00152.x
Abstract:
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Scheffel A, Poulsen N, Shian S & Kroger N (2011) Nanopatterned protein microrings from a diatom that direct silica morphogenesis. PNAS. 108: 3175-3180.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012842108
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Damsté JSS, Muyzer G, Abbas B, Rampen SW, Massé G, Allard WG, Belt ST, Robert JM, Rowland SJ, Moldowan JM, Barbanti SM, Fago FJ, Denisevich P, Dahl J, Trindade LA & Schouten S (2004) The rise of the rhizosolenid diatoms. Science. 304 (5670): 584-587.
DOI: 10.1126/science.1096806
Abstract:
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Baker KM, Gobler CJ & Collier JL (2009) Urease gene sequences from algae and heterotrophic bacteria in axenic and nonaxenic phytoplankton cultures. Journal of Phycology. 45: 625-634.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00680.x
Abstract:
Keywords: algal-bacterial interactions, aureococcus anophagefferens, intron, nannochloropsis gaditana, phaeodactylum tricornutum, pseudoisochrysis paradoxa, thalassiosira oceanica, thalassiosira pseudonana, urea, urease

 

Theriot EC, Ashworth M, Ruck E, Nakov T & Jansen RK (2010) A preliminary multigene phylogeny of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta): Challenges for future research. Plant Ecology and Evolution. 143: 278-296.
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Abstract:
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Andersen RA, Van de Peer Y, Potter D, Sexton JP, Kawachi M & LaJeunesse T (1999) Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rDNA from members of the Chrysophyceae. Protist. 150: 71-84.
DOI: 10.1016/S1434-4610(99)70010-6
Abstract:
Keywords: Chrysophyceae, phylogenetic analysis, SSU rRNA

 

Andersen RA, Brett RW, Potter D & Sexton JP (1998) Phylogeny of the Eustigmatophyceae based upon 18S rDNA, with emphasis on Nannochloropsis. Protist. 149: 61-74.
DOI: 10.1016/S1434-4610(98)70010-0
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S, eustigmatophyceae, nannochloropsis

 

Daugbjerg N & Andersen RA (1997) A molecular phylogeny of the heterokont algae based on analyses of chloroplast-encoded rbcL sequence data. Journal of Phycology. 33: 1031-1041.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.01031.x
Abstract:
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Andersen RA, Brett RW, Potter D & Sexton JP (1998) Phylogeny of the Eustigmatophyceae based upon 18S rDNA, with emphasis on Nannochloropsis Protist. 149: 61-74.
DOI: 10.1016/S1434-4610(98)70010-0
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S, eustigmatophyceae, nannochloropsis

 

Morris GJ & Canning CE (1978) The Cryopreservation of Euglena gracilis Journal of General Microbiology. 108: 27-31.
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De Martino A, Bartual A, Willis A, Meichenin A, Villazán B, Maheswari U & Bowler C (2011) Physiological and molecular evidence that environmental changes elicit morphological interconversion in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Protist. 162: 462-481.
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Abstract:
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Kudryavtsev A, Wylezich C & Pawlowski J (2011) Ovalopodium desertum n. sp. and the phylogenetic relationships of Cochliopodiidae (Amoebozoa). Protist. 162: 571-589.
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Abstract:
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Natrah FMI, Kenmegne MM, Wiyoto W, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P & Defoirdt T (2011) Effects of micro-algae commonly used in aquaculture on acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing. Aquaculture. 317: 53-57.
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Abstract:
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Le Bail A, Billoud B, Le Panse S, Chenivesse S & Charrier B (2011) ETOILE regulates developmental patterning in the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus The Plant Cell. 23: 1666-1678.
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Clarke KJ & Leeson EA (1985) Plasmalemma structure in freezing tolerant unicellular algae. Protoplasma. 129: 120-126.
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Tisler T & Zagorc-Koncan J (2003) Aquatic toxicity of selected chemicals as a basic criterion for environmental classification. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 54: 207-213.
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Millington LA, Goulding KH & Adams N (1988) The influence of growth medium composition on the toxicity of chemicals to algae. Water Research. 22: 1593-1597.
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Martin D & Ridge I (1999) The relative sensitivity of algae to decomposing barley straw. Journal of Applied Phycology. 11: 285-291.
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Keywords:

 

Pröschold T, Marin B, Schlösser UG & Melkonian M (2001) Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and description of Oogamochlamys gen. nov. and Lobochlamys gen. nov. Protist. 152: 265-300.
DOI: 10.1078/1434-4610-00068
Abstract:
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Pollio A, Cennamo P, Ciniglia C, De Stefano M, Pinto G & Huss VAR (2005) Chlamydomonas pitschmannii Ettl, a little known species from thermoacidic environments. Protist. 156: 287-302.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2005.04.004
Abstract:
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Semple KT (1994) The biodegradation of phenols by a eukaryotic alga. PhD Thesis, Newcastle University. -: 203.
DOI:
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Reisser W & Widowski M (1992) Taxonomy of eukaryotic algae endosymbiotic in freshwater associations. In: Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions Explored. Ed. W Reisser. -: 746.
DOI:
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Wright SJL, Redhead K & Maudsley H (1981) Acanthamoeba castellanii, a predator of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology. 125: 293-300.
DOI:
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Peschek GA (1983) Proton pump coupled to cytochrome c oxidase in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. Journal of Bacteriology. 153: 539-542.
DOI:
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Renström-Kellner E & Bergman B (1990) Glycolate metabolism in cyanobacteria. IV. Uptake, growth and metabolic pathways. Physiologia Plantarum. 78: 285-292.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1990.tb02093.x
Abstract:
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Echlin P (1964) Intra-cytoplasmic membranous inclusions in the blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans. Archiv für Microbiologie. 49: 267-274.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00409749
Abstract:
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Noaman NH, Fattah A, Khaleafa M & Zaky SH (2004) Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of Synechococcus leopoliensis Microbiological Research. 159: 395-402.
DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2004.09.001
Abstract:
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Miller B, Heuser T & Zimmer W (1999) A Synechococcus leopoliensis SAUG 1402-1 operon harboring the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase gene and two additional open reading frames is functionally involved in the dimethylallyl diphosphate synthesis. FEBS Letters. 460: 485-490.
DOI:
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Miller AG, Turpin DH & Canvin DT (1984) Growth and photosynthesis of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis in HCO3--limited chemostats. Plant Physiology. 75: 1064-1070.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.75.4.1064
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Mayo WP, Williams TG, Birch DG & Turpin DH (1986) Photosynthetic adaptation by Synechococcus leopoliensis in response to exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon. Plant Physiology. 80: 1038-1040.
DOI:
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Gerbling K, Steup M & Latzko E (1985) Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase from Synechococcus leopoliensis. Substrate-dependent dimer - tetramer interconversion. European Journal of Biochemistry. 147: 207-215.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1985.tb08738.x
Abstract:
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Croisetière L, Rouillon R & Carpentier R (2001) A simple mediatorless amperometric method using the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis for the detection of phytotoxic pollutants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 56: 261-264.
DOI: 10.1007/s002530100652
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Rigby CH, Craig SR & Budd K (1980) Phosphate uptake by Synechococcus leopoliensis (Cyanophyceae): Enhancement by calcium ion. Journal of Phycology. 16: 389-393.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1980.tb03050.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Brodie J, Andersen RA, Kawachi M & Millar AJK (2009) Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia. 48: 423-438.
DOI: 10.2216/09-21.1
Abstract: In August 2005 at the Eighth International Phycological Congress in Durban, South Africa, a workshop brought together expertise in an attempt to answer some major questions regarding the conservation of algae. The outcome, presented here, considers whether microalgal and macroalgal species are endangered and what possible methods and tactics are necessary to achieve realistic protection, including the potential use of culture collections in the conservation of algae and application of legislation that exists to protect species and habitats. There is evidence that there are endangered algae and that some have become extinct in recent years. The concept for the microalgae that ?everything is everywhere? is challenged. Evidence that some species have restricted ranges means that their biogeography has to be taken into account in their conservation. For the marine macroalgae, evidence of the impact of climate change, ocean acidification and introduced species on native floras is often anecdotal and points to the need for long-term monitoring and scientific study to determine changes in abundance and distribution. The use of species and site designations, including biodiversity action plans, important plant areas and key biodiversity areas are explored as ways forward for algal conservation and the raising of public awareness. Ex situ conservation in the form of actively growing culture collections or in suspended animation cryogenically is a means of conserving algae at least for a restricted number of species and as a last resort; although, the success of reintroductions is unknown. Legislation is considered as the best method in which algae can be given protection. It is concluded that taxonomic knowledge and a global approach are vital to the conservation of the algae.
Keywords: algae, biodiversity, conservation, cryopreservation, endangered species, ex situ protection, habitat protection, legislation, microalgae, macroalgae, threatened species

 

Smirnov AV, Bedjagina OM, Goodkov AV. (2011) Dermamoeba algensis n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Dermamoebidae): an algivorous lobose amoeba with complex cell coat and unusual feeding mode. European Journal of Protistology. 47 (2): 67-78.
DOI:
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Evariste E, Gachon CM Callow ME & Callow JA (2012) Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae. Biofouling. 28: 15-27.
DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2011.643466
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Harper JT & Saunders GW (1998) A molecular systematic investigation of the Acrochaetiales (Florideophycidae, Rhodophyta) and related taxa based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequence data. European Journal of Phycology. 33: 221-29.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269810001736723
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Harper JT& Saunders GW (2002) A re-classification of the Acrochaetiales based on molecular and morphological data, and establishment of the Colaconematales ord. nov. (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology. 37: 463-476.
DOI: 10.1017/S0967026202003840
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Busse I & Preisfeld A (2003) Discovery of a Group I Intron in the SSU rDNA of Ploeotia costata (Euglenozoa). Protist. 154: 57-69.
DOI: 10.1078/143446103764928495
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Taylor RL, Caldwell GS, Olive PJW & Bentley MG (2012) The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae is resistant to the insidious effects of polyunsaturated aldehyde-producing diatoms. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 413: 30-37.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.11.024
Abstract:
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Kudryavtsev A (2012) Microscopic evidence for inclusion of Parvamoeba Rogerson, 1993 into the order Himatismenida (Amoebozoa). European Journal of Protistology. 48: 85-88.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2011.07.003
Abstract:
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Fouqueray M, Dufils B, Vollat B, Chaurand P, Botta C, Abacci K, Labille J, Rose J & Garric J (2012) Effects of aged TiO2 nanomaterial from sunscreen on Daphnia magna exposed by dietry route. Environmental Pollution. 163: 55-61.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.035
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Evens R, De Schamphelaere K, De Laender F & Janssen C (2012) The effects of Zn-contaminated diets on Daphnia magna reproduction may be related to Zn-induced changes of the dietary P content rather than to the dietary Zn content itself. Aquatic Toxicology. 110-111: 9-16.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.11.018
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hodaifa G, Martínez ME, órpez R & Sánchez S (2012) Inhibitory effects of industrial olive-oil mill wastewater on biomass production of Scenedesmus obliquus. Ecological Engineering. 42: 30-34.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng2012.01.020
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Matthijs HCP, Visser PM, Reeze B, Meeuse J, Slot PC, Wijn G, Talens R & Huisman J (2012) Selective suppression of harmful cyanobacteria in an entire lake with hydrogen peroxide. Water Research. 46: 1460-1472.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.016
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Chen Y & Vaidynanthan S (2012) A simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric method to estimate microalgal lipids. Analytica Chimica Acta. 724: 67-72.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.02.049
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Magnesen T & Jacobsen A (2012) Effect of water recirculation on seawater quality and production of scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae. Aquacultural Engineering. 47: 1-6.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2011.12.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ho K-C, Lee TC-H, Kwok O-T & Lee FW-F (2012) Phylogenetic analysis on a strain of Alexandrium tamarense collected from Antarctic Ocean. Harmful Algae. 15: 100-108.
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2011.12.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Yang EC, Boo GH, Kim HJ, Cho SM, Boo SM, Andersen RA & Yoon HS (2012) Supermatrix data highlight the phylogenetic relationships of photosynthetic stramenopiles. Protist. 163: 217-231.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.08.001
Abstract:
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Wu X, Joyce EM & Mason TJ (2012) Evaluation of the mechanisms of the effect of ultrasound on Microcystis aeruginosa at different ultrasonic frequencies. Water Research. In Press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.02.019
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Brito â, Ramos V, Seabra R, Santos A, Santos CL, Lopo M, Ferreira S, Martins A, Mota R, Frazão B, Martins R, Vasconcelos V & Tamagnini P (2012) Culture-dependent characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in the intertidal zones of the Portuguese coast: A polyphasic study. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 35: 110-119.
DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2011.07.003
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Verheyen L, Merckx R & Smolders E (2012) A resin-buffered nutrient solution for controlling metal speciation in the algal bottle assay. Aquatic Toxicology. 114-115: 200-205.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.02.021
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Choi CJ, Berges JA & Young EB (2012) Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: Variable responses among freshwater microalgae. Water Research. 46: 2615-2626.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.02.027
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Evens R, De Schamphelaere KAC, Balcaen L, Wang Y, De Roy K, Resano M, Flórez M, Boon N, Vanhaecke F & Janssen CR (2012) The use of liposomes to differentiate between the effects of nickel accumulation and altered food quality in Daphnia magna exposed to dietary nickel. Aquatic Toxicology. 109: 80-89.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.11.017
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Pick U & Rachutin-Zalogin T (2012) Kinetic anomalies in the interactions of Nile red with microalgae. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 88: 189-196.
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2011.10.008
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Marin B (2011) Nested in the Chlorellales or independent class? Phylogeny and classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) revealed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of complete nuclear and plastid-encoded rRNA operons. Protist. 163: 778-805.
DOI: 10.1016/J.protis.2011.11.004
Abstract:
Keywords: marsupiomonadales, marsupiomonas, pedinomonas, pedinophyceae, resultor, resultomonas

 

Tiwari A & Pandey A (2012) Cyanobacterial hydrogen production - A step towards clean environment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 37: 139-150.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.09.100
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Carfagna S, Salbitani G, Vona V & Esposito S (2011) Changes in cysteine and O-acetyl-I-serine levels in the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana in response to the S-nutritional status. Journal of Plant Physiology. 168: 2188-2195.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.07.012
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Marchetti J, Bougaran G, Le Dean L, Mégrier C, Lukomska E, Kaas R, Olivo E, Baron R, Robert R & Cadoret JP (2012) Optimizing conditions for the continuous culture of Isochrysis affinis galbana relevant to commercial hatcheries. Aquaculture. 326-329: 106-115.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.11.020
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Smirnov AV, Chao E, Nassonova ES & Cavalier-Smith T (2011) A revised classification of naked lobose amoebae (Amoebozoa: Lobosa). Protist. 162: 545-570.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.04.004
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cha TS, Chen JW, Goh EG, Aziz A & Loh SH (2011) Differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in two Chlorella species in response to nitrate treatments and the potential of binary blending microalgae oils for biodiesel application. Bioresource Technology. 102: 10633-10640.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.042
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Guedes AC, Amaro HM, Barbosa CR, Pereira RD & Malcata FX (2011) Fatty acid composition of several wild microalgae and cyanobacteria, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and a-linolenic acids for eventual dietary uses. Food Research International. 44: 2721-2729.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2011.05.020
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Howe AT, Bass D, Chao EE & Cavalier-Smith T (2011) New genera, species and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa). Protist. 162: 710-722.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.06.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Bendif EM, Probert I, Hervé A, Billard C, Goux D, Lelong C, Cadoret J & Véron B (2011) Integrative taxonomy of the Pavlovophyceae (Haptophyta): A reassessment. Protist. 162: 738-761.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.05.001
Abstract: The Pavlovophyceae (Haptophyta) contains four genera (Pavlova, Diacronema, Exanthemachrysis and Rebecca) and only thirteen characterised species, several of which are important in ecological and economic contexts. We have constructed molecular phylogenies inferred from sequencing of ribosomal gene markers with comprehensive coverage of the described diversity, using type strains when available, together with additional cultured strains. The morphology and ultrastructure of 12 of the described species was also re-examined and the pigment signatures of many culture strains were determined. The molecular analysis revealed that sequences of all described species differed, although those of Pavlova gyrans and P. pinguis were nearly identical, these potentially forming a single cryptic species complex. Four well-delineated genetic clades were identified, one of which included species of both Pavlova and Diacronema. Unique combinations of morphological/ultrastructural characters were identified for each of these clades. The ancestral pigment signature of the Pavlovophyceae consisted of a basic set of pigments plus MV chl cPAV, the latter being entirely absent in the Pavlova + Diacronema clade and supplemented by DV chl cPAV in part of the Exanthemachrysis clade. Based on this combination of characters, we propose a taxonomic revision of the class, with transfer of several Pavlova species to an emended Diacronema genus. The evolution of the class is discussed in the context of the phylogenetic reconstruction presented.
Keywords: 18S rDNA, Haptophyta, Pavlovophyceae, phylogeny, taxonomy, ultrastructure

 

Yabuki A, Chao EE, Ishida K & Cavalier-Smith T (2011) Microheliella maris (Microhelida ord. n.), an ultrastructurally highly distinctive new axopodial protist species and genus, and the unity of phylum Heliozoa. Protist. 163: 356-388.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.10.001
Abstract: A new heliozoan, Microheliella maris, has sufficiently distinctive ultrastructure to merit a new order, Microhelida. Its 18S and 28S rRNA genes were sequenced earlier under the informal name ?marine microheliozoan?; we here sequenced its Hsp90 gene. A three-gene tree suggests that it is distantly related to centrohelids and others in chromist subkingdom Hacrobia; but it is too divergent to be placed accurately by few genes. Unlike centrohelids, its central spherical centrosome has two concentric granular shells and a dense core devoid of a trilaminar central disc. Microtubules radiate from the centrosomal shells. Unlike centrohelids, axopodia have only three microtubules, fixed basally by dense plasma membrane anchors, and bear terminal and lateral haptosome-like extrusomes. As in the heliomonad Heliomorpha, the centrosome is embedded in a nuclear cavity, and centrosomal microtubules traverse the nucleus inside cytoplasmic channels. A novel filogranular network interconnects mitochondria, ER, and plasma membrane. The microbody is attached to the nucleus and mitochondrion, which has vermicular tubular cristae. We group Microhelida and Heliomonadida, purged of dissimilar flagellates, as a new tubulicristate class Endohelea within phylum Heliozoa. Previously misassigned GenBank 18S rDNA sequences reveal Microhelida as diverse and ancient. We discuss principles underlying the biogenesis and diversity of axopodial patterns.
Keywords: Axopodium, centrohelid, centrosome, Heliomorpha, Heliozoa, multi-gene phylogeny

 

Costa RM da, Pereira LCC & Fernández F (2012) Deterrent effect of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham PSP-toxins on grazing performance of marine copepods. Harmful Algae. In press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2012.03.002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gorokhova E, Mattsson L & Sundström AM (2012) A comparison of TO-PRO-1 iodide and 5-CFDA-AM staining methods for assessing viability of planktonic algae with epifluorescence microscopy. Journal of Microbiological Methods. In press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2012.03.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Natrah FMI, Alam MI, Pawar S, Harzevili AS, Nevejan N, Boon N, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P & Defoirdt T (2012) The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) lavae. Veterinary Microbiology. In press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.014
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Day JG, Thomas NJ, Achilles-Day UEM & Leakey RJG (2012) Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures. Bioresource Technology. 114: 715-719.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech2012.03.015
Abstract:
Keywords: algal biofuels, ciliates, flowcam, grazers, lipids

 

Govender T, Ramanna L, Rawat I & Bux F (2012) BODIPY staining, an alternative to the Nile Red fluorescence method for the evaluation of intracellular lipids in microalgae. Bioresource Technology. In press: -.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.024
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Shlykov MA, Zheng WH, Chen JS & Saier MH (2012) Bioinformatic characterization of the 4-Toluene Sulfonate Uptake Permease (TSUP) family of transmembrane proteins. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 1818: 703-717.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.12.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lei QY & Lu SH (2011) Molecular ecological responses of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi to phosphate stress. Harmful Algae. 12: 39-45.
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2011.08.010
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Tsibidis GD, Burroughs NJ, Gaze W & Wellington EMH (2011) Semi-automated Acanthamoeba polyphaga detection and computation of Salmonella typhimurium concentration in spatio-temporal images. Micron. 42: 911-920.
DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2011.06.010
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lelong A, Hégaret H & Soudant P (2011) Cell-based measurements to assess physiological status of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, a toxic diatom. Research in Microbiology. 162: 969-981.
DOI: 10.1016/j.resmic.2011.06.005
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Momand J, Villegas A & Belyi VA (2011) The evolution of MDM2 family genes. Gene. 486: 23-30.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2011.06.030
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Evens R, De Schamphelaere KAC, Balcaen L, Wang Y, De Roy K, Resano M, del Rosario Flórez M, Van der Meeren P, Boon N, Vanhaecke F & Janssen CR (2011) Liposomes as an alternative delivery system for investigating dietary metal toxicity to Daphnia magna. Aquatic Toxicology. 105: 661-668.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.09.006
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Cuaresma M, Janssens M, van den End EJ, Vílchez C & Wijffels RH (2011) Luminostat operation: A tool to maximise microalgae photosynthetic efficiency in photobioreactors during the daily light cycle? Bioresource Technology. 102: 7871-7878.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.076
Abstract:
Keywords: photosynthetic efficiency, photobioreactor productivity, Chlorella sorokiniana, luminostat, simulated summer irradiance

 

Dionisio Pires LM, Sarpe D, Brehm M & Ibelings BW (2011) Potential synergistic effects of microcystins and bacterial lipopolysaccharides on life history traits of Daphnia galeata raised on low and high food levels. Aquatic Toxicology. 104: 230-242.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.05.001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Prado RR, Rioboo C, Herrero C, Suarez-Bregua P & Cid, A (2012) Flow cytometric analysis to evaluate physiological alterations in herbicide-exposed Chlamydomonas moewusii cells. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 21: 409-420.
DOI: 10.1007/s10646-011-0801-3
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mairet FF, Bernard O, Cameron E, Ras M & Lardon L (2012) Three-reaction model for the anaerobic digestion of microalgae. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 109: 415-425.
DOI: 10.1002/bit.23350
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Yuan C, Liu J, Fan Y, Ren X, Hu G & Li F (2011) Mychonastes afer HSO-3-1 as a potential new source of biodiesel. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 4: 47.
DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-47
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lelong AA, Haberkorn H, Le Goïc N, Hégaret H & Soudant P (2011) A new insight into allelopathic effects of Alexandrium minutum on photosynthesis and respiration of the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile revealed by photosynthetic-performance analysis and flow cytometry. Microbiology of Aquatic Systems. 62: 919-930.
DOI: 10.1007/s00248-011-9889-5
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Grenville-Briggs L, Gachon CMM, Strittmatter M, Sterck L & Küpper FC (2011) A molecular insight into algal-oomycete warfare: cDNA analysis of Ectocarpus siliculosus infected with the basal oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii. PLoS ONE. 6(9): e24500.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024500
Abstract: Brown algae are the predominant primary producers in coastal habitats, and like land plants are subject to disease and parasitism. Eurychasma dicksonii is an abundant, and probably cosmopolitan, obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen of marine brown algae. Oomycetes (or water moulds) are pathogenic or saprophytic non-photosynthetic Stramenopiles, mostly known for causing devastating agricultural and aquacultural diseases. Whilst molecular knowledge is restricted to crop pathogens, pathogenic oomycetes actually infect hosts from most eukaryotic lineages. Molecular evidence indicates that Eu. dicksonii belongs to the most early-branching oomycete clade known so far. Therefore Eu. dicksonii is of considerable interest due to its presumed environmental impact and phylogenetic position. Here we report the first large scale functional molecular data acquired on the most basal oomycete to date. 9873 unigenes, totalling over 3.5Mb of sequence data, were produced from Sanger-sequenced and pyrosequenced EST libraries of infected Ectocarpus siliculosus. 6787 unigenes (70%) were of algal origin, and 3086 (30%) oomycete origin. 57% of Eu. dicksonii sequences had no similarity to published sequence data, indicating that this dataset is largely unique. We were unable to positively identify sequences belonging to the RXLR and CRN groups of oomycete effectors identified in higher oomycetes, however we uncovered other unique pathogenicity factors. These included putative algal cell wall degrading enzymes, cell surface proteins, and cyclophilin-like proteins. A first look at the host response to infection has also revealed movement of the host nucleus to the site of infection as well as expression of genes responsible for strengthening the cell wall, and secretion of proteins such as protease inhibitors. We also found evidence of transcriptional reprogramming of E. siliculosus transposable elements and of a viral gene inserted in the host genome.
Keywords:

 

Webster RE, Dean AP & Pittman JK (2011) Cadmium exposure and phosphorus limitation increases metal content in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Environmental Science & Technology. 45: 7489-7496.
DOI: 10.1021/es200814c
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Dyková I, Kostka M & Pecková H (2011) Three new species of the amoebozoan genus Vexillifera Schaeffer, 1926. Acta Protozoologica. 50: 55-63.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Jacobsen A, Grahl-Nielsen O & Magnesen T (2012) Effects of reduced diameter of bag cultures on content of essential fatty acids and cell density in a continuous algal production system. Journal of Applied Phycology. 24: 109-116.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-011-9655-6
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Borowitzka MA & Siva CJ (2007) The taxonomy of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales) with emphasis on the marine and halophilic species. Journal of Applied Phycology. 19: 567-590.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-007-9171-x
Abstract: The taxonomy of the green algal genus Dunaliella is often seen as confusing and the names associated with species in culture collections are sometimes suspect. This paper evaluates and reviews the current taxonomy based on morphological and biochemical characters of this genus. The life history of Dunaliella is also presented. The variability, stability and usefulness of the main characters used to characterise the taxa are evaluated, based both on the literature and on a detailed examination of the Dunaliella strains in the Murdoch University Microalgae Culture Collection. A detailed updated description and key to the 22 species and a number of varieties and forms of the marine and halophilic species of Dunaliella currently recognised is given to allow researchers to identify their strains.
Keywords: Chlorophyta, Dunaliella, Taxonomy, Systematics

 

Jensen BB (1983) Energy requirement for diazotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis determined from growth yields in the dark. Journal of General Microbiology. 129: 2633-2640.
DOI: 10.1099/00221287-129-8-2633
Abstract:
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Landstein D, Chipman DM, Arad SM & Barak Z (1990) Acetohydroxy acid synthase activity in Chlorella emersonii under auto- and heterotrophic growth conditions. Plant Physiology. 94: 614-620.
DOI: 10.?1104/?pp.?94.?2.?614
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Assuncao P, Jaen-Molina R, Caujape-Castells J, de la Jara A, Carmona L, Freijanes K & Mendoza H (2011) Phylogenetic position of Dunaliella acidophila (Chlorophyceae) based on ITS and rbcL sequences. Journal of Applied Phycology. 24: 635-639.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-011-9676-1
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hoshina R, Iwataki M & Imamura N (2010) Chlorella variabilis and Micractinium reisseri sp. nov. (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae): Redescription of the endosymbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria (Peniculia, Oligohymenophorea) in the 120th year. Phycological Research. 58: 188-201.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2010.00579.x
Abstract:
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Vezie C, Benoufella F, Sivonen K, Bertru G & Laplanche A (1996) Detection of toxicity of cyanobacterial strains using Artemia salina and Microtox® assays compared with mouse bioassay results. Phycologia. 35 (6S): 198-202.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-35-6S-198.1
Abstract: Cyanobacterial samples were collected from ponds, water supplies and rivers in Brittany 1991-1993. Strains belonging to Microcystis, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Oscil/atoria were isolated and maintained in culture. Toxicity of the strains was assessed using larvae of the brine shrimp Arrell1ia salina each and by using the bioluminescent bacterium PllOlObacteriulI1 phosphoreulI1 (Cohn) Ford (Microtox? assay). It was compared with the mouse bioassay, which indicated that the toxic strains only produced hepatotoxins. Artell1ia salina larvae were sensitive to hepatotoxins, and the results showed good correlation with the mouse bioassay. In contrast, Microtox? responses were inconsistent with the mouse assay. In most cases, data obtained with Microtox? showed discrepancies: similar ECso values were found for both toxic and non-toxic strains. Compounds other than hepatotoxins seemed to be responsible for toxic response in the Microtox? assay.
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Hilton J, Rigg E & Jaworski G (1989) In vivo algal fluorescence, spectral change due to light intensity changes and the automatic characterization of algae. Freshwater Biology. 21: 375-382.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1988.tb00463.x
Abstract: 1. Total fluorescence spectra of thirty-two freshwater algae show that the majority of the information is contained in the excitation spectrum of emission at 680 nm. 2. Previously suggested characteristics for the automatic identification of blue-green algae from their fluorescence properties, i.e. the presence of high phycoerythrin fluorescence and low chlorophyll fluorescence, are shown to be inapplicable to the freshwater blue-green algae studied here.
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Henderson RK, Baker A, Parsons SA & Jefferson B (2008) Characterisation of algogenic organic matter extracted from cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Water Research. 42: 3435-3445.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.10.032
Abstract:
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Harris EH (2008) The Clamydomonas Sourcebook: Introduction to Chlamydomonas and its Laboratory Use. Academic Press. -: 480 pp.
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Santin-Montanya I, Sandin-Espana P, Garcia Baudin JM & Coll-Morales J (2007) Optimal growth of Dunaliella primolecta in axenic conditions to assay herbicides. Chemosphere. 66: 1315-1322.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.019
Abstract:
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Pazoutova M (2008) Diplomova prace: Phylogenetic diversity and generic concept in the family Radiococcaceae, Chlorophyta. Univerzita Karlova v Praze. -: 74 pp.
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Fuentes E, Coe H, Green D & McFiggans G (2011) On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol - Part 2: Composition, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation activity. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 11: 2585-2602.
DOI: doi:10.5194/acp-11-2585-2011
Abstract:
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Schluter L, Lauridsen TL, Krogh G & Jorgensen T (2006) Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment rations - a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy. Freshwater Biology. 51: 1474-1485.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2006.01582.x
Abstract:
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Azua I, Unanue M, Ayo B, Artolozaga I & Iriberri J (2007) Influence of age of aggregates and prokaryotic abundance on glucose and leucine uptake by heterotrophic marine prokaryotes. International Microbiology. 10: 13-18.
DOI: 10.2436/20.1501.01.3
Abstract:
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Azua I, Unanue M, Ayo B, Artolozaga I, Arrieta JM & Iriberri J (2003) Influence of organic matter quality in the cleavage of polymers by marine bacterial communities. Journal of Plankton Research. 25: 1451-1460.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbg105
Abstract:
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Pavlic Z, Vidakovic-Cifrek Z & Puntaric D (2005) Toxicity of surfactants to green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus subspicatus and to marine diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skeletonema costatum. Chemosphere. 61: 1061-1068.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.051
Abstract:
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Mocquet C (2009) Interference entre les processus mitotiques et la prise d'azote chez Thalassiosira weissflogii. Implications en modelisation et sur les flux globaux. These de Doctorat de l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI). -: 224 pp.
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Wood BJB, Grimson PHK, German JB & Turner M (1999) Photoheterotrophy in the production of phytoplankton organisms. Journal of Biotechnology. 70: 175-183.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00070-X
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Wilson ST (2007) The production of biogenic gases in the marine environment. A Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Open University. -: 319 pp.
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Beserra Galvao I (2004) Effect of the food quality (taxonomy and biochemical composition of the microalgae) on the reproduction and survival of the copepod A. tonsa, from the Kiel Bight. Dissertuation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultat der Christian-Albrechts-Universit. -: 108 pp.
DOI:
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Nakada T, Nozaki H & Tomita M (2012) Light microscopy and phylogenetic analyses of Chlamydomonas species (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). I. Chlamydomonas pseudomacrostigma and Chlamydomonas media. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica. 62: 69-78.
DOI:
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Fischer MG, Allen MJ, Wilson WH & Suttle CA (2010) Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. PNAS. 107: 19508-19513.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1007615107
Abstract:
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Michel R (2008) Isolierung und darstellung von intranuklearen parasiten aus Thecamoeba quadrilineata und Saccamoeba limax. Mikrokosmos. 97: 101-107.
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Michel R, Hauröder B & Zöller L (2009) Isolation of the amoeba Thecamoeba quadrilineata harbouring intranuclear spore forming endoparasites considered as fungus-like organisms. Acta Protozoologica. 48: 41-49.
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Michel R, Schmid EN, Böker T, Hager DG, Müller K, Hoffmann R & Seitz H (2000) Vannella sp. harboring Microsporidia-like organisms isolated from the contact lens and inflamed eye of a female keratitis patient. Parasitology Research. 86: 514-520.
DOI: 10.1007/s004360050704
Abstract:
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Suzuki E, Tsuzuki M & Miyachi S (1986) Accumulation of inorganic carbon in the cells of Euglena gracilis Z grown photoautotrophically in ordinary air. Plant & Cell Physiology. 27: 1205-1208.
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Hashimoto H & Murakami S (1983) Effects of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol on chloroplast replication in synchronously dividing cultured cells of Euglena gracilis New Phytologist. 94: 521-529.
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Busse I & Preisfeld A (2003) Systematics of primary osmotrophic euglenids: a molecular approach to the phylogeny of Distigma and Astasia (Euglenozoa). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53: 617-624.
DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02295-0
Abstract:
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Murray JM (1983) Three-dimensional structure of a membrane-microtubule complex. The Journal of Cell Biology. 98: 283-295.
DOI:
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Preisfeld A, Busse I, Klingberg M, Talke S & Ruppel HG (2001) Phylogenetic position and inter-relationships of the osmotrophic euglenids based on SSU rDNA data, with emphasis on the Rhabdomonadales (Euglenozoa) International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51: 751-758.
DOI:
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Küpper FC, Gaquerel E, Cosse A, Adas F, Peters AF, Müller DG, Kloareg B, Salaün J & Potin P (2009) Free fatty acids and methyl jasmonate trigger defense reactions in Laminaria digitata. Plant & Cell Physiology. 50: 789-800.
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcp023
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Triemer RE & Farmer MA (2007) A decade of euglenoid molecular phylogenetics. In: Unravelling the algae: the past, present and future of algal systematics. Ed. Brodie J & Lewis J. CRC Press. : 315-330.
DOI:
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Hwang S & Hudock GA (1971) Stability of Chlamydomonas reinhardi in liquid nitrogen storage. Journal of Phycology. 7: 300-303.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1971.tb01521.x
Abstract:
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Gustavs L, Gors M & Karsten U (2011) Polyol patterns in biofilm-forming aeroterrestrial green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Journal of Phycology. 47: 533-537.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.00979.x
Abstract:
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Lang I, Hodac L, Friedl T & Feussner I (2011) Fatty acid profiles and their distribution patterns in microalgae: a comprehensive analysis of more than 2000 strains from the SAG culture collection BMC Plant Biology. 11: 124.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-124
Abstract:
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Lapaille M, Escobar-Ramirez A, Degand H, Baurain D, Rodriguez-Salinas E, Coosemans N, Boutry M, Gonzalez-Halphen D, Remacle C & Cardol P (2010) Atypical subunit composition of the Chlorophycean mitrochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase and role of Asa7 protein in stability and oligomycin resistance of the enzyme. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27: 1630-1644.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msq049
Abstract:
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Friedl T & O'Kelly CJ (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of green algae assigned to the genus Planophila (Chlorophyta): evidence from 18S rDNA sequence data and ultrastructure European Journal of Phycology. 37: 373-384.
DOI: 10.1017/S0967026202003712
Abstract:
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West JA, Zuccarello GC, Hommersand M, Karsten U & Gors S (2006) Observations on Bostrychia radicosa comb. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) Phycological Research. 54: 1-14.
DOI:
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Yang EC, Scott J, West JA, Yoon HS, Yokoyama A, Karsten U, Loiseaux de Goer S & Orlova E (2011) Erythrolobus australicus sp. nov. (Porphyridiophyceae, Rhodophyta): A description based on several approaches. Algae. 26: 167-180.
DOI: 10.4490/algae.2011.26.2.167
Abstract:
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Necchi Junior O, Cabral de Oliveira M & Salles P (2010) Molecular systematics of Thorea (Rhodophyta, Thoreales) species in Brazil Revista Brasileira de Botanica. 33: 227-235.
DOI:
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Araoz R, Nghiem H, Rippka R, Palibroda N, Tandeau de Marsac N & Herdman M (2005) Neurotoxins in axenic oscillatorian cyanobacteria: Coexistence of anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a determined by ligand-binding assay and GC/MS Microbiology. 151: 1263-1273.
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.27660-0
Abstract:
Keywords: neurotoxins, cyanobacteria, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a

 

Dadheech PK, Abed RMM, Mahmoud H, Mohan MK & Krienitz L (2012) Polyphasic characterization of cyanobacteria isolated from desert crusts, and the description of Desertifilum tharense gen. et sp. nov. (Oscillatoriales) Phycologia. 51: 260-270.
DOI: 10.2216/09-51.1
Abstract: Four new cyanobacterial strains isolated from biological desert crusts in Thar Desert, India were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strains were designated to two mophotypes, but all strains exhibited identical 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. On the basis of 16S rRNA phylogenetic reconstruction, the strains belonged to the Oscillatoriales order and formed a coherent cluster in the phylogenetic tree, with more than 5% sequence divergence to the closest relative belonging to a species of Microcoleus Desmazie`res ex Gomont. Our strains were different from the genus Microcoleus in phenotypic characters such as organization of thallus, trichome width, cell shape, gas vesicle, thylakoid arrangement and habitat. Although the strains shared some morphological similarities with members of Phormidiaceae, they differed in thylakoid pattern and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The type strain (PD2001/TDC17) grew up to 45uC with optimum growth between 30 and 35uC. The sharp decrease in growth of that strain at 1% salinity indicates its sensitivity to salts. Phylogenetic, morphological, ultrastuctural and physiological analyses demonstrated that the investigated strains represented a novel cyanobacterial genus, for which the name Desertifilum tharense gen. et sp. nov. is proposed, with PD2001/TDC17 (5 CCAP 1420/4 5 BISR/CYANO/61) as the type strain.
Keywords: Desertifilum tharense gen. et. sp. nov., cyanobacteria, Oscillatoriales, desert crust, 16S rRNA gene, polyphasic

 

Leboulanger C, Rimet F, Heme de Lacotte M & Berard A (2001) Effects of atrazine and nicosulfuron on freshwater microalgae Environment International. 26: 131-135.
DOI:
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Bombelli P, Zarrouati M, Thorne RJ, Schneider K, Rowden SJL, Ali A, Yunus K, Cameron PJ, Fisher AC, Wilson DI, Howe CJ & McCormick AJ (2012) Surface morphology and surface energy of anode materials influence power outputs in a multi-channel mediatorless bio-photovoltaic (BPV) system Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 14: 12221-12229.
DOI: 10.1039/C2CP42526B
Abstract:
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Griffiths AE, Walsby AE & Hayes PK (1992) The homologies of gas vesicle proteins Journal of General Microbiology. 138: 1243-1250.
DOI:
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Walsby AE, Avery A & Schanz F (1998) The critical pressures of gas vesicles in Planktothrix rubescens in relation to the depth of winter mixing in Lake Zurich, Switzerland. Journal of Plankton Research. 20: 1357-1375.
DOI:
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Nubel U, Garcia-Pichel F & Muyzer G (2000) The halotolerance and phylogeny of cyanobacteria with tightly coiled trichomes (Spirulina Turpin) and the description of Halospirulina tapeticola gen. nov., sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50: 1265-1277.
DOI:
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Suggett DJ, MacIntyre HL & Geider RJ (2004) Evaluation of biophysical and optical determinations of light absorption by photosystem II in phytoplankton Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 2: 316-332.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Dykova I, Fiala I, Peckova H & Dvorakova H (2008) Phylogeny of Flabellulidae (Amoebozoa: Leptomyxida) inferred from SSU rDNA sequences of the type strain of Flabellula citata Schaeffer, 1926 and newly isolated strains of marine amoebae Folia Parasitologica. 55: 256-264.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Amoebozoa, Leptomyxida, Flabellulidae, Flabellula citata, SSU rDNA phylogeny

 

Korkhovyy VI, Pirko, Ya V, Tsarenko PM & Blume Ya B (2011) Genetic differentiation of strains Botryococcus braunii Kutz., a producer of lipids, by RAPD fingerprinting [in Ukrainian] Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2: 144-149.
DOI:
Abstract: Four strains of Botryococcus braunii, which are on the storage in a collection of M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the NAS of Ukraine, are studied by the method of RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Among three random primers (OPP-12, OPP-15, OPP-17) used for the reaction, the most of amplicons are obtained with primer OPP-17. Our data indicate that the RAPD analysis can be used for the genetic differentiation and for the estimation of relationships between strains.
Keywords: botryococcus, RAPD-PCR, RAPD fingerprinting

 

Korkhovyy VI, Pirko, YaV, Tsarenko PM & Blume YaB (2011) Genetic differentiation of strains Botryococcus braunii Kutz., a producer of lipids, by RAPD fingerprinting [in Ukrainian] Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2: 144-149.
DOI:
Abstract: Four strains of Botryococcus braunii, which are on the storage in a collection of M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the NAS of Ukraine, are studied by the method of RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Among three random primers (OPP-12, OPP-15, OPP-17) used for the reaction, the most of amplicons are obtained with primer OPP-17. Our data indicate that the RAPD analysis can be used for the genetic differentiation and for the estimation of relationships between strains.
Keywords: botryococcus, RAPD-PCR, RAPD fingerprinting

 

Tanifuji G, Kim E, Onodera NT, Gibeault R, Dlutek M, Cawthorn RJ, Fiala I, Lukes J, Greenwood SJ & Archibald JM (2011) Genomic characterization of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebozoa) and its kinetoplastid endosymbiont. Eukaryotic Cell. 10: 1143-1146.
DOI: 10.1128/EC.05027-11
Abstract: We have performed a genomic characterization of a kinetoplastid protist living within the amoebozoan Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis. The genome of this "Ichthyobodo-related organism" was found to be unexpectedly large, with at least 11 chromosomes between 1.0 and 3.5 Mbp and a total genome size of at least 25 Mbp.
Keywords: kinetoplastids, endosymbiont, kinetoplastid endosymbiont

 

Fiala I & Dykova I (2003) Molecular characterisation of Neoparamoeba strains isolated from gills of Scophthalmus maximus Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 55: 11-16.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: paramoeba, neoparamoeba, SSU rDNA, phylogenetic position

 

Bottger LH, Miller EP, Andresen C, Matzanke BF, Kupper FC & Carrano CJ (2012) Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus. Journal of Experimental Botany. 63: 5763-5772.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ers225
Abstract:
Keywords: Ectocarpus, iron, marine algae, Mössbauer spectroscopy, storage, transport, X-ray absorbtion spectroscopy

 

Wong FYK, Carson J & Elliott NG (2004) 18S ribosomal DNA-based PCR identification of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, the agent of amoebic gill disease in sea-farmed salmonids Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 60: 65-76.
DOI:
Abstract: Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis is a parasomal amoeboid protozoan identified as the agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared in sea-pens in Tasmania, Australia, and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch farmed on the west coast of the USA. Outbreaks of AGD caused by immunologically cross-reactive paramoebae have also been reported in seafarmed salmonids in several other countries. Complete 18S rDNA sequences were determined for respective paramoebae isolated from infected gills of salmon from Tasmania and Ireland, and N. pemaquidensis isolates from the USA and UK, including representative free-living isolates. Alignments over 2110 bp revealed 98.1 to 99.0% sequence similarities among isolates, confirming that paramoebae implicated in AGD in geographically distant countries were homologous and belonged to the same species, N. pemaquidensis. The results supported previous findings that N. pemaquidensis exists as a widely distributed, amphizoic marine protozoan. Partial 18S rDNA sequences were obtained for the ultrastructurally similar species, N. aestuarina, and for the morphologically similar but non-parasomal amoeba Pseudoparamoeba pagei. N. aestuarina had 95.3 to 95.7% sequence similarities with N. pemaquidensis strains, which distinguished 2 closely related but separate species. Neoparamoeba spp. were not analogous to P. pagei or to other marine Gymnamoebia. We designed 4 oligonucleotide primers based on elucidated 18S rDNA sequences and applied them to single-step and nested 2-step PCR protocols developed to identify N. pemaquidensis to the exclusion of apparently closely related and non-related protistan taxa. Nested PCR was able to detect the AGD parasite from non-purified, culture-enriched net microfouling samples from Atlantic salmon sea-pens in Tasmania, and confirmed that N. pemaquidensis was also responsible for AGD in chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in New Zealand. Our sequence and PCR analyses have now shown that AGD affecting 3 different salmonid species farmed in 4 countries are associated with N. pemaquidensis. A species specific diagnostic PCR provides for the first time, a highly specific detection and identification assay for N. pemaquidensis that will facilitate future ecological and epidemiological studies of AGD.
Keywords: Amoebic gill disease, Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, Neoparamoeba aestuarina, 18S ribosomal DNA, PCR, Salmo salar, Salmonids

 

Berard A, Leboulanger C & Pelte T (1999) Tolerance of Oscillatoria limnetica Lemmermann to atrazine in natural phytoplankton populations and in pure culture: Influence of season and temperature Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 37: 472-479.
DOI: 10.1007/s002449900541
Abstract:
Keywords: oscillatoria limnetica, atrazine, tolerance, herbicide

 

Larsen A & Bryant S (1998) Growth rate and toxicity of Prymnesium parvum and Prymnesium patelliferum (Haptophyta) in response to changes in salinity, light and temperature. Sarsia. 83: 409-418.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: autecology, growth, Haptophyta, Prymnesium, toxicity, HAB

 

Mullen TE, Nevis KR, O'Kelly CJ, Gast RJ & Frasca Jr. S (2005) Nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based characterization, molecular phylogeny and PCR detection of the Neoparamoeba from Western Long Island Sound lobster Journal of Shellfish Research. 24: 719-731.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Homarus americanus, lobster, molecular phylogeny, Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, paramoebiasis, PCR, small-subunit rRNA

 

Brown S & Smirnov AV (2004) Diversity of gymnamoebae in grassland soil in southern Scotland Protistology. 3: 191-195.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: gymnamoebae, naked amoebae, morphotypes, biodiversity, ecology, soil gymnamoebae, enumeration

 

Qvarnstrom Y, da Silva AJ, Schuster FL, Gelman BB & Visvesvara GS (2009) Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of amoebic encephalitis The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 199: 1139-1142.
DOI: 10.1086/597473
Abstract:
Keywords: sappinia, amoebic encephalitis

 

Jauffrais T, Marcaillou C, Herrenknecht C, Truquet P, Shet V, Nicolau E, Tillmann U & Hess P (2012) Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum Toxicon. 60: 582-595.
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.04.351
Abstract:
Keywords: Azaspiracid, Azadinium spinosum, marine biotoxins, AZA, tissue distribution, histology, bivalve molluscs, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

 

Zhang J, Huss VAR, Sun X, Chang K & Pang D (2008) Morphology and phylogenetic position of a trebouxiophycean green alga (Chlorophyta) growing on the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, with the description of a new genus and species. European Journal of Phycology. 43: 185-193.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260701718462
Abstract:
Keywords: chlorella, chlorophyta, chloroplast, double hairpin element, phylogeny, pyrenoid, taxonomy, trebouxiophyceae

 

Giordano M, Ratti S, Domenighini A & Vogt F (2009) Spectroscopic classification of 14 different microalga species: first steps towards spectroscopic measurement of phytoplankton biodiversity Plant Ecology & Diversity. 2: 155-164.
DOI: 10.1080/17550870903353088
Abstract:
Keywords: biodiversity, correlation analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, PCA, phytoplankton, species classification

 

Van Hannen E, FinkGodhe P & Lurling M (2002) A revised secondary structure model for the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the green algae Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus and its implication for the phylogeny of these algae European Journal of Phycology. 37: 203-208.
DOI: 10.1017/S096702620200361X
Abstract:
Keywords: compensating base pair changes, Desmodesmus, internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2, parsimony, phylogeny, secondary structure model, scenedesmus

 

Redfearn P (1987) Larval shell development of the northern tuatua, Paphies subtriangulata (Bivalvia, Mesodesmatidae) New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 21: 65-70.
DOI: 10.1080/00288330.1987.9516201
Abstract:
Keywords: bivalve larvae, mesodesmatidae, larval shell development, larval morphology

 

Novis PM, Beer T & Vallance J (2008) New records of microalgae from the New Zealand alpine zone, and their distribution and dispersal New Zealand Journal of Botany. 46: 347-366.
DOI: 10.1080/00288250809509773
Abstract:
Keywords: botrydiopsis, chlamydomonas, chrysocapsa, klebsormidium, pseudococcomyxa, stichococcus, microbes, distribution, endemism, long-distance dispersal

 

Codd G, Bell S, Kaya K, Ward C, Beattie K & Metcalf J (1999) Cyanobacterial toxins, exposure routes and human health European Journal of Phycology. 34: 405-415.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269910001736462
Abstract:
Keywords: cyanobacteria, cyanophyta, health, microcystin, toxins

 

Andreoli C, Moro I, La Rocca N, Dalla Valle L, Masiero L, Rascio N & Dalla Vecchia F (2000) Ecological, physiological and biomolecular surveys on microalgae from Ross Sea (Antarctica) Italian Journal of Zoology. 67 (S1): 147-156.
DOI: 10.1080/11250000009356370
Abstract:
Keywords: antarctica, ross sea, sea-ice, microalgae, ultrastructure

 

Suggett DJ, Oxborough K, Baker NR, MacIntyre HL, Kana TM & Geider RJ (2003) Fast repetition rate and pulse amplitude modulation chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements for assessment of photosynthetic electron transport in marine phytoplankton European Journal of Phycology. 38: 371-384.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260310001612655
Abstract:
Keywords: electron transport, FRRF, light absorption, PAM, phytoplankton, PSII, quantum yield

 

Hellio C & Le Gal Y (1999) Histidase from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta: purification and partial characterization European Journal of Phycology. 34: 71-78.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269910001736102
Abstract:
Keywords: characterization, dunaliella tertiolecta, histidase, microalgae, purification

 

Giordano M, Norici A & Gilmour DJ (2003) Influence of the nitrogen source and metabolites on the Vmax of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella parva CCAP 19/9 (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae) Phycologia. 42: 133-137.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-42-2-133.1
Abstract: The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was measured in cell-free extracts of the salt-tolerant unicellular green alga Dunaliella parva Lerche CCAP 19/9. For cells grown in batch cultures with 5 mM NaN03 as the sole source of nitrogen, the optimum pH for PEPC activity was 8 and the reaction was saturated by l mM phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The Ko5 for PEP was 150 fLM and the Vm'X was 0.18 ;i: 0.04 fLmol h-' mg-1 soluble protein. The effect of key metabolites on PEPC activity was determined under optimum assay conditions. Glycerol, the main osmoticum of Dunaliella, had little or no effect on PEPC activity, but dihydroxyacetone phosphate, pyruvate, a-ketoglutarate, orthophosphate, glutamine, glutamate and aspartate all stimulated activity. Surprisingly, the largest stimulation was exerted by aspartate, generally an inhibitor of PEPC, which enhanced PEPC activity up to 30-fold. Oxaloacetate slightly inhibited PEPC activity, but the most effective inhibitor was malate, which caused an 80-90% decrease in the carboxylation, even at low concentration. The response of PEPC activity to replacement of NaN03 with NH4CI was tested in continuous culture. The activity of PEPC increased when NH4 + was added to the medium and, even if it decreased somewhat during acclimation to the new nitrogen source, it stayed at levels that were appreciably higher than those observed in N03 --grown cells. These results are discussed with regard to the role that PEPC may play under different nitrogen growth regimes.
Keywords: nitrogen, metabolites, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, PEPC

 

Ojala A (1993) The influence of light quality on growth and phycobiliprotein/chlorophyll a fluorescence quotients of some species of freshwater algae in culture Phycologia. 32: 22-28.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-32-1-22.1
Abstract: A comparative study of the effects of light quality on the growth and phycobiliprotein (PBP)/chlorophyll a fluorescence quotients for two strains of cryptophytes, the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Oscillatoria (Tychonema) bourrellyi Lund and a non-PBP-containing green alga, Euglena sp., is described. Oscillatoria bourrellyi Lund (Cyanobacteria) was able to sustain a high growth rate regardless of the light quality. Cryptomonas CCAP 979/67 exhibited only weak chromatic adaptation compared with the cyanobacterium, and in Cryptomonas CCAP 979/62 chromatic adaptation was even weaker. Thus the possession of PBPs does not seem to provide cryptophytes with a distinct advantage in terms of growth in chromatic light and it is possible that cryptophytes use PBPs mainly as a nitrogen reserve.
Keywords: phycobiliprotein, PBP, fluorescence quotients, cryptophyta, cyanobacteria, light quality, chlorophyll a

 

Fucikova K, Rada JC & Lewis LA (2011) The tangled taxonomic history of Dictyococcus, Bracteacoccus and Pseudomuriella (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) and their distinction based on a phylogenetic perspective Phycologia. 50: 422-429.
DOI: 10.2216/10-69.1
Abstract: Phylogenetically diverse algae, especially unicellular forms from similar habitats, can have nearly indistinguishable morphology when viewed with light microscopy. Consequently, historical taxonomy of many green coccoids based on light microscopy is not only inaccurate but also highly tangled because over time taxonomists have emphasized different traits. In the case of the three morphologically similar genera, Bracteacoccus, Dictyococcus and Pseudomuriella, we present an example of molecular data helping to resolve phylogenetic relationships of coccoids and facilitating the interpretation of morphology. The three genera are shown to be distinct lineages by our phylogenetic analysis of 18S and rbcL sequence data. Our photomicroscopic observations suggest that Bracteacoccus and Pseudomuriella are morphologically cryptic genera, whereas Dictyococcus can be clearly distinguished by its chloroplast morphology. Additionally, we show that Bracteacoccus engadinensis and Dictyococcus schumacherensis are more closely related to Pseudomuriella aurantiaca than to other examined Bracteacoccus and Dictyococcus representatives, respectively. We therefore propose the transfer of these species to the genus Pseudomuriella.
Keywords: coccoid, inflection, chloroplast, phylogeny

 

Hegewald E, Wolf M, Keller A, Friedl T & Krienitz L (2010) ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny in the Scenedesmaceae with special reference to Coelastrum (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae), including the new genera Comasiella and Pectinodesmus Phycologia. 49: 325-335.
DOI:
Abstract: Sequences and secondary structures of the nuclear-encoded internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) ribosomal RNA of nine Coelastrum taxa, Asterarcys quadricellulare (Coelastraceae), Westella botryoides (hitherto Oocystaceae) and Dimorphococcus lunatus (Scenedesmaceae) were determined and compared with existing GenBank entries of scenedesmacean taxa (Desmodesmus, Enallax, Neodesmus, Scenedesmus). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied Coelastrum taxa belong to several different lineages within the Scenedesmaceae: five Coelastrum taxa (Coelastrum microporum, Coelastrum astroideum, C. astroideum var. rugosum 5 Coelastrum rugosum, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum and Coelastrum sphaericum incl. Coelastrum proboscideum) form monophyletic clades, whereas two strains labeled Coelastrum morum belong to different genera. The African strain of C. morum clusters with Coelastrum cambricum. The Finnish strain labeled C. morum clusters with Asterarcys, Dimorphococcus and Hariotina. According to its morphology this strain belongs to Coelastrella, related to Coelastrella saiponensis. Westella botryoides belongs to a separate clade within the Scenedesmaceae. Coelastrum reticulatum is positioned in the clade with Asterarcys, Dimorphococcus and Coelastrella; hence its separation in a separate genus, as originally described (Hariotina), is justified. In general, the phylogenetic analysis of ITS2 data shows that the Coelastraceae are included in the monophyletic Scenedesmaceae, and thus the splitting into two families is not justified, but they belong to the monophyletic subfamily Coelastroidea. The genera Comasiella and Pectinodesmus are newly erected, and several new combinations are proposed.
Keywords: ITS2, new combinations, phylogeny, secondary structure, acutodesmus, coelastraceae, coelastrella, coelastrum, comasiella gen. nov., hariotina, pectinodesmus gen. nov., scenedesmaceae, scenedesmus, westella

 

Rennis DS & Ford TW (1992) A survey of antigenic differences between phycoerythrins of various red algal (Rhodophyta) species Phycologia. 31: 192-204.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-31-2-192.1
Abstract: Antigenic reactions of different phycoerythrins to monoclonal anti-R-phycoerythrin were compared using ELISA in order to elucidate possible immunological differences between species. The survey included 55 species of Rhodophyta in 24 fa milies and nine orders. Antigenic responses indicated intrageneric protein homogeneity in Porphyra, GracilarialGracilariopsis, Grateloupia and Polysiphonia. Heterogeneity was shown in Audouinella, Griffithsia and Laurencia. A wide range of reactions occurred within several orders, suggesting that phycoerythrin may not be as conserved as is presently believed. The antigenic response to anti-R-PE is of significance in suggesting polyphyly, in demonstrating divergence of the protein both intra- and inter-ordinally, and in distinguishing taxa at specific and possibly generic levels.
Keywords: phycoerythrin, PE, rhodophyta, ELISA, anti-R-phycoerythrin

 

Sekimoto S, Klochkova TA, West JA, Beakes GW & Honda D (2009) Olpidiopsis bostrychiae sp. nov.: an endoparasitic oomycete that infects Bostrychia and other red algae (Rhodophyta) Phycologia. 48: 460-472.
DOI: 10.2216/08-11.1
Abstract: A holocarpic, oomycete endoparasite of the marine red alga Bostrychia moritziana collected in Madagascar and identified as Olpidiopsis sp. did not conform to morphological descriptions of any species of Olpidiopsis and had a host range that differed from that of known Olpidiopsis pathogens of red algae. We further tested the host range of this parasite and studied it by transmission electron microscopy and molecular means. It differs from other Olpidiopsis species, and we have named it O. bostrychiae. Molecular phylogenies inferred from SSU rRNA gene and COII amino acid sequences showed that O. bostrychiae branched before the main saprolegnialean and peronosporalean lineages within the monophyletic oomycetes. In the SSU rRNA gene tree, O. bostrychiae formed a clade with O. porphyrae, which infects Bangia and Porphyra spp. The two Olpidiopsis species were genetically and ultrastructurally distinct, supporting our decision to name an additional Olpidiopsis species that is parasitic on red algae.
Keywords: bostrychia, cox2, host specificity, red algae, sporogenesis, SSU rRNA, stramenopiles, transmission electron microscopy

 

Albertano P, Pollio A & Taddei R (1991) Viridiella fridericiana (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta), a new genus and species isolated from extremely acid environments Phycologia. 30: 346-354.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-30-4-346.1
Abstract: The genus Viridiella gen. nov. with a single species Viridiella Jridericiana sp. nov. (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) is proposed. Cells are ellipsoidal to globose, and have a smooth cell wall and a single parietal chloroplast without pyrenoids. Reproduction occurs by the formation of 4-8 autospores. Viridiella can be distinguished from the closely related genus Chiorella by its cell wall ultrastructure and the absence of pyrenoids. The cellulosic cell wall is composed of a single layer with an irregular outer polysaccharide covering. Interthylakoidal starch grains are present. Viridiella Jridericiana is extremely tolerant of low pH, being capable of growth at pH 0.8-7.2.
Keywords: viridiella, acid environments, extremophile, acidophilic

 

Hill DRA & Rowan KS (1989) The biliproteins of the Cryptophyceae. Phycologia. 28: 455-463.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-28-4-455.1
Abstract: The absorption spectra of the biliprotein pigments from 26 cryptomonad strains (Cryptophyceae), representing probably 23 species, have been examined. Twenty of these strains were isolated from Australian waters. Sixteen species are shown to possess Cr-phycoerythrins that can be allotted to the three types of this pigment previously distinguished on the basis of absorption maxima. The remaining seven species possess Cr-phycocyanins, exhibiting four distinct absorption spectra. The system of classification of the Cr-phycocyanins, including a novel fourth type, is reviewed. A correlation between the distribution of the biliproteins and the genera of Cryptophyceae is discussed.
Keywords: biliprotein, cryptophyceae, cryptomonad, cr-phycoerythrins, cr-phycocyanins

 

Broady PA (1984) Taxonomic and ecological investigations of algae on steam-warmed soil on Mt Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica Phycologia. 23: 257-271.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-23-3-257.1
Abstract: Micro-algae and protonematal moss grow on steam-warmed, fumarolic ground at approximately 3500 m altitude on the active volcano Mt Erebus. Outside fumarolic areas there is no vegetation. Soil surface temperatures are up to 60°C and moisture is supplied by condensation of steam. The air temperature in summer is generally between - 20 and - 30°C. The algal flora comprises four species of Cyanobacteria and 1 1 species and two varieties of Chlorophyta. Three Cyanobacteria, Mastigoc/adus laminosus, Phormidiumfragile and an unidentified species of Lyngbya, grow well at temperatures above 30°C both in the laboratory and in the field. The last of these shows the strongest thermophilic response, having good growth at 50°C in culture and at up to 5 9°C in the field. The Chlorophyta are all unicellular members of the Chlorococcales with a dominant component of Chlo rella taxa. These are typical mesophiles. In culture good growth is obtained at 22°C and in the field they are rarely observed above 30°C. Zonation in the visual appearance of vegetation and in the species composition occurs along the strong temperature gradients where soil surface temperature decreases with increasing distance from the hot steam emissions. The unique structure of this community within Antarctica and its possible airborne origin are discussed.
Keywords: volcano, erebus, antarctica, algae, thermophilic, thermophile, extremophile

 

West JA, Zuccarello GC, Scott JL, West KA & Karsten U (2007) Rhodaphanes brevistipitata gen. et sp. nov., a new member of the Stylonematophyceae (Rhodophyta) Phycologia. 46: 440-449.
DOI: 10.2216/07-03.1
Abstract: Rhodaphanes brevistipitata gen. and sp. nov. was isolated into culture as an epiphyte on the red alga Spermothamnion cymosum from a collection made at Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia. It is morphologically and cytologically very similar to Stylonema species. It is short (, 1.2 mm), clavate, uniseriate to multiseriate, usually unbranched and with a short stipe. Each cell has one purple-grey multilobed plastid with a central pyrenoid and peripheral nucleus. Reproduction is by release of vegetative cells (archeospores) individually or when the whole thallus gelatinises. Free spores observed in time-lapse videomicroscopy are round (7?12 mm) and glide without substratum contact. Molecular analysis of a partial sequence of the nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and plastid encoded photosystem II reaction centre protein D1 (psbA) placed Rhodaphanes in the Stylonematales, but more closely related to the genera Bangiopsis and Purpureofilum than to Stylonema. Ultrastructural examination of archeospores revealed a rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) ? Golgi association typical of the Stylonematophyceae and plastids lacking a peripheral limiting thylakoid, a feature not seen in any other genus of the class. The low?molecular weight carbohydrates digeneaside, sorbitol and trehalose are present.
Keywords: digeneaside, psbA, rhodaphanes brevistipitata, rhodophyta, sorbitol, stylonematophyceae, spore motility, rRNA, TEM, trehalose

 

Montechiaro F & Giordano M (2006) Effect of prolonged dark incubation on pigments and photosynthesis of the cave-dwelling cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria) Phycologia. 45: 704-710.
DOI: 10.2216/06-15.1
Abstract: The effect of prolonged darkness on the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale was investigated under nonheterotrophic conditions. The purpose of this study was to better understand the processes that allow this organism to rapidly resume growth after prolonged exposure to darkness, as it is often the case in show caves, where periods of darkness are applied to reduce algal proliferation. Phormidium autumnale was subjected to 4 weeks in the dark; this treatment elicited a large decrease in the cells? photosynthetic capacity (Pmax), while the photosynthetic affinity for photons () was affected to a smaller degree. Chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents were approximately constant over the 4 weeks of dark incubation, whereas the amount of phycobilins (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) per cell decreased by 50% between the first and the last week of incubation. The relative abundance of the three phycobilins did not vary throughout the treatment, suggesting that the decrease in the number of phycobilisomes was not paralleled by changes in their relative composition. Upon re-exposure to light, cells promptly resumed photosynthesis and were able to cope with high irradiance up to 1600 mol photons m2 s1. The resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus of P. autumnale in the dark may be one of the features that determine the prevalence of this organism in the cave flora at the expenses of more dark-sensitive photolithotrophs (i.e. organisms whose photosynthetic apparatus is substantially reduced or disassembled in the dark).
Keywords: caves, cyanobacteria, dark, homeostasis, photosynthesis, pigments

 

Jeon SL & Hegewald E (2006) A revision of the species Desmodesmus perforatus and D. tropicus (Scenedesmaceae, Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) Phycologia. 45: 567-584.
DOI: 10.2216/05-63.1
Abstract: We have made a synopsis of the morphology, ultrastructure, taxonomy, distribution and genetics of two widely distributed but little known species because this is important for the general understanding of species delineation in green algae. The taxa Desmodesmus perforatus and D. tropicus have in common central gaps between coenobial cells, but otherwise according to the type descriptions and type illustrations, they are morphologically well defined and easy to distinguish. However, in screening the literature, the situation becomes confusing and a clear delineation seems to be impossible. To solve the question of whether the two species are in fact different, or extremes of a single morphologically variable taxon, we isolated strains from different localities worldwide as well as strains of the related taxon D. maximus. The strains were studied under both optical and electron microscopes (EM) and the ITS-2r DNA of available strains was compared. With the results of the studied strains, and a comparison with natural populations, we could delimit the taxa D. perforatus var. perforatus, D. perforatus var. iberae?nsis and D. tropicus and revise the literature data. Under the optical microscope, populations are clearly distinguishable, although single specimens may not be. According to ITS-2 rDNA all strains of D. perforatus (except Hegewald 1998?18) and D. tropicus differ by 10 bases and D. perforatus var. perforatus and D. perforatus var. iberae?nsis by 2 bases. Regarding the compensatory base changes (CBC), there are zero exchanges between D. perforatus and D. tropicus (except strain Hegewald 1998?18) but D. tropicus and D. perforatus var. iberae?nsis have one CBC. A stepwise exchange of bases was shown for CBCs. Other accepted taxa are D. perforatus f. bicaudatus (Compe`re) E. Hegewald, D. tropicus var. longiclathratus (Tell) S.L. Jeon & E. Hegewald and D. perforatus var. mirabilis (Massjuk) E. Hegewald. A sister group to D. perforatus and D. tropicus is D. maximus. This taxon is similar in EM cell wall structure to D. perforatus and D. tropicus, but has no holes between the cells.
Keywords: Compensatory base change (CBC), Cultures, Desmodesmus maximus, D. perforatus, D. perforatus var. iberae ?nsis (Tell) E. Hegewald & S.L. Jeon comb. nov., D. perforatus var. mirabilis (Massjuk) E. Hegewald comb. nov., D. perforatus f. bicaudatus, D. tropicus, D. tropicus var. longiclathratus (Tell) S.L. Jeon & E. Hegewald comb. nov., Distribution, ITS-2, Morphology, Phylogeny, Taxonomy

 

McManus HA & Lewis LA (2005) Molecular phylogenetics, morphological variation and colony-form evolution in the family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta) Phycologia. 44: 582-595.
DOI:
Abstract: A phylogenetic analysis of 26S and internal transcribed spacer?2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data from members of the freshwater green algal family Hydrodictyaceae, including multiple taxa from both culture collections and new isolates, sets the stage to explore morphological variation and patterns of colony-form evolution within the family. These analyses particularly focus on Pediastrum boryanum, P. tetras, P. duplex, Hydrodictyon and Sorastrum. The genera Hydrodictyon and Sorastrum are derived from within Pediastrum in the individual and combined analyses, indicating a pattern of colonyform evolution within the family from two-dimensionality to three-dimensionality. In some cases the gene topologies reveal discrepancies in the morphological characters used to delimit species, varieties and forms within Pediastrum. Some isolates, such as those of H. reticulatum, exhibited little or no genetic variation between different geographic localities. Additional data and taxa are needed to better resolve and support these relationships, but the present results illustrate that some taxonomic revisions will be necessary.
Keywords: molecular, phylogeny, phylogenetics, ITS2, rDNA, taxonomy, genetic variation

 

McManus HA & Lewis LA (2005) Molecular phylogenetics, morphological variation and colony-form evolution in the family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta) Phycologia. 44: 582-595.
DOI: 10.2216/0031-8884(2005)44[582:MPMVAC]2.0.CO;2
Abstract: A phylogenetic analysis of 26S and internal transcribed spacer?2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data from members of the freshwater green algal family Hydrodictyaceae, including multiple taxa from both culture collections and new isolates, sets the stage to explore morphological variation and patterns of colony-form evolution within the family. These analyses particularly focus on Pediastrum boryanum, P. tetras, P. duplex, Hydrodictyon and Sorastrum. The genera Hydrodictyon and Sorastrum are derived from within Pediastrum in the individual and combined analyses, indicating a pattern of colonyform evolution within the family from two-dimensionality to three-dimensionality. In some cases the gene topologies reveal discrepancies in the morphological characters used to delimit species, varieties and forms within Pediastrum. Some isolates, such as those of H. reticulatum, exhibited little or no genetic variation between different geographic localities. Additional data and taxa are needed to better resolve and support these relationships, but the present results illustrate that some taxonomic revisions will be necessary.
Keywords: molecular, phylogeny, phylogenetics, ITS2, rDNA, taxonomy, genetic variation

 

Henley WJ, Hironaka JL, Guillou L, Buchheim MA, Buchheim JA, Fawley MW & Fawley KP (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of the 'Nannochloris-like' algae and diagnoses of Picochlorum oklahomensis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Phycologia. 43: 641-652.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-43-6-641.1
Abstract: A broadly halotolerant new isolate of a small asexual coccoid chlorophyte and six new, related fr eshwater isolates provided the impetus for a phylogenetic analysis of the so-called 'Nannochioris-like' algae within the Tr ebouxiophyceae. Previous taxonomic disagreements concerning this group had not been rigorously tested with molecular phylogenetic analyses. We show with 18S ribosomal DNA (rONA) sequence phylogeny that 19 of 22 isolates previously assigned to either Na nnochioris or Nanochiorum fall within a diverse sister clade to a clade including the fo ur 'true' Chiorella species sensu lato. In addition, Marvania geminata, Gloeolila contorta, Chiorella sp. Yanaqocha RAl, Koiiella sp iculijormis, 'Chlorella minutissima' C- 1.1.9, and new Koliella, Gloeotiia and Marvania isolates were included in the Nannochloris-like clade. Distinct freshwater and marine or saline lineages comprise at least three major subclades, generally corresponding to cell division pattern. Seven of 14 marine or saline isolates are known (and the others presumed) to divide by autosporulation. Eight freshwater isolates divide by binary fission, including two Koliella, two Gloeoli/a, N. bacillaris, Chiorella sp. Yanaqocha RAI, and two new unassigned isolates. Four fr eshwater isolates divide by budding or autosporulation (three Marvania, including CCAP 25 1/ I b, previously assigned to N. coccoides). The autosporic taxa N. eucaryotum UTEX 2502 (marine) and C. minulissima C- 1.1.9 (freshwater), which have nearly identical 18S rONA sequences, are deeper-branching than the fr eshwater and marine or saline lineages. We propose including the 13 marine or saline, autosporic taxa (excluding N. eucaryotum UTEX 2502) in the new genus Picochiorum until distinctive morphological or biochemical characters are identified that would indicate multiple genera corresponding to subclades. Such characters exist in the freshwater lineages, supporting retention of Koliella, Gloeoliia, Marvania and Na nnochioris as distinct genera, although each is currently represented by fe w isolates. Nannochloris at this time may be restricted to N. bacillaris and Chlorella sp. Yanaqocha RA1. We also describe halotolerant P. oklahomensis Hironaka sp. nov. Based on 18S rONA sequence and lack of chlorophyll b, Nannochloris sp. UTEX 2379 should be reassigned to the Eustigmatophyceae.
Keywords: phylogeny, nannochloris, halotolerant, phylogenetic analysis, taxonomy

 

Saxby-Rouen KJ, Leadbeater BSC & Reynolds CS (1998) The relationship between the growth of Synura petersenii (Synurophyceae) and components of the dissolved inorganic carbon system Phycologia. 37: 467-477.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-37-6-467.1
Abstract: The relationship between the growth of the freshwater chrysophyte Synura petersenii Korshikov (Synurophyceae) and components of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) system was investigated by means of 'pH drift' studies. In glassstoppered vessels at light saturation, culture pH rose and DIC was depleted until exponential growth ceased. Restoration of culture pH to the initial range by addition of HCl and consequent redistribution of DIC species produced a slight restimulation of growth, but growth was stimulated much more after restoring initial pH by addition of DIC as free carbon dioxide (CO;). The maximum pH values reached (none above pH 7.6) and the concentrations of total DIC (DICT), HC03 -, and CO; at the beginning and end of each cycle of growth, pH drift, and C depletion indicated that growth was restricted by the species of DIC available and not by pH or DICT per se. Under the conditions of low alkalinity and low DICT tested, S. petersenii apparently used CO; and not HC03 - as a DIC source; it had a relatively high CO; compensation point of (21) 28-29 f.LM and a relatively low DIC-extractive capacity compared with other freshwater phytoplankton. Support for these conclusions also was provided by replacing the glass stoppers of the culture vessels at growth cessation with glass funnels packed with polystyrene pellets or soda lime. The polystyrene pellets allowed CO2 invasion from the atmosphere and growth was restimulated. In contrast, no growth occurred when the glass funnel was packed with soda lime. It is concluded that the apparent restriction of S. petersenii to waters of below pH 8.5-9.1, particularly in conditions of low alkalinity, is due not to pH per se, but to the DIC util ization characteristics of this species.
Keywords: synura, dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, growth

 

Sigee DC, Bahrami F, Estrada B, Webster RE & Dean AP (2007) The influence of phosphorus availability on carbon allocation and P quota in Scenedesmus subspicatus: A synchrotron-based FTIR analysis Phycologia. 46: 583-592.
DOI: 10.2216/07-14.1
Abstract: Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to characterise the molecular composition of the freshwater alga Scenedesmus subspicatus, cultured at three different initial concentrations of phosphorus (PO4-P): 0.05 mg l21, 0.5 mg l21 and 5 mg l21. These led, respectively, to limited algal growth due to phosphorus deficiency (low-P culture), maximum algal growth with no luxury consumption (intermediate-P) and maximum algal growth with luxury phosphorus consumption (high-P culture). In all cultures, FTIR spectra had nine major absorbance bands (wavenumber range 1760?900 cm21), including bands at 1736 cm21 (lipid), 1652 cm21 (amide I) and the region from 1180 to 950 cm21 (carbohydrate). Internal phosphorus concentrations (Qp), determined by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, differed markedly between low-P (typically , 0.1% dry wt), intermediate-P (. 0.1%) and high-P (. 0.3%) cultures. During logarithmic growth phase, a rapid change in carbon allocation was observed in the low-P cultures, with increases in both the lipid:protein (0.1?0.34) and carbohydrate:protein (0.4?1.0) ratio. Mean cell volume increased by 60%, and the mean chlorophyll a content remained consistently low (typically , 0.2 pg cell21). The change in carbon allocation was triggered primarily by low Qp values rather than low external (culture medium) concentrations. Intermediate-P and high-P cultures showed higher chlorophyll a content (. 0.2 pg cell21) and changes in carbon allocation only after entry into stationary phase. No increase in cell volume occurred, suggesting that a switch in carbon allocation during stationary phase (intermediate- and high-P cultures) rather than log phase (low-P culture) does not result in an increase in cell size. Entry into stationary growth phase occurred simultaneously in all three cultures and was not caused by internal (Qp) or external phosphorus depletion. Medium replacement in late stationary phase (day 35) cultures led to a rapid stimulation of growth, with a reversed carbon allocation (reduced lipid:protein and carbohydrate:protein ratios) and in low-P cultures a decrease in cell volume.
Keywords: carbon allocation, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR, phosphorus quota, scenedesmus, x-ray microanalysis, EDXRMA

 

Nakazawa A, Yamada T & Nozaki H (2004) Taxonomic study of Asterococcus (Chlorophyceae) based on comparative morphology and rbcL gene sequences Phycologia. 43: 711-721.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-43-6-711.1
Abstract: Asterococcus (Ch lorophyceae) is a genus of immotile colonial green algae characterized by having an asteroid chloroplast and swollen gelatinous layers around the cell or colony. This study examined the taxonomy of Asterococcus using comparative light and electron microscopy and DNA sequence data for eight strai ns originating from the Czech Republic, UK, France, Portugal and Japan. The strains were clearly delineated into three species based on differences in the structure of the gelatinous colonial matrix and pyrenoid, the presence or absence of a papilla-like protrusion at the anterior end of the cell, and a gene phylogeny based on the large Rubisco subunit (rbcL): A. superbus, A. korschikoffii and A. papillatus Nakazawa, sp. nov. Although Ettl & Gartner (1988) synonymized A. korschikoffii with A. superbus, we clearly demon strated that A. korschikoffii is a distinct species that is characterized by its dendroid colonial form constructed from the gelatinous layers. By contrast, A. superbus and A. papillatus have spheroidal colonies, and A. papillatus is clearly distinguished from A. superbus by the presence of the anterior papilla of the cell and the structure of the colonial envelope. The rbcL sequence data for all of the Asterococcus strains examined and for related green algae strongly suggest that this genus fo rms a monophyletic group composed of two sister clades, which are distinguished by the presence (A. korschikoffii and A. papillatus) or absence (A. superbus) of the anterior papillae.
Keywords: taxonomy, comparative morphology, rbcL, asterococcus

 

Schaller S, Latowski D, Jemiola-Rzeminska M, Quaas T, Wilhelm C, Strzalka K & Goss R (2012) The investigation of violaxanthin de-epoxidation in the primitive green alga Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) indicates mechanistic differences in xanthophyll conversion to higher plants Phycologia. 51: 359-370.
DOI: 10.2216/11-127.1
Abstract: The violaxanthin (Vx) de-epoxidation of the green alga Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) was investigated in thylakoid membranes and in enzyme assays with the isolated Vx de-epoxidase (VDE), where pure Vx or purified lightharvesting complexes of M. squamata (MLHC) or spinach (LHCII) were used. The detailed analysis of the VDE amino acid sequences of prasinophycean algae and higher plants suggests that structural differences of the M. squamata VDE are responsible for the slow conversion of Ax to Zx that is typical for this alga. The present experiments further demonstrate that the availability of the substrate Vx has a strong impact on the overall de-epoxidation reaction and the ratio of the second de-epoxidation rate (de-epoxidation from Ax to Zx) to the first de-epoxidation rate (conversion from Vx to Ax). High concentrations of available Vx, as found in enzyme assays with pure Vx, lead to saturation of the VDE and a strong competition with the intermediate reaction product Ax, thus decreasing the ratio of the second deepoxidation rate to the first de-epoxidation rate. In de-epoxidation assays with isolated LHCs, where the availability of Vx is limited by the detachment of Vx from the protein, an increased ratio of the second de-epoxidation rate to the first de-epoxidation rate is observed. The present study also shows that the interaction between the isolated LHC and the VDE can influence the ratio of the two de-epoxidation rates. Mantoniella squamata VDE, which exhibits a very low ratio of the second de-epoxidation rate to the first de-epoxidation rate in thylakoids or in enzyme assays with the MLHC, shows a high ratio when it is incubated with the LHCII of spinach.
Keywords: light-havesting complex, prasinophyceae, thylakoid membrane, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, xanthophyll cycle, zeaxanthin

 

West JA, Scott JL, West KA, Karsten U, Clayden SL & Saunders GW (2008) Rhodachlya madagascarensis gen. et sp. nov.: a distinct acrochaetioid represents a new order and family (Rhodachlyales ord. nov., Rhodachlyaceae fam. nov.) of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) Phycologia. 47: 203-212.
DOI: 10.2216/07-72.1
Abstract: A filamentous ?acrochaetioid? red algal epiphyte on Posidonia from Madagascar was isolated into culture. It reproduces solely by monosporangia and the spherical spores have gliding motility that differs from amoeboid spore motility seen with time-lapse video microscopy in most Acrochaetiales and Colaconematales. Electron microscopy reveals that a peripheral encircling thylakoid is absent in the chloroplast, Golgi bodies are associated with mitochondria, and pit plugs have platelike outer and inner caps and lack a cap membrane. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates are floridoside and trehalose. Molecular evidence (small subunit, large subunit and EF2 sequences) resolved this taxon as a completely novel lineage of the Nemaliophycidae, and it is here described as Rhodachlya madagascarensis J.A. West et al., gen. et sp. nov. In light of the unusual combination of ultrastructural features and the lack of affinity to any of the currently recognized families and orders in molecular analyses, this alga forms the basis of a new family, Rhodachlyaceae G.W. Saunders et al., fam. nov., and order, Rhodachlyales G.W. Saunders et al., ord. nov., of the subclass Nemaliophycidae.
Keywords: biodiversity, florideophyceae, madagascar, molecular systematics, nemaliophycidae, rhodachlya, rhodophyta, spore motility

 

Somogyi B, Felfoldi T, Solymosi K, Makk J, Homonnay ZG, Horvath G, Turcst E, Boddi B, Marialigett K & Voros L (2011) Chloroparva pannonica gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) - a new picoplanktonic green alga from a turbid, shallow soda pan Phycologia. 50: 1-10.
DOI: 10.2216/10-08.1
Abstract: We describe Chloroparva pannonica Somogyi, Felfo? ldi & Vo?ro? s gen. et sp. nov., a new trebouxiophycean picoplanktonic alga isolated from a turbid, shallow soda pan in Hungary. The cells are spherical to oval, less than 2 mm in diameter, with simple ultrastructure typical to small green algae. Cells divide by autosporulation, forming two daughter cells per autosporangium. Cell wall structure consists of an outer trilaminar layer, an inner microfibrillar layer and an electrontransparent layer covering the plasma membrane. The trilaminar layer of the mother cell wall often persists around the autospores. Typical chlorophyte pigments have been found, including chlorophyll a and b and lutein as the dominant carotenoid. The main fatty acid was oleic acid. The phylogenetic position of the new chlorophyte confirms the proposal of a new genus within the Trebouxiophyceae. Based on its 18S rRNA gene sequence, this isolate is distantly related to Nannochloris eucaryotum UTEX 2502, Chlorella minutissima C-1.1.9 and C. minutissima SAG 1.80 (# 97.6% 18S rRNA gene pairwise similarities).
Keywords: chloroparva pannonica, new chlorophyte species, 18S rRNA gene, picoplankton, turbid soda pan

 

Flint EA (1974) Parallela, a new genus of freshwater chlorophyta in New Zealand New Zealand Journal of Botany. 12: 357-363.
DOI: 10.1080/0028825X.1974.10428874
Abstract:
Keywords: parallela, palmellaceae, freshwater, microalga, new zealand

 

Flint EA (1974) Parallela, a new genus of freshwater chlorophyta in New Zealand New Zealand Journal of Botany. 12: 357-363.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: parallela, palmellaceae, freshwater, microalga, new zealand

 

Hoshina R & Imamura N (2009) Origins of algal symbionts of Paramecium bursaria In: Endosymbionts in Paramecium, Microbiology Monographs 12, Fujishima M (Ed), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. -: -.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-92677-1_1
Abstract:
Keywords: endosymbiont, endosymbiosis, algae, paramecium, chlorella

 

Brown S & De Jonckheere JF (1994) Identification and phylogenetic relationships of Vahlkampfia spp. (free-living amoebae) by riboprinting Fems Microbiology Letters. 115: 241-246.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: vahlkampfia spp., riboprinting, phylogeny

 

Boucard TK, Parry J, Jones K & Semple KT (2004) Effects of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid sheep dip formulations on protozoan survival and bacterial survival and growth Fems Microbiology Letters. 47: 11-127.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-6496(03)00253-8
Abstract:
Keywords: sheep dip formulation, protozoon, bacterium, toxicity, risk assessment

 

Rybalka N, Andersen RA, Kostikov I, Mohr KI, Massalski A, Olech M & Friedl T (2009) Testing for endemism, genotypic diversity and species concepts in Antarctic terrestrial microalgae of the Tribonemataceae (Stramenopiles, Xanthophyceae Environmental Microbiology. 11: 554-565.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01787.x
Abstract:
Keywords: genetic diversity, endemism, antarctic, taxonomy, microalgae

 

Dittami SM, Gravot A, Goulitquer S, Rousvoal S, Peters AF, Bouchereau A, Boyen C & Tonon T (2012) Towards deciphering dynamic changes and evolutionary mechanisms involved in the adaptation to low salinities in Ectocarpus (brown algae) The Plant Journal. 71: 366-377.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04982.x
Abstract:
Keywords: adaptation, brown algae, ectocarpus, abiotic stress, primary metabolism, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling

 

Saxby-Rouen KJ, Leadbeater BSC & Reynolds CS (1997) The growth response of Synura petersenii (Synurophyceae) to photon flux density, temperature, and pH Phycologia. 36: 233-243.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-36-3-233.1
Abstract: The relation ships between the grow th of the freshwater colon ial chrysophyte Synura petersenii Korshikov (Synurophyceae), under batch culture con dition s, an d photon flux density (PFD), temperature, and pH were determined. The growth-light( fLI) curve at optimum temperature (20°C) an d un der contin uous illumination was described by the follow in g: a compen sation poin t (Icl close to zero, a fLm" (maximum growth rate) of 0.98 In un its d-I, an a value (the in itial slope of the curve in the linear subsaturated region) of approximately 0. 15 m2 mol-I, an d the on set of grow th saturation (IOPT' when fL = fLm,,) in the region 1 14- 16 7 fLmol m-2 S-I. The chlorophyll a con tent of cells increased by a factor of 2.5 w ith decreasing PFD in the ran ge 2 77-6 fLmol m-2 s-'. Growth at saturating PFD w as maximal at temperatures of 20°-25°C, with a Q,o value of 2.6 in the ran ge 10°-20°C. Un der optimal temperature an d PFD conditions, the upper pH limit for grow th w as foun d to lie between pH 8.0 an d 8.4, w ith maximal grow th in the range pH 5.5-6.5. The role of each relationship in determin ing the distribution of the alga is discussed. Whereas no evidence was foun d to justify photon flux density or temperature as being of prime importance in determin ing the distribution of S. petersenii, the results do support the contention that pH is of greater importance.
Keywords: synura, pH, photon flux density, temperature, chrysophyte, growth

 

Hard BC & Gilmour DJ (1991) A mutant of Dunaliella parva CCAP 19/9 leaking large amounts of glycerol into the medium. Journal of Applied Phycology. 3: 367-372.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00026100
Abstract:
Keywords: dunaliella parva, mutant, glycerol leakage, halotolerant, commercial

 

Kudryavtsev A & Pawlowski J (2013) Squamamoeba japonica n. g. n. sp. (Amoebozoa): A deep sea amoeba from the Sea of Japan with a novel cell coat structure. Protist. 164: 13-23.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2012.07.003
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebae, cell coat, deep-sea protists, phylogeny, SSU rRNA, taxonomy, ultrastructure, squamamoeba, japonica

 

Krienitz L, Bock C, Kotut K & Proschold T (2012) Genotypic diversity of Dictyosphaerium-morphospecies (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae) in African inland waters, including the description of four new genera. Fottea. 12: 231-253.
DOI:
Abstract: Trebouxiophytes of the Dictyosphaerium-morphotype from inland waters of Africa were studied using a polyphasic approach of SSU and ITS rDNA phylogeny, secondary structure of the ITS and observations made with a light microscope. Although the morphological criteria for differentiating species and genera are scarce, the genetic diversity of these algae was very high. Based on our genetic analysis findings, we described four new genera containing five new species: Compactochlorella dohrmannii, Compactochlorella kochii, Kalenjinia gelatinosa, Marasphaerium gattermannii and Masaia oloidia. Diversity and distribution of Chlorella related colonial chlorophytes in the tropical and temperate zones were compared and discussed.
Keywords: inland waters of Africa, Chlorella, Compactochlorella nov. gen., Dictyosphaerium, diversity, geographic distribution, green algae, Kalenjinia nov. gen., marasphaerium nov. gen., Masaia nov. gen.

 

Rampen SW, Schouten S, Abbas B, Panoto FE, Muyzer G, Campbell CN, Fehling J & Sinninghe Damste JS (2007) On the origin of 24-norcholestanes and their use as age-diagnostic biomarkers Geology. 35: 419-422.
DOI: 10.1130/G23358A.1
Abstract:
Keywords: age-diagnostic biomarkers, sterols, marine, diatoms, dinoflagellates

 

Brown MR & Jeffrey SW (1992) Biochemical composition of microalgae from the green algal classes Chlorophyceae and Prasinophyceae. 1. Amino acids, sugars and pigments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 161: 91-113.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: amino acid, chlorophyte, mariculture, microalga, pigment, sugar

 

Volkman JK, Brown MR, Dunstan GA & Jeffrey SW (1993) The biochemical composition of marine microalgae from the class Eustigmatophyceae Journal of Phycology. 29: 69-78.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: amino acids, chemotaxonomy, eustigmatophyceae, mariculture, nannochloropsis, nutrition, pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars

 

Piasecki BP, Diller KR & Brand JJ (2009) Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A cause of low viability at high cell density Cryobiology. 58: 103-109.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2008.11.001
Abstract:
Keywords: cell density, algal cell wall, chlorophyceae, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cryopreservation, methanol, MeOH, micro-algae, volvocales

 

Morris GJ (1978) Cryopreservation of 250 strains of Chlorococcales by the method of two-step cooling European Journal of Phycology. 13: 15-24.
DOI: 10.1080/00071617800650031
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Armbrust EV & Galindo HM (2001) Rapid evolution of a sexual reproduction gene in centric diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67: 3501-3513.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67.8.3501-3513.2001
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Volkman JK, Jeffrey SW, Nichols PD, Rogers GI & Garland CD (1989) Fatty acid and lipid composition of 10 species of microalgae used in mariculture Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 128: 219-240.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: capillary gas chromatography, fatty acid, lipid, mariculture, microalga, nutrition

 

Tonon T, Harvey D, Qing R, Li Y, Larson TR & Graham IA (2004) Identification of a fatty acid 11-desaturase from the microalga Thalassiosira pseudonana FEBS Letters. 563: 28-34.
DOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00241-8
Abstract:
Keywords: yeast expression, 11-desaturase, thalassiosira pseudonana

 

Lee SJ, Yoon BD & Oh HM (1998) Rapid method for the determination of lipid from the green alga Botryococcus braunii Biotechnology Techniques. 12: 553-556.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Liu Z, Lee C & Wakeham SG (2006) Effects of mercuric chloride and protease inhibitors on degradation of particulate organic matter from the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Organic Geochemistry. 37: 1003-1018.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.05.013
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Yu ET, Zendejas FJ, Lane PD, Gaucher S, Simmons BA & Lane TW (2009) Triacylglycerol accumulation and profiling in the model diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Baccilariophyceae) during starvation Journal of Applied Phycology. 21: 669-681.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-008-9400-y
Abstract:
Keywords: biodiesel, mass spectrometry, nitrate, silicate, triacylglycerols

 

Hildebrand M, Frigeri LG & Davis AK (2007) Synchronized growth of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) provides novel insights into cell-wall synthesis processes in relation to the cell cycle Journal of Phycology. 43: 730-740.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00361.x
Abstract:
Keywords: cell cycle, cell-wall synthesis, diatom, girdle band, synchrony, valve

 

Carvalho RN, Burchardt AD, Sena F, Mariani G, Mueller A, Bopp SK, Umlauf G & Lettieri T (2011) Gene biomarkers in diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated marine surface sediments Aquatic Toxicology. 101: 244-253.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.10.004
Abstract:
Keywords: marine diatoms, PAHs, gene expression

 

van Etten JL, Lane LC & Meints RH (1991) Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae Microbiological Reviews. 55: 586-620.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Peperzak L & Brussaard CPD (2011) Flow cytometric applicability of fluorescent vitality probes on phytoplankton Journal of Phycology. 47: 692-702.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.00991.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Calcein-AM, CMFDA (CellTracker Green), DiBAC4(3), FDA, flow cytometry, H2DCFDA, live/dead assay, phytoplankton, SYTOX-GREEN, vitality

 

Hildebrand M, Kim S, Shi D, Scott K & Subramaniam S (2009) 3D imaging of diatoms with ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy Journal of Structural Biology. 166: 316-328.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsb.2009.02.014
Abstract:
Keywords: diatom, ion-abrasion SEM, biomineral structure formation, biosilicification, 3D tomography

 

Alverson AJ, Beszteri B, Julius ML & Theriot EC (2011) The model marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana likely descended from a freshwater ancestor in the genus Cyclotella BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 125.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Cyclotella nana, diatom, freshwater, marine, model species, Thalassiosira pseudonana

 

Ehara M, Inagaki Y, Watanabe KI & Ohama T (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of diatom coxI genes and implications of a fluctuating GC content on mitochondrial genetic code evolution Current Genetics. 37: 29-33.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Bacillariophyta, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, UGA codon, GC bias

 

Darienko T, Friedl T & Pröschold T (2009) Desmochloris mollenhaueri - a new terrestrial ulvophycean alga from south-west African soils. (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae I.) Algological Studies. 129: 25-40.
DOI: 10.1127/1864-1318/2009/0129-0025
Abstract:
Keywords: Desmochloris, molecular phylogeny, systematics, Ulvophyceae

 

Gomez PI & Gonzalez MA (2004) Genetic variation among seven strains of Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) with industrial potential, based on RAPD banding patterns and on nuclear ITS rDNA sequences Aquaculture. 233: 149-162.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.11.005
Abstract:
Keywords: Dunaliella salina strains, RAPD, Ribosomal ITS sequences, Genotypic characterization

 

Müller DG & Knippers R (2011) Phaeovirus Phycodnaviridae In: The Springer Index of Viruses. Tidona CA & Darai G (Eds). Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, N.Y.. -: -.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Maier I, Müller DG & Katsaros C (2002) Entry of the DNA virus, Ectocarpus fasciculatus virus type 1 (Phycodnaviridae), into host cell cytosol and nucleus. Phycological Research. 50: 227-231.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1835.2002.00277.x
Abstract:
Keywords: DNA virus, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, electron microscopy, entry, infection mechanism, Phaeophyceae, Phycodnaviridae

 

Müller DG & Knippers R (2011) Phaeovirus Phycodnaviridae. In: The Springer Index of Viruses. Tidona CA & Darai G (Eds). Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, N.Y.. -: -.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Maier I, Rometsch E, Wolf S, Kapp M, Müller DG & Kawai H (1997) Passage of a marine brown algal DNA virus from Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) to Myriotrichia clavaeformis (Dictyosiphonales, Phaeophyceae): Infection symptoms and recovery. Journal of Phycology. 33: 838-844.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.00838.x
Abstract:
Keywords: DAPI, DNA virus, Ectocarpus, electron microscopy, host specificity, infection experiments, intergeneric virus transfer, Myriotrichia, PCR, reconstitution

 

Müller DG & Eichenberger W (1997) Mendelian genetics in brown algae: Inheritance of a lipid defect mutation and sex alleles in Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpus, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia. 36: 79-81.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-36-1-79.1
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller DG, Sengco M, Wolf S, Brautigam M, Schmid CE, Kapp M & Knippers R (1996) Comparison of two DNA viruses infecting the marine brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus and E. fasciculatus. Journal of General Virology. 77: 2329-2333.
DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-77-9-2329
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Sengco MR, Brautigam M, Kapp M & Müller DG (1996) Detection of virus DNA in Ectocarpus siliculosus and E. fasciculatus (Phaeophyceae) from various geographic areas. European Journal of Phycology. 31: 73-78.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269600651221
Abstract:
Keywords: DNA virus, Ectocarpus, E. fasciculatus, E. siliculosus, epidemiology, geographic survey, pandemy, PCR

 

Parodi ER & Müller DG (1994) Field and culture studies on virus infections in Hincksia hincksiae and Ectocarpus fasciculatus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology. 29: 113-117.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269400650561
Abstract:
Keywords: Ectocarpales, Ectocarpus, Hincksia, Marine virus, Phaeophyceae

 

Delaroque N, Boland W, Müller DG & Knippers R (2003) Comparisons of two large phaeoviral genomes and evolutionary implications. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 57: 613-622.
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-003-2501-y
Abstract:
Keywords: viral evolution, phaeovirus, phycodnavirus, Ectocarpus siliculosus virus (EsV), Feldmannia irregularis virus (FirrV), viral genome, hybrid histidine kinases, phytochrome, viral replicative functions

 

Maier I & Müller DG (1998) Virus binding to brown algal spores and gametes visualized by DAPI fluorescence microscopy. Phycologia. 37: 60-63.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-37-1-60.1
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller DG & Frenzer K (1993) Virus infections in three marine brown algae: Feldmannia irregularis, F. simplex, and Ectocarpus siliculosus. Hydrobiologia. 260/261: 37-44.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00049001
Abstract:
Keywords: virus infection, marine, Phaeophyceae, Feldmannia, Ectocarpus

 

Robledo DR, Sosa PA, Garcia-Reina G & Müller DG (1994) Photosynthetic performance of healthy and virus-infected Feldmannia irregularis and F. simplex (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology. 29: 247-251.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269400650701
Abstract:
Keywords: Feldmannia, pathology, Phaeophyceae, photosynthesis, virus infection

 

Müller DG, Kawai H, Stache B & Lanka S (1990) A virus infection in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Acta. 103: 72-82.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller DG (1991) Mendelian segregation of a virus genome during host meiosis in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Journal of Plant Physiology. 137: 739-743.
DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(11)81232-0
Abstract:
Keywords: Ectocarpus, meiosis, Phaeophyceae, vertical and horizontal transmission, virioplankton, virus (DNA-), virus (-marine)

 

Müller DG (1991) Marine virioplankton produced by infected Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Marine Ecology - Progress Series. 76: 101-102.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lanka STJ, Klein M, Ramsperger U, Müller DG & Knippers R (1993) Genome structure of a virus infecting the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Virology. 193: 802-811.
DOI: 10.1006/viro.1993.1189
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller DG & Parodi E (1993) Transfer of a marine DNA virus from Ectocarpus to Feldmannia (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae): Aberrant symptoms and restitution of the host. Protoplasma. 175: 121-125.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01385009
Abstract:
Keywords: Ectocarpus, Feldmannia, Phaeophyceae, DNA-virus, marine, intergeneric gene transfer

 

Schmid CE, Schroer N & Müller DG (1994) Female gamete membrane glycoproteins potentially involved in gamete recognition in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Plant Science. 102: 61-67.
DOI: 10.1016/0168-9452(94)90021-3
Abstract:
Keywords: cell-cell recognition, Ectocarpus, fertilization, lectin WGA, N-Acetylglucosamine, sex-specific protein patterns

 

Kuhlenkamp R & Müller DG (1994) Isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from healthy and virus-infected gametophytes f Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina. 37: 525-530.
DOI: 10.1515/botm.1994.37.6.525
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Klein M, Lanka S, Müller D & Knippers R (1994) Single-stranded regions in the genome of the Ectocarpus siliculosus virus. Virology. 202: 1076-1078.
DOI: 10.1006/viro.1994.1443
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Klein M, Lanka STJ, Knippers R & Müller DG (1995) Coat protein of the Ectocarpus siliculosus virus. Virology. 206: 520-526.
DOI: 10.1016/S0042-6822(95)80068-9
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Brautigam M, Klein M, Knippers R & Müller DG (1995) Inheritance and meiotic elimination of a virus genome in the host Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 31: 823-827.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1995.00823.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Ectocarpus siliculosus, EsV, latency, marine DNA virus, meiosis, PCR, Phaeophyceae, specificity, virus detection

 

Müller DG & Schmid CE (1996) Intergeneric infection and persistence of Ectocarpus virus DNA in Kuckuckia (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Botanica Marina. 39: 401-405.
DOI: 10.1515/botm.1996.39.1-6.401
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

del Campo E, Ramazanov Z, Garcia-Reina G & Müller DG (1997) Photosynthetic responses and growth performance of virus-infected and noninfected Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia. 36: 186-189.
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-36-3-186.1
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Delaroque N, Maier I, Knippers R & Müller DG (1999) Persistent virus integration into the genome of its algal host, Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Journal of General Virology. 80: 1367-1370.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Müller DG, Westermeier R, Morales J, Garcia Reina G, del Campo E, Correa JA & Rometscha E (2000) Massive prevalence of viral DNA in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) from two habitats in the North Atlantic and South Pacific. Botanica Marina. 43: 157-159.
DOI: 10.1515/BOT.2000.016
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Delaroque N, Wolf S, Müller DG & Knippers R (2000) Characterization and immunolocalization of major structural proteins in the brown algal virus EsV-1. Virology. 269: 148-155.
DOI: 10.1006/viro.2000.0225
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Delaroque N, Wolf S, Müller DG & Knippers R (2000) The brown algal virus EsV-1 particle contains a putative hybrid histidine kinase. Virology. 273: 383-390.
DOI: 10.1006/viro.2000.0383
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Delaroque N, Müller DG, Bothe G, Pohl T, Knippers R & Boland W (2001) The complete DNA sequence of the Ectocarpus siliculosus virus EsV-1 genome. Virology. 287: 112-132.
DOI: 10.1006/viro.2001.1028
Abstract:
Keywords: Phycodnaviridae, Ectocarpus siliculosus, histidine kinase, phytochrome, integration, transposase, polysaccharide metabolism

 

Müller DG, Wolf S & Parodi ER (1996) A virus infection in Myriotrichia clavaeformis (Dictyosiphonales, Phaeophyceae) from Argentina. Protoplasma. 193: 58-62.
DOI: 10.1007/BF01276634
Abstract:
Keywords: Dictyosiphonales, infection, Myriotrichia clavaeformis, Phaeophyceae, virus

 

Wolf S, Müller DG & Maier I (2000) Assembly of a large icosahedral DNA virus, MclaV-1, in the marine alga Myriotrichia clavaeformis (Dictyosiphonales, Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology. 35: 163-171.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260010001735751
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, assembly, electron microscopy, Myriotrichia clavaeformis, marine dsDNA virus, Phaeophyceae, phycovirus

 

Maier I, Wolf S, Delaroque N, Müller DG & Kawai H (1998) A DNA virus infecting the marine brown alga Pilayella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in culture. European Journal of Phycology. 33: 213-220.
DOI: 10.1080/09670269810001736713
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, Ectocarpales, marine double-stranded DNA virus, Phaeophyceae, phycovirus, Pilayella littoralis, PlitV-1

 

Hirt RP, Dyal PL, Wilkinson M, Finlay BJ, Roberts DM & Embley TM (1995) Phylogenetic relationships among karyorelictids and heterotrichs inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: Resolution at the base of the ciliate tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 4: 77-87.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Arregui L, Linares M, Perez-Uz B, Guinea A & Serrano S (2008) Involvement of crawling and attached ciliates in the aggregation of particles in wastewater treatment plants. Air, Soil and Water Research. 1: 13-19.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: ciliates, wastewater treatment, bioaggregation, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)

 

Della Greca M, Pinto G, Pistillo P, Pollio A, Previtera L & Temussi F (2008) Biotransformation of ethinylestradiol by microalgae. Chemosphere. 70: 2047-2053.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.09.011
Abstract:
Keywords: Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Ankistrodesmus braunii, glucosylation, hydroxylation

 

Andreozzi R, Marotta R, Pinto G & Pollio A (2002) Carbamazepine in water: Persistence in the environment, ozonation treatment and preliminary assessment on algal toxicity. Water Research. 36: 2869-2877.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: CBZ, photodegradation, ozonation, drugs, surface water, algal bioassay

 

Neustupa J, Elias M, Skaloud P, Nemcova Y & Sejnohova L (2011) Xylochloris irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga. Phycologia. 50: 57-66.
DOI: 10.2216/08-64.1
Abstract:
Keywords: Chlorophyta, subaerial algae, taxonomy, Trebouxiophyceae, Xylochloris

 

Blanc G, Agarkova I, Grimwood J, Kuo A, Brueggerman A, Dunigan D, Gurnon J, Ladunga I, Lindquist E, Lucas S, Pangilinan J, Proschold T, Salamov A, Schmutz J, Weeks D, Yamada T, Lomsadze A, Borodovsky M, Claverie J, Grigoriev IV & Van Etten JL (2012) The genome of the polar eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea reveals traits of cold adaptation. Genome Biology. 13: R39.
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-5-r39
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Rodriguez F, Feist SW, Guillou L, Harkestad LS, Bateman K, Renault T & Mortensen S (2008) Phylogenetic and morphological characterisation of the green algae infesting blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the North and South Atlantic oceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 81: 231-240.
DOI: 10.3354/dao01956
Abstract:
Keywords: blue mussels, Coccomyxa parasitica, Mytilus edulis, Mytilus edulis chilensis, parasitic alga, phylogeny

 

Rivasseau C, Farhi E, Atteia A, Coute A, Gromova M, de Gouvion Saint Cyr D, Boisson A, Feret A & Bligny R (2012) An extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear industry. Energy & Environmental Science. 6: 1230-1239.
DOI: 10.1039/C2EE23129H
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Voytsekhovich AA & Kashevarov GP (2010) Pigment content of photosynthetic apparatus of green algae - the photobionts of lichens. Algologia. 20: 236-261.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: algae photobionts, pigments, carotenoids, ecological peculiarities

 

Fucikova K & Lewis LA (2012) Intersection of Chlorella, Muriella and Bracteacoccus: Resurrecting the genus Chromochloris Kol et Chodat (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Fottea. 12: 83-93.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S, Bracteacoccus cinnabarinus, cryptic taxa, ITS, rbcL, tufA

 

Lyon BR, Lee PA, Bennett JM, DiTullio GR & Janech MG (2011) Proteomic analysis of a sea-ice diatom: Salinity acclimation provides new insight into the dimethylsulfoniopropionate production pathway. Plant Physiology. 157: 1926-1941.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.111.185025
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Lommer M, Specht M, Roy A, Kraemer L, Andreson R, Gutowska MA, Wolf J, Bergner SV, Schilhabel MB, Klostermeier UC, Beiko RG, Rosenstiel P, Hippler M & LaRoche J (2012) Genome and low-iron response of an oceanic diatom adapted to chronic iron limitation. Genome Biology. 13: R66.
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-7-r66
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Helliwell KE, Wheeler GL, Leptos KC, Goldstein RE & Smith AG (2011) Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28: 2921-2933.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msr124
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, cobalamin, pseudogene, methionine synthase, vitamin B12, vitamin auxotrophy, RT-PCR

 

Bayer-Giraldi M, Uhlig C, John U, Mock T & Valentin K (2010) Antifreeze proteins in polar sea ice diatoms: diversity and gene expression in the genus Fragilariopsis. Environmental Microbiology. 12: 1041-1052.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02149.x
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kropuenske LR, Mills MM, van Dijken GL, Bailey S, Robinson DH, Welschmeyer NA, Arrigo KR (2009) Photophysiology in two major Southern Ocean phytoplankton taxa: Photoprotection in Phaeocystis antarctica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus. Limnology and Oceanography. 54: 1176-1196.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Arrigo KR, Mills MM, Kropuenske LR, van Dijken GL, Alderkamp A & Robinson DH (2010) Photophysiology in two major Southern Ocean phytoplankton taxa: Photosynthesis and growth of Phaeocystis antarctica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus under different irradiance levels. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 50: 950-966.
DOI: 10.1093/icb/icq021
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Alderkamp A, Kulk G, Buma AGJ, Visser RJW, van Dijken GL, Mills MM & Arrigo KR (2012) The effect of iron limitation on the photophysiology of Phaeocystis antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) and Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Bacillariophyceae) under dynamic irradiance. Journal of Phycology. 48: 45-59.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01098.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Antarctic, diatom, iron, nonphotochemical quenching, Phaeocystis, photoinhibition, photoprotection, photosynthesis, Ross Sea, xanthophyll

 

Hubbard KA, Rocap G & Armbrust EV (2008) Inter- and intraspecific community structure within the diatom genus Pseudo-Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 44: 637-649.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00518.x
Abstract:
Keywords: ARISA, bacillariophyceae, diatoms, diversity, environmental clone libraries, genotypes, ITS, Pseudo-Nitzschia, Puget Sound, Vancouver Island

 

Abomohra AE, Wagner M, El-Sheekh M & Hanelt D (2012) Lipid and total fatty acid productivity in photoautotrophic fresh water microalgae: Screening studies towards biodiesel production. Journal of Applied Phycology. 25: 931-936.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-012-9917-y
Abstract:
Keywords: freshwater microalgae, biomass productivity, lipid productivity, fatty acid productivity, biodiesel

 

Adesanya VO, Vadillo DC & Mackley MR (2012) The rheological characterization of algae suspensions for the production of biofuels. Journal of Rheology. 56: 925.
DOI: 10.1122/1.4717494
Abstract:
Keywords: biofuel, cell motility, elasticity, rheology, suspensions, viscoelasticity, rheological properties, Scenedesmus obliquus, Piezoaxial vibrator, cell concentration, cell motility, biofuels

 

Han D, Wang J, Sommerfeld M & Hu Q (2012) Susceptibility and protective mechanisms of motile and non motile cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) to photooxidative stress. Journal of Phycology. 48: 693-705.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01147.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis, motile cell, nonmotile cell, photooxidative stress

 

Noroozi M, Omar H, Napis S, Hejazi MA & Tan SG (2012) Comparative biodiversity and effect of different media on growth and astaxanthin content of nine geographical strains of Haematococcus pluvialis. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11: 15049-15059.
DOI: 10.5897/AJB12.773
Abstract:
Keywords: Haematococcus, growth medium, strain, astaxanthin, biomass, geographical, molecular marker

 

Weissbach A & Legrand C (2012) Effect of different salinities on growth and intra- and extracellular toxicity of four strains of the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 67: 139-149.
DOI: 10.3354/ame01589
Abstract:
Keywords: allelopathy, extracellular toxicity, harmful algal species, intracellular toxicity, Prymnesium parvum, salinity, strain

 

Thamatrakoln K & Hildebrand M (2008) Silicon uptake in diatoms revisited: A model for saturable and nonsaturable uptake kinetics and the role of silicon transporters. Plant Physiology. 146: 1397-1407.
DOI: 10.1104/pp.107.107094
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hazelaar S, van der Strate HJ, Gieskes WWC & Vrieling EG (2003) Possible role of ubiquitin in silica biomineralization in diatoms: Identification of a homologue with high silica affinity. Biomolecular Engineering. 20: 163-169.
DOI: 10.1016/S1389-0344(03)00044-3
Abstract:
Keywords: diatoms, biomimetics, proteins, silica biomineralization, silica

 

Tesson B & Hildebrand M (2010) Extensive and intimate association of the cytoskeleton with forming silica in diatoms: Control over patterning on the meso- and micro-scale. PLoS ONE. 5: e14300.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014300
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ponsgen-Schmidt E, Schneider T, Hammer U & Betz A (1988) Comparison of phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase from autotrophically and heterotrophically grown Euglena and its role during dark anaerobiosis. Plant Physiology. 86: 457-462.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Brosnan S, Shin W, Kjer KM & Triemer RE (2003) Phylogeny of the photosynthetic euglenophytes inferred from the nuclear SSU and partial LSU rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53: 1175-1186.
DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02518-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Ciniglia C, Yoon HS, Pollio A, Pinto G & Bhattacharya D (2004) Hidden biodiversity of the extremophilic Cyanidiales red algae. Molcular Ecology. 13: 1827-1838.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02180.x
Abstract:
Keywords: biodiversity, Cyanidiales, Extremophile, phylogeny, plastid genes, red algae

 

Scott J, Yang EC, West JA, Yokoyama A, Kim HJ, Loiseaux de Goer S, O'Kelly CJ, Orlova E, Kim SY, Park JK & Yoon HS (2011) On the genus Rhodella, the emended orders Dixoniellales and Rhodellales with a new order Glaucosphaerales (Rhodellophyceae, Rhodophyta). Algae. 26: 1-12.
DOI: 10.4490/algae.2011.26.4.1
Abstract:
Keywords: Dixoniellales, Glaucosphaerales ord. nov., molecular phylogeny, Rhodellales, Rhodella violacea, ultrastructure, unicellular red algae

 

Fortin N, Aranda-Rodriguez R, Jing H, Pick F, Bird D & Greer CW (2010) Detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in Missisquoi Bay, Quebec, Canada, using quantitative PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76: 5105-5112.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00183-10
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Mayer AMS, Clifford JA, Aldulescu M, Frenkel JA, Holland MA, Hall ML, Glaser KB & Berry J (2011) Cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide elicits release of superoxide anion, thromboxane B2, cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 by rat microglia. Toxicological Sciences. 121: 63-72.
DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr045
Abstract:
Keywords: microglia, cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa, lipopolysaccharide, superoxide, thromboxane, cytokine, metalloproteinase

 

Renaud SLB, Pick FR & Fortin N (2011) Effect of light intensity on the relative dominance of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77: 7016-7022.
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.05246-11
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Martin-Nieto J, Flores E & Herrero A (1992) Biphasic kinetic behaviour of nitrate reductase from heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Plant Physiology. 100: 157-163.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gardea-Torresdey JL, Arenas JL, Francisco NMC, Tiemann KJ & Webb R (1998) Ability of immobilized cyanobacteria to remove metal ions from solution and demonstration of the presence of metallothionein genes in various strains. Journal of Hazardous Substance Research. 1: 1-18.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Synechococcus, cyanobacteria, heavy metal binding, bioremediation, metal recovery

 

Lyra C, Suomalainen S, Gugger M, Vezie C, Sundman P, Paulin L & Sivonen K (2001) Molecular characterization of planktic cyanobacteria of Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51: 513-526.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: cyanobacteria, 16S rRNA gene, RFLP, sequencing, REP, ERIC

 

Walker HL & Higginbotham LR (2000) An aquatic bacterium that lyses cyanobacteria associated with off-flavor of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Biological Control. 18: 71-78.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Oscillatoria cf. chalybea, Anabaena, biological control, microbial algicide, aquaculture

 

Becker S, Hayes PK & Walsby AE (2005) Different gvpC length variants are transcribed within single filaments of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens. Microbiology. 151: 59-67.
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.27402-0
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Beard SJ, Davis PA, Iglesias-Rodriguez D, Skulberg OM & Walsby AE (2000) Gas vesicle genes in Planktothrix spp. from Nordic lakes: Strains with weak gas vesicles possess a longer variant of gvpC. Microbiology. 146: 2009-2018.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: cyanobacterial genetics, gas vesicles, Planktothrix

 

Walton DK, Gendel SM & Atherly AG (1993) DNA sequence and shuttle vector construction of plasmid pGL3 from Plectonema boryanum PCC 6306. Nucleic Acids Research. 21: 746.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Fulneckova J, Hasikova T, Fajkus J, Lukesova A, Elias M & Sykorova E (2012) Dynamic evolution of telomeric sequences in the green algal order Chlamydomonadales. Genome Biology and Evolution. 4: 248-264.
DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evs007
Abstract:
Keywords: TRAP, dot-blot hybridization, terminal restriction fragments (TRFs), 18S rDNA phylogeny, telomere evolution, green algae

 

Fawley MW & Fawley KP (2004) A simple and rapid technique for the isolation of DNA from microalgae. Journal of Phycology. 40: 223-225.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.03081.x
Abstract:
Keywords: DNA isolation, microalgae

 

Narwani A & Mazumder A (2010) Community composition and consumer identity determine the effect of resource species diversity on rates of consumption. Ecology. 91: 3441-3447.
DOI: 10.1890/10-0850.1
Abstract:
Keywords: community composition, complementarity, consumer-resource interaction, consumption rate, dilution, hindrance, palatability, phytoplankton, preference, species diversity, zooplankton

 

von Bergen M, Eidner A, Schmidt F, Murugaiyan J, Wirth H, Binder H, Maier T & Roesler U (2009) Identification of harmless and pathogenic algae of the genus Prototheca by MALDI-MS. Proteomics Clinical Applications. 3: 774-784.
DOI: 10.1002/prca.200780138
Abstract:
Keywords: MALDI-typing, Prototheca

 

Wilson KE & Huner NPA (2000) The role of growth rate, redox-state of the plastoquinone pool and the trans-thylakoid pH in photoacclimation of Chlorella vulgaris to growth irradiance and temperature. Planta. 212: 93-102.
DOI: 10.1007/s004250000368
Abstract:
Keywords: Chlorella, light-harvesting protein, photoacclimation, temperature, xanthophyll cycle pigment

 

Turmel M, Cote V, Otis C, Mercier J, Gray MW, Lonergan KM & Lemieux C (1995) Evolutionary transfer of ORF-containing group I introns between different subcellular compartments (chloroplast and mitochondrion). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12: 533-545.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hodaifa G, Sanchez S, Martinez ME & Orpez R (2013) Biomass production of Scenedesmus obliquus from mixtures of urban and olive-oil mill wastewaters used as culture medium. Applied Energy. 104: 345-352.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.005
Abstract:
Keywords: Scenedesmus obliquus, kinetic growth, urban wastewater, olive-oil mill wastewater, biodiesel

 

Mann S, Cohen M, Chapuis-Hugon F, Pichon V, Mazmouz R, Mejean A & Ploux O (2012) Synthesis, configuration asignment, and simultaneous quantification by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, of dihydroanatoxin-a and dihydrohomoanatoxin-a together with the parent toxins, in axenic cyanobacterial strains and in environmental samples. Toxicon. 60: 1404-1414.
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.10.006
Abstract:
Keywords: dihydroanatoxin-a, dihydrohomoanatoxin-a, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, cyanobacteria

 

Zambounis A, Strittmatter M & Gachon CMM (2013) Chronic stress and disease resistance in the genome model marine seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus. Aquatic Botany. 104: 147-152.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.07.008
Abstract: In order to test the capacity of the genome model seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus to acquire disease resistance, plantlets were repeatedly treated with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linolenic and arachidonic acid in conditions known to increase the resistance of the kelp Laminaria digitata against the endophytic parasite Laminariocolax tomentosoides. Hydrogen peroxide, a well documented inducer of antioxidative defenses, was also applied as a positive control. Real-time PCR transcriptional profiling revealed an induction of a vanadium-bromoperoxidase, a heat-shock protein, a glutaredoxin and a glutathione S transferase, suggesting a transcriptional remodelling during chronic stress. We further assessed the resistance of E. siliculosus against the oomycete pathogen Eurychasma dicksonii following repeated exposure to arachidonic and linolenic acids. In contrast to observations made on L. digitata, we did not evidence any significant change in resistance compared to mock-treated control E. siliculosus. Altogether, our observations imply that E. siliculosus does react transcriptionally to chronic PUFA exposure. However, these inducible defenses may not be as potent as the ones of L. digitata, or they might be efficiently bypassed by Eu. dicksonii.
Keywords: brown alga, chronic stress, Ectocarpus siliculosus, polyunsaturated fatty acid, Eurychasma dicksonii, immunity, induced resistance

 

Slocombe SP, Ross M, Thomas N, McNeill S & Stanley M (2013) A rapid and general method for measurement of protein in micro-algal biomass. Bioresource Technology. 129: 51-57.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.163
Abstract:
Keywords: intelligent screening, protein extraction, value-added products, algal biomass, aquaculture

 

Semple KT & Cain RB (1997) Degradation of phenol and its methylated homologues by Ochromonas danica. Fems Microbiology Letters. 152: 133-139.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Ochromonas danica, biodegradation, phenol, p-cresol, xylenol, phenolic mixture

 

Holubar P, Grudke T, Moser A, Strenn B & Braun R (2000) Effects of bacterivorous ciliated protozoans on degradation efficiency of a petrochemical activated sludge process. Water Research. 34: 2051-2060.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: protozoa, ciliates, activated sludge, petrochemical sewage, suspended growth system, crude oil

 

Carr OJ & Goulder R (1990) Fish-farm effluents in rivers II. Effects on inorganic nutrients, algae and the macrophyte Ranunculus penicillatus. Water Research. 24: 639-647.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: aquatic macrophytes, fish-farm effluent, inorganic nutrients, nitrogen, periphytic algae, phosphorus, phytoplankton, Ranunculus penicillatus, water pollution

 

Watson GJ, Bentley MG, Gaudron SM & Hardege JD (2003) The role of chemical signals in the spawning induction of polychaete worms and other marine invertebrates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 294: 169-187.
DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00264-8
Abstract:
Keywords: Arenicola marina, heterospecificity, marine invertebrate, Nereis succinea, Nereis virens, pheromones, Platynereis dumerillii

 

Clarkson N, Leftley JW, Meldrum DT & Watson JW (1998) An assessment of the cage-culture turbidostat as an alternative algal bioassay. Water Research. 32: 1162-1168.
DOI: 10.1016-S0043-1354(97)00302-3
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

De Jonckheere JF (2004) Molecular definition and the ubiquity of species in the genus Naegleria. Protist. 155: 89-103.
DOI: 10.1078-1434461000167
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Garstecki T, Brown S & De Jonckheere JF (2005) Description of Vahlkampfia signyensis n. sp. (Heterolobosea), based on morphological, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics. European Journal of Protistology. 41: 119-127.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2005.01.003
Abstract:
Keywords: Antarctica, Vahlkampfiidae, phylogeny, temperature, 5.8S rDNA, Vahlkampfia signyensis

 

Roleda MY, Slocombe SP, Leakey RJG, Day JG, Bell EM & Stanley MS (2013) Effects of temperature and nutrient regimes on biomass and lipid production by six oleaginous microalgae in batch culture employing a two-phase cultivation strategy. Bioresource Technology. 129: 439-449.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.043
Abstract: Commercial success of algal-based biofuels depends on growth characteristics and lipid metabolism of the production species. The oleaginous microalgae, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Odontella aurita, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana, Chromulina ochromonoides, and Dunaliella tertiolecta, were cultivated under a matrix of two temperatures (10 and 20 deg C) and two nutrient regimes (deplete and replete). For all species, a strong negative correlation between growth rate and lipid content was observed. Multiple stressors have no additive effect on lipid accumulation. Total oil content (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs, pg cell-1) was increased more by nutrient limitation than by temperature stress. In response to nutrient stress, N. oculata emerged as the most robust species with an increase in lipid accumulation of up to three to four-fold compared to the accumulation under nutrient sufficient conditions. Although stress conditions led to reduced fatty acid unsaturation in most taxa due to increased triacylglycerol (TAG) production, a high proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was maintained in O. aurita.
Keywords: biofuel, fatty acid, growth, microalgae, stress physiology

 

Nowack ECM, Podola B & Melkonian M (2005) The 96-well twin-layer system: A novel approach in the cultivation of microalgae. Protist. 156: 239-251.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2005.04.003
Abstract:
Keywords: cultivation, culture collections, cell immobilisation, microalgae, microtiter plates, filter plates

 

Kudryavtsev A, Bernhard D, Schlegel M, Chao EEY & Cavalier-Smith T (2005) 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist. 156: 215-224.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2005.03.003
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebozoa, Cochliopodium, Hartmannella, Vannella, molecular phylogeny, rRNA sequences

 

Flynn KJ, Davidson K & Cunningham A (1996) Prey selection and rejection by a microflagellate; implications for the study and operation of microbial food webs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 196: 357-372.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: microbial loop, microflagellate, prey selection, prey rejection

 

Smirnov AV, Nassonova E, Holzmann M & Pawlowski J (2002) Morphological, ecological and molecular studies of Vannella simplex Wohlfarth-Bottermann 1960 (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia), with a new diagnosis of this species. Protist. 153: 367-377.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gonzalez-Araya R, Lebrun L, Quere C & Robert R (2012) The selection of an ideal diet for Ostrea edulis (L.) broodstock conditioning (part B). Aquaculture. 362-363: 55-66.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.06.029
Abstract:
Keywords: Ostrea edulis, conditioning, algal diets, ingestion, absorption, biochemical composition

 

Pond DW, Priddle J, Sargent JR & Watkins JL (1995) Laboratory studies of assimilation and egestion of algal lipid by Antarctic krill - methods and initial results. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 187: 253-268.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, euphausid, incorporation, lipid, radiolabelling, time course

 

Kelly MS, Hunter AJ, Scholfield CL & McKenzie JD (2000) Morphology and survivorship of larval Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in response to varying food quantity and quality. Aquaculture. 183: 223-240.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Psammechinus miliaris, microalgae, survivorship, morphology, larvae, echinoid, culture

 

Durrer M, Zimmermann U & Juttner F (1999) Dissolved and particle-bound geosmin in a mesotrophic lake (Lake Zurich): Spatial and seasonal distribution and the effect of grazers. Water Research. 33: 3628-3636.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: geosmin, dissolved geosmin, particle-bound geosmin, cyanobacteria, deep mesotrophic lake, clear-water period, grazing

 

Bjorn GS, Ekelund N & Bjorn LO (1984) Light-induced linear dichroism in photoreversibly photochromic sensor pigments. - IV. Lack of chromophore rotation in phytochrome b immobilized in vitro. Physiologia Plantarum. 60: 253-256.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1984.tb04573.x
Abstract:
Keywords: blue-green alga, cyanobacterium, pigment orientation, polarized light, Tolypothrix distorta, transition moment

 

Tsirigoti A, Kupper FC, Gachon CMM & Katsaros C (2014) Cytoskeleton organization during the infection of three brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ectocarpus crouaniorum and Pylaiella littoralis by the intracellular, marine oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii. Plant Biology. 1: 272-281.
DOI: 10.1111/plb.12041
Abstract: Oomycete diseases in seaweeds are probably widespread and of significant ecological and economic impact, but overall still poorly understood. This study investigates the organisation of the cytoskeleton during infection of three brown algal species, Pylaiella littoralis, Ectocarpus siliculosus, and Ectocarpus crouaniorum, by the basal marine oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii. Immunofluorescence staining of tubulin revealed how the development of this intracellular biotrophic pathogen impacts on microtubule (MT) organisation of its algal host. The host MT cytoskeleton remains normal and organised by the centrosome until very late stages of the infection. Additionally, the organisation of the parasite?s cytoskeleton was examined. During mitosis of the E. dicksonii nucleus the MT focal point (microtubule organisation centre, MTOC, putative centrosome) duplicates and each daughter MTOC migrates to opposite poles of the nucleus. This similarity in MT organisation between the host and pathogen reflects the relatively close phylogenetic relationship between oomycetes and brown algae. Moreover, actin labelling with rhodamine-phalloidin in E. dicksonii revealed typical images of actin dots connected by fine actin filament bundles in the cortical cytoplasm. The functional and phylogenetic implications of our observations are discussed.
Keywords: actin, brown algae, cytoskeleton, host, infection, microtubule, oomycete

 

Rico-Villa B, Le Coz JR, Mingant C & Robert R (2006) Influence of phytoplankton diet mixtures on microalgae consumption, larval development and settlement of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) Aquaculture. 256: 377-388.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.02.015
Abstract:
Keywords: Crassostrea gigas, larvae, growth, metamorphosis, grazing, lipids

 

Sei S, Invidia M & Gorbi G (2006) Near anoxia and sulfide as possible factors influencing the spatial distribution of Acartia tonsa and Acartia clausi: Comparative evaluation of egg tolerance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 337: 121-130.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.05.015
Abstract:
Keywords: Acartia, feeding, hatching success, near anoxia, sulfide

 

Finlay BJ, Esteban GF, Brown S, Fenchel T & Hoef-Emden K (2006) Multiple cosmopolitan ecotypes within a microbial eukaryote morphospecies. Protist. 157: 377-390.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2006.05.012
Abstract:
Keywords: ciliate, cosmopolitan, ecotype, morphospecies

 

Martel CM (2006) Prey location, recognition and ingestion by the phagotrophic marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 335: 210-220.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.03.006
Abstract:
Keywords: chemotaxis, ingestion, Oxyrrhis, prey location, prey recognition

 

Davidson K, Roberts EC, Wilson AM & Mitchell E (2005) The role of prey nutritional status in governing protozoan nitrogen regeneration efficiency. Protist. 156: 45-62.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2004.10.001
Abstract:
Keywords: nutrient regeneration, protozoa, mathematical modelling, MSX, Oxyrrhis marina, stoichiometry

 

Smirnov AV (2001) Vannella ebro n. sp. (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia), isolated from cyanobacterial mats in Spain. European Journal of Protistology. 37: 147-153.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: amoeba, gymnamoebia, Vannella, systematics, microbial mats

 

Martel CM & Flynn KJ (2008) Morphological controls on cannibalism in a planktonic marine phagotroph. Protist. 159: 41-51.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2007.05.003
Abstract:
Keywords: Oxyrrhis marina, cannibalism, phagocytosis, self-recognition, starvation

 

Leonardos N & Lucas IAN (2000) The use of larval fatty acids as an index of growth in Mytilus edulis L. larvae. Aquaculture. 184: 155-166.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: fatty acids, growth, larvae, Mytilus edulis, Skeletonema costatum, Rhinomonas reticulata

 

Gonzalez Araya R, Mingant C, Petton B & Robert R (2012) Influence of diet assemblage on Ostrea edulis broodstock conditioning and subsequent larval development. Aquaculture. 364-365: 272-280.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.08.036
Abstract:
Keywords: Ostrea edulis, feeding, broodstock conditioning, larval development, flow-through

 

Leander BS, Triemer RE & Farmer MA (2001) Character evolution in heterotrophic euglenids. European Journal of Protistology. 37: 337-356.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: cladistics, euglenozoa, evolution, morphology, phylogeny

 

Leonardos N & Lucas IAN (2000) The nutritional value of algae grown under different culture conditions for Mytilus edulis L. larvae. Aquaculture. 182: 301-315.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Chaetoceros muelleri, fatty acids, light, larvae, Mytilus edulis, nutrients, Pavlova lutheri, Rhinomonas reticulata, Skeletonema costatum

 

Molloy CJ & Syrett PJ (1988) Effect of light and N deprivation on inhibition of nitrate uptake by urea in microalgae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 118: 97-101.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Algal N, nitrate uptake, nitrate-urea interaction, urea uptake

 

De Jonckheere JF & Brown S (2005) The identification of Vahlkampfiid amoebae by ITS sequencing. Protist. 156: 89-96.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2004.11.001
Abstract:
Keywords: heteramoeba, learamoeba, neovahlkampfia, paravahlkampfia, singhamoeba, tetramitus, vahlkampfia, willaertia, 5.8S rDNA

 

Madariaga I de & Joint I (1992) A comparative study of phytoplankton physiological indicators. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 158: 149-165.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: biochemical composition, chemostats, C metabolism, nutrient limitation, Pavlova lutheri, photosynthetic parameter

 

Mohsenpour SF, Richards B & Willoughby N (2012) Spectral conversion of light for enhanced microalgae growth rates and photosynthetic pigment production. Bioresource Technology. 125: 75-81.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.072
Abstract:
Keywords: microalgae, light wavelength, luminescent, photosynthetic pigments, solar

 

Charpy L, Palinska KA, Abed RMM, Langlade MJ & Golubic S (2012) Factors influencing microbial mat composition, distribution and dintrogen fixation in three western Indian Ocean coral reefs. European Journal of Phycology. 47: 51-66.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2011.653652
Abstract:
Keywords: benthic microflora, coral reefs, cyanobacteria, eutrophication, Indian Ocean, nitrogen fixation

 

Miklaszewska M, Waleron M, Morin N, Calusinska M, Wilmotte A, Tandeau de Marsac N, Rippka R & Waleron K (2012) Elucidation of the gas vesicle gene clusters in cyanobacteria of the genus Arthropsira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanophyta) and correlation with ITS phylogeny. European Journal of Phycology. 47: 233-244.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2012.692817
Abstract:
Keywords: Arthrospira, cyanobacteria, gas vacuoles, gas vesicles, gvpA, gvpC, gvpN, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)

 

Geoffroy L, Gilbin R, Simon O, Floriani M, Adam C, Pradines C, Cournac L, Garnier-Laplace J (2007) Effect of selenate on growth and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Aquatic Toxicology. 83: 149-158.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.04.001
Abstract:
Keywords: selenate, phytoplankton, toxicity, chlorophyll fluorescence, TEM analysis

 

Zhang J, Wu C, Pellegrini D, Romano G, Esposito F, Ianora A & Buttino I (2013) Effects of different monoalgal diets on egg production, hatching success and apoptosis induction in a Mediterranean population of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana). Aquaculture. 400-401: 65-72.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.02.032
Abstract: The influence of six monoalgal diets was tested on the reproductive success of the copepod Acartia tonsa over a 15-day period in order to define themost favorable diet for the optimization of this copepod species to be used in aquaculture and in ecotoxicology applications. The cryptophytes Rhinomonas reticulata and Rhodomonas baltica induced highest egg production rates (mean = 24.4 eggs female?1 day?1and 21.9 eggs female?1 day?1) and hatching success (mean = 76% and 86.1%) over the 15-day period, respectively. Lowest egg production rates were recorded with both diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum (mean = 8.8 eggs female?1 day?1) and Skeletonema marinoi (mean = 8.4 eggs female?1 day?1). These two diatoms also had detrimental effects on hatching success (mean = 44.1% and 46.5%, respectively) and adult survival. No adults survived for longer than 13 days with a diet of P. tricornutum. Moreover, nauplii produced by females that had fed on diatoms for >10 d, were positively stained for the apoptotic fluorescent marker TUNEL, indicating imminent death. The prasinophyta Tetraselmis suecica induced lowfecundity (mean = 13.4 eggs female?1 day?1) andhatching success (mean = 62%), and after 15 days only 37.5% of the adults survived. Isochrysis galbana induced low egg production per female (b10 eggs female?1 day?1) after 15 days.
Keywords: copepods, phytoplankton, egg production, hatching success, fecal pellet production

 

Jauffrais T, Contreras A, Herrenknecht C, Truquet P, Sechet V, Tillmann U & Hess P (2012) Effect of Azadinium spinosum on the feeding behaviour and azaspiracid accumulation of Mytilus edulis. Aquatic Toxicology. 124-125: 179-187.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.08.016
Abstract:
Keywords: bivalve molluscs, mussel, ecophysiology, AZA biotransformation, AZA accumulation, trophic transfer, dinoflagellate, azaspiracid

 

Durmaz Y (2007) Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) production by the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae) in nitrogen limitation. Aquaculture. 272: 717-722.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.07.213
Abstract:
Keywords: Nannochloropsis oculata, tocopherol, nitrogen source, growth phase

 

Dykova I, Bohacova L, Fiala I, Machackova B, Peckova H & Dvorakova H (2005) Amoebae of the genera Vannella Bovee, 1965 and Platyamoeba Page, 1969 isolated from fish and their phylogeny inferred from SSU rRNA gene and ITS sequences. European Journal of Protistology. 41: 219-230.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2005.05.004
Abstract:
Keywords: fish-associated amoebae, Vannella, Platyamoeba, morphology, SSU rRNA gene, ITS regions, phylogeny

 

Hultberg M, Carlsson AS & Gustafsson S (2013) Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae. Bioresource Technology. 136: 401-406.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.019
Abstract: This study investigated treatment of the drainage solution from greenhouse production with microalgae, through inoculation with Chlorella vulgaris or through growth of the indigenous microalgal community. A significant reduction in nitrogen, between 34.7 and 73.7 mgL-1, and particularly in phosphorus concentration, between 15.4 and 15.9 mgL-1, was observed in drainage solution collected from commercial greenhouse production. The large reduction in nutrients was achieved through growth ofthe indigenous microalgal community i.e., without pre-treatment of the drainage solution or inoculation with the fast growing green microalgae C. vulgaris . Analysis ofthe fatty acid composition ofthe algal biomass revealed that compared with a standard growth medium for green algae, the drainage solution was inferior for lipid production. Despite the biorefinery concept being less promising, microalgae-based treatment of drainage solution from greenhouse production is still of interest considering the urgent need for phosphorus recycling.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, fatty acids, hydroponics, microalgae, nutrient removal, Scenedesmus spp.

 

Lakaniemi A-M, Hulatt CJ, Wakeman KD, Thomas DN & Puhakka JA (2012) Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial communities during microalgal biomass production. Bioresource Technology. 124: 387-393.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.048
Abstract:
Keywords: microalgal cultivation, photobioreactor, associated bacteria, quantitative PCR, DGGE

 

Karnkowska-Ishikawa A, Milanowski R, Triemer RE & Zakrys B (2012) Taxonomic revisions of morphologically similar species from two euglenoid genera: Euglena (E. granulata and E. velata) and Euglenaria (Eu. anabaena, Eu. caudata and Eu. clavata). Journal of Phycology. 48: 729-739.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01140.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Euglena, Euglena anabaena, Euglena caudata, Euglena clavata, Euglena granulata, Euglenaria, Euglena velata, Euglenida, rDNA, taxonomic revision

 

Lacour T, Sciandra A, Talec A, Mayzaud P & Bernard O (2012) Neutral lipid and carbohydrate productivities as a response to nitrogen status in Isochrysis sp. (T-iso; Haptophyceae): Starvation versus limitation. Journal of Phycology. 48: 647-656.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01154.x
Abstract:
Keywords: biofuel, carbohydrate, chemostat, neutral lipid, nitrogen limitation, nitrogen starvation phytoplankton, productivity

 

Gutierrez CL, Gimpel J, Escobar C, Marshall SH & Henriquez V (2012) Chloroplast genetic tool for the green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Journal of Phycology. 48: 976-983.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01178.x
Abstract:
Keywords: aadagene, chloroplast transformation, expression vector, 5' and 3' rbcL regulatory sequences

 

Lacour T, Sciandra A, Talec A, Mayzaud P & Bernard O (2012) Diel variations of carbohydrates and neutral lipids in nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-starved cyclostat cultures of Isochrysis sp. Journal of Phycology. 48: 966-975.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01177.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Isochrysis, carbohydrate, neutral lipid, phospholipids, glycolipids, light/dark cycle, nitrogen starvation

 

Tippery NP, Fucikova K, Lewis PO & Lewis LA (2012) Probing the monophyly of the Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae) using data from five genes. Journal of Phycology. 48: 1482-1493.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12003
Abstract:
Keywords: Bayesian analysis, coccoid green algae, flagellar apparatus, phylogenetic information, polytomy analysis

 

Chan CX, Blouin NA, Zhuang Y, Zauner S, Prochnik SE, Lindquist E, Lin S, Benning C, Lohr M, Yarish C, Gantt E, Grossman AR, Lu S, Müller K, Stiller JW, Brawley SH & Bhattacharya D (2012) Porphyra (Bangiophyceae) transcriptomes provide insights into red algal development and metabolism. Journal of Phycology. 48: 1328-1342.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01229.x
Abstract: The red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae) and related Bangiales have global economic importance. Here, we report the analysis of a comprehensive transcriptome comprising ca. 4.7 million expressed sequence tag (EST) reads from P. umbilicalis (L.) J. Agardh and P. purpurea (Roth) C. Agardh (ca.980 Mbp of data generated using 454 FLX pyrosequencing). These ESTs were isolated from the haploid gametophyte (blades from both species)and diploid conchocelis stage (from P. purpurea). In a bioinformatic analysis, only 20% of the contigs were found to encode proteins of known biological function. Comparative analysis of predicted protein functions in mesophilic (including Porphyra) and extremophilic red algae suggest that the former has more putative functions related to signaling, membrane transport processes, and establishment of protein complexes. These enhanced functions may re?ect general mesophilic adaptations. A near-complete repertoire of genes encoding histones and ribosomal proteins was identi?ed, with some differentially regulated between the blade and conchocelis stage in P. purpurea. This ?nding may re?ect speci?c regulatory processes associated with these distinct phases of the life history. Fatty acid desaturation patterns, in combination with gene expression pro?les, demonstrate differences from seed plants with respect to the transport of fatty acid/lipid among subcellular compartments and the molecular machinery of lipid assembly. We also recovered a near-complete gene repertoire for enzymes involved in the formation of sterols and carotenoids, including candidate genes for the biosynthesis of lutein. Our ?ndings provide key insights into the evolution, development, and biology of Porphyra, an important lineage of red algae.
Keywords: bangiales, cellulose synthase, extremophile, fatty acid synthesis, histones, isoprenoid synthesis, life history, mesophile, Porphyra, rhodophyta

 

Bock C, Luo W, Kusber W-H, Hegewald E, Pazoutova M & Krienitz L (2013) Classification of crucigenoid algae: Phylogenetic position of the reinstated genus Lemmermannia, Tetrastrum spp. Crucigenia tetrapedia, and C. lauterbornii (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 49: 329-339.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12039
Abstract: The subfamily Crucigenioideae was traditionally classified within the well-characterized family Scenedesmaceae (Chlorophyceae). Several morphological revisions and questionable taxonomic changes hampered the correct classification of crucigenoid species resulting in a high number of synonymous genera. We used a molecular approach to determine the phylogenetic position of several Tetrastrum and Crucigenia species. The molecular results were correlated with morphological and ontogenetic characters. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rDNA gene resolved the position of Tetrastrum heteracanthum and T. staurogeniaeforme as a new lineage within the Oocystis clade of the Trebouxiophyceae. Crucigenia tetrapedia, T. triangulare, T. punctatum, and T. komarekii were shown to be closely related to Botryococcus (Trebouxiophyceae) and were transferred to Lemmermannia. Crucigenia lauterbornii was not closely related to the other Crucigenia strains, but was recovered within the Chlorella clade of the Trebouxiophyceae.
Keywords: Chlorella, Cruigenia, ITS, Lemmermannia, phylogeny, Scenedesmaceae, SSU, taxonomy, Tetrastrum, trebouxiophyceae

 

Stastny J, Skaloud P, Langenbach D, Nemjova K & Neustupa J (2013) Polyphasic evaluation of Xanthidium antilopaeum and Xanthidium cristatum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) species complex. Journal of Phycology. 49: 401-416.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12051
Abstract:
Keywords: desmidiales, geometric morphometrics, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, Xanthidium

 

Skaloud P, Kalina T, Nemjova K, De Clerck O & Leliaert F (2013) Morphology and phylogenetic position of the freshwater green microalgae Chlorochytrium (Chlorophyceae) and Scotinosphaera (Scotinosphaerales, ord. nov., Ulvophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 49: 115-129.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12021
Abstract: The green algal family Chlorochytriaceae comprises relatively large coccoid algae with secondarily thickened cell walls. Despite its morphological distinctness, the family remained molecularly uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the morphology and phylogenetic position of 16 strains determined as members of two Chlorochytriaceae genera, Chlorochytrium and Scotinosphaera. The phylogenetic reconstructions were based on the analyses of two data sets, including a broad, concatenated alignment of small subunit rDNA and rbcL sequences, and a 10-gene alignment of 32 selected taxa. All analyses revealed the distant relation of the two genera, segregated in two different classes: Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae. Chlorochytrium strains were inferred in two distinct clades of the Stephanosphaerinia clade within the Chlorophyceae. Whereas clade A morphologically fits the description of Chlorochytrium, the strains of clade B coincide with the circumscription of the genus Neospongiococcum. The Scotinosphaera strains formed a distinct and highly divergent clade within the Ulvophyceae, warranting the recognition of a new order, Scotinosphaerales. Morphologically, the order is characterized by large cells bearing local cell wall thickenings, pyrenoid matrix dissected by numerous anastomosing cytoplasmatic channels, sporogenesis comprising the accumulation of secondary carotenoids in the cell periphery and almost simultaneous cytokinesis. The close relationship of the Scotinosphaerales with other early diverging ulvophycean orders enforces the notion that nonmotile unicellular freshwater organisms have played an important role in the early diversification of the Ulvophyceae.
Keywords: Chlorochytrium, chlorophyceae, chloroplast, Kentrosphaera, phylogeny, Scotinosphaera, taxonomy, ultrastructure, ulvophyceae

 

Kim JI, Shin W & Triemer RE (2013) Cryptic speciation in the genus Cryptoglena (Euglenaceae) revealed by nuclear and plastid SSU and LSU rRNA gene. Journal of Phycology. 49: 92-102.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12032
Abstract: The photosynthetic euglenoid genus Cryptoglena is differentiated from other euglenoid genera by having a longitudinal sulcus, one chloroplast, two large trough-shaped paramylon plates positioned between the chloroplast and pellicle, and lack of metaboly. The genus contains only two species. To understand genetic diversity and taxonomy of Cryptoglena species, we analyzed molecular and morphological data from 25 strains. A combined data set of nuclear SSU and LSU and plastid SSU and LSU rRNA genes was analyzed using Bayesian, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and distance (neighbor joining) methods. Although morphological data of all strains showed no significant species-specific pattern, molecular data segregated the taxa into five clades, two of which represented previously known species: C. skujae and C. pigra, and three of which were designated as the new species, C. soropigra, C. similis, and C. longisulca. Each species had unique molecular signatures that could be found in the plastid SSU rRNA Helix P23_1 and LSU rRNA H2 domain. The genetic similarity of intraspecies based on nr SSU rDNA ranged from 97.8% to 100% and interspecies ranged from 95.3% to 98.9%. Therefore, we propose three new species based on specific molecular signatures and gene divergence of the nr SSU rDNA sequences.
Keywords: Cryptoglena, genetic diversity, molecular phylogeny, morphology, synapormorphies

 

Yamamoto M, Nozaki H & Kawano S (2001) Evolutionary relationships among multiple modes of cell division in the genus Nannochloris (Chlorophyta) revealed by genome size, actin gene multiplicity, and phylogeny. Journal of Phycology. 37: 106-120.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: actin gene, autosporulation, binary fission, budding, cell division, chlorophyta, DNA content, genome size, molecular phylogeny, nannochloris

 

Yamamoto M, Nozaki H, Miyazawa Y, Koide T & Kawano S (2003) Relationship between presence of a mother cell wall and speciation in the unicellular microalga Nannochloris (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 39: 172-184.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA, actin gene, autosporulation, binary fission, budding, chlorella, chlorophyta, molecular phylogeny, nannochloris trebouxia

 

Cifuentes AS, Gonzalez MA, Inostroza I & Aguilera A (2001) Reappraisal of physiological attributes of nine strains of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae): Growth and pigment content across a salinity gradient. Journal of Phycology. 37: 334-344.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Dunaliella strains, growth, pigment content, salt concentrations, taxonomy

 

Nozaki H, Ohta N, Morita E & Watanabe MM (1998) Toward a natural system of species in Chlorogonium (Volvocales, Chlorophyta): A combined analysis of morphological and rbcL gene sequence data. Journal of Phycology. 34: 1024-1037.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: chlorogonium, chlorogonium kasakii sp. nov., chlorophyta, molecular phylogeny, monophyletic species, morphology, natural systematics, rbcL gene, species taxonomy, volvocales

 

Hanagata N (1998) Phylogeny of the subfamily Scotiellocystoideae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) and related taxa inferred from 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. Journal of Phycology. 34: 1049-1054.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18SrDNA, coellastrella, muriella, phylogeny, pseudomuriella gen. nov., scenedesmus, scotiellocystis, scotiellocystoideae

 

Coder DM & Goff LJ (1986) The host range of the chlorellavorous bacterium ("Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus"). Journal of Phycology. 22: 543-546.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, bacteria, cell surfaces, chlorella, host specificity, prototheca, taxonomy

 

Gonzalez MA, Coleman AW, Gomez PI & Montoya R (2001) Phylogenetic relationship among various strains of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae) based on nuclear ITS rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology. 37: 604-611.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: dunaliella, internal transcribed spacer, phylogenetics, rDNA, sequencing, strains, taxonomy

 

Ehara M, Watanabe KI, Kawai H, Inagaki Y, Hayashi-Ishimaru Y & Ohama T (1998) Distribution of the mitochondrial deviant genetic code AUA for methionine in heterokont algae. Journal of Phycology. 34: 1005-1008.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: cytochrome oxidase subunit I, deviant genetic code, heterokont algae, phaeophyceae, xanthophyceae

 

John-McKay ME & Colman B (1997) Variation in the occurrence of external carbonic anhydrase among strains of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 33: 988-990.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: dissolved inorganic carbon, external carbonic anhydrase, inorganic carbon uptake, phaeodactylum tricornutum

 

Krienitz L, Bock C, Nozaki H & Wolf M (2011) SSU rRNA gene phylogeny of morphospecies affiliated to the bioassay alga "Selenastrum capricornutum" recovered the polyphyletic origin of crescent-shaped chlorophyta. Journal of Phycology. 47: 880-893.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01010.x
Abstract:
Keywords: kirchneriella, neocystis mucosa sp. nov., nephrochlamys, raphidocelis, rhombocystis, selenastrum, SSU rRNA gene phylogeny, taxonomy, tetranephris, ultrastructure

 

Edgar SM & Theriot EC (2004) Phylogeny of Aulacoseira (Bacillariophyta) based on molecules and morphology. Journal of Phycology. 40: 772-788.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03126.x
Abstract:
Keywords: aulacoseira, diatoms, maximum parsimony, morphometrics, ontogenetic-allometric trends, phylogeny, principal axis regression, step-matrix gap-weighting, systematics, total evidence

 

Nimer NA, Iglesias-Rodriguez MD & Merrett MJ (1997) Bicarbonate utilization by marine phytoplankton species. Journal of Phycology. 33: 625-631.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: alkalization, bacillariophyceae, bicarbonate utilization, dextran-bound sulfonamide (DBS), 4'4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), dinophyceae, extracellular carbonic anhydrase, phytoplankton, prymnesiophyceae, raphidophyceae

 

Han M-S, Kim Y-P & Cattolica RA (2002) Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) resting cell formation in batch culture: Strain identity versus physiological response. Journal of Phycology. 38: 304-317.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: heterosigma, nitrate, raphidophyceae, resting cells, toxic algae

 

Weiss TL, Johnston JS, Fujisawa K, Sumimoto K, Okada S, Chappell J & Devarenne TP (2010) Phylogenetic placement, genome size, and GC content of the liquid-hydrocarbon-producing green microalga Botryococcus braunii strain Berkeley (Showa) (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 46: 534-540.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00820.x
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA sequences, botryococcus braunii, chlorophyta, GC content, genome size, hydrocarbons, phylogenetic analysis, trebouxiophyceae

 

Zuccarello GC, Kikuchi N & West JA (2010) Molecular phylogeny of the crustose Erythropeltidales (Compsopogonophyceae, Rhodophyta): New genera Pseudoerythrocladia and Madagascaria and the evolution of the upright habit. Journal of Phycology. 46: 363-373.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00810.x
Abstract:
Keywords: compsopogonophyceae, crusts, erythrocladia, erythropeltidales, madagascaria, molecular evolution, porphyropsis, pseudoerythrocladia, rhodophyta, taxonomy

 

Huss VAR, Frank C, Hartmann EC, Hirmer M, Kloboucek A, Seidel BM, Wenzeler P & Kessler E (1999) Biochemical taxonomy and molcular phylogeny of the genus Chlorella sensu lato (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 35: 587-598.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA, chemotaxonomy, chlorella, chlorophyta, DNA base composition, DNA/DNA hybridization, molecular systematics, muriella, phylogeny, prototheca, scenedesmus

 

Karnkowska-Ishikawa A, Milanowski R & Zakrys B (2011) The species Euglena deses (Euglenaceae) revisited: New morphological and molecular data. Journal of Phycology. 47: 653-661.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.00982.x
Abstract:
Keywords: euglena adhaerens, euglena deses, euglena satelles, euglenea, euglenida, phylogeny, SSU rDNA, taxonomical revision

 

Buchheim M, Buchheim J, Carlson T, Braband A, Hepperle D, Krienitz L, Wolf M & Hegewald E (2005) Phylogeny of the hydrodictyaceae (Chlorophyceae): Inferences from rDNA data. Journal of Phycology. 41: 1039-1054.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00129.x
Abstract: The hydrodictyacean green algal lineage has been the focus of much research due to the fossil record of at least some members, their ornamented cell walls, and their distinctive reproductive strategies. The phylogeny of the family was, until recently, exclusively morphology based. This investigation examines hydrodictyacean isolates from several culture collections, focusing on sequences from ribosomal data: 18S rDNA, 26S rDNA (partial), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 data. Results from phylogenetic analyses of independent and combined data matrices support the Hydrodictyaceae as a monophyletic lineage that includes isolates of Chlorotetraedron, Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum, Sorastrum, and Tetraedron. Phylogenetic analyses of rDNA data indicate that the three-dimensional coenobium of Hydrodictyon is evolutionarily distinct from the three-dimensional coenobium of Sorastrum. The more robust aspects of the ITS-2 data corroborate the 18S?26S rDNA topology and provide a structural autapomorphy for the Hydrodictyaceae and Neochloridaceae, that is, an abridgment of helix IV in the secondary structure. The rDNA data do not support monophyly of Pediastrum but rather suggest the existence of four additional hydrodictyacean genera: Monactinus, Parapediastrum, Pseudopediastrum, and Stauridium.
Keywords: 18S rDNA, 26S rDNA, chlorotetraedron, comb. nov., gen. nov., hydrodictyon, ITS-2, molecular systematics, monactinus, parapediastrum, pediastrum, phylogeny, pseudopediastrum, sorastrum, stauridium, tetraedron

 

Palmucci M, Ratti S & Giordano M (2011) Ecological and evolutionary implications of carbon allocation in marine phytoplankton as a function of nitrogen availability: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach. Journal of Phycology. 47: 313-323.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.00963.x
Abstract:
Keywords: biofuel, carbohydrates, carbon allocation, FTIR spectroscopy, homeostasis, lipids, nitrogen, proteins

 

Colman B (1978) Excretion of glycolate by a species of Chlorella (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 14: 434-437.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: bicarbonate, chlorella, carbon dioxide adaptation, glycolate excretion, isonicotinyl hydrazide, photosynthetic induction

 

Verschoor AM, van der Stap I, Helmsing NR, Lurling M & van Donk E (2004) Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: Adaptive responses to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa. Journal of Phycology. 40: 808-814.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.04007.x
Abstract:
Keywords: brachionus calyciflorus, daphnia magna, desmodesmus, herbivory, inducible defences, inducible defenses, infochemicals, scenedesmus

 

Rumpf R, Vernon D, Schreiber D & Birky, CW Jr. (1996) Evolutionary consequences of the loss of photosynthesis in Chlamydomonadaceae: Phylogenetic analysis of Rrn18 (18S rDNA) in 13 Polytoma strains (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 32: 119-126.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA, chlorophyta, chlamydomonas, heterotrophic algae, loss of photosynthesis, molecular evolution, polytoma, phylogenetics, Rrn18 gene

 

Kosmala S, Bereza M, Milanowski R, Kwiatowski J & Zakrys B (2007) Morphological and molecular examination of relationships and epitype establishment of Phacus pleuronectes, Phacus orbicularis, and Phacus hamelii. Journal of Phycology. 43: 1071-1082.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00386.x
Abstract:
Keywords: euglenida, euglenophyta, molecular phylogeny, morphology, rDNA

 

Ki J-S, Park M-H & Han M-S (2011) Discriminative power of nuclear rDNA sequences for the DNA taxonomy of the dinoflagellate genus Peridinium (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 47: 426-435.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00950.x
Abstract:
Keywords: dinoflagellate, DNA taxonomy, molecular divergence, peridinium, phylogeny, rDNA

 

Willame R, Boutte C, Grubisic S, Wilmotte A, Komarek J & Hoffmann L (2006) Morphological and molecular characterization of planktonic cyanobacteria from Belgium and Luxembourg. Journal of Phycology. 42: 1312-1332.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00284.x
Abstract:
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, bloom, freshwater cyanobacteria, nanoplankton, periphyton, phytobenthos, picoplankton, polyphasic taxonomy

 

Lane CE & Archibald JM (2008) New marine members of the genus Hemiselmis (Cryptomonadales, Cryptophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 44: 439-450.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00486.x
Abstract:
Keywords: cryptomonad, H. andersenii sp. nov., H. cryptochromatica sp. nov. H. pacifica sp. nov., H. tepida sp. nov., Hemiselmis, nucleomorph, phylogeny

 

Corre G, Templier J, Largeau C, Rousseau B & Berkaloff C (1996) Influence of cell wall composition on the resistance of two Chlorella species (Chlorophyta) to detergents. Journal of Phycology. 32: 584-590.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: algaenan-composed trilaminar outer walls (TLS), cell walls, chlorella emersonii, chlorella vulgaris, chlorophyta, detergent toxicity, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, fluorescence, net photosynthesis, pigment analyses, triton x-100

 

Waring J, Klenell M, Bechtold U, Underwood GJC & Baker NR (2010) Light-induced responses of oxygen photoreduction, reactive oxygen species production and scavenging in two diatom species. Journal of Phycology. 46: 1206-1217.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00919.x
Abstract:
Keywords: ascorbate peroxidase, chl fluorescence, mehler reaction, microphytobenthos, photosynthesis, phytoplankton, PSII photochemistry, superoxide dismutase

 

Hoham RW, Bonome TA, Martin CW & Leebens-Mack JH (2002) A combined 18S rDNA and rbcL phylogenetic analysis of Chloromonas and Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales) emphasizing snow and other cold-temperature habitats. Journal of Phycology. 38: 1051-1064.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rDNA, chlamydomonas, chloromonas, cold tolerance, phylogeny, pyrenoids, rbcL, snow algae

 

Ward CJ, Beattie KA, Lee EYC & Codd GA (1997) Colorimetric protein phosphatase inhibition assay of laboratory strains and natural blooms of cyanobacteria: Comparisons with high-performance lipid chromatographic analysis for microcystins. Fems Microbiology Letters. 153: 465-473.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1997.tb12611.x
Abstract:
Keywords: microcystin, protein phosphatase, cyanobacteria, high-performance liquid chromatography

 

Caron DA, Lim EL, Dennett MR, Gast RJ, Kosman C & DeLong EF (1999) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the heterotrophic chrysophyte genus Paraphysomonas (Chrysophyceae), and the design of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for two species. Journal of Phycology. 35: 824-837.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA, chrysophyte, in situ hybridization, microbial ecology, nanoflagellate, oligonucleotide probe, Paraphysomonas, protistan biogeography, protistan phylogeny, protozoa

 

Leonardos N & Geider RJ (2005) Elemental and biochemical composition of Rhinomonas reticulata (Cryptophyta) in relation to light and nitrate-to-phosphate supply ratios. Journal of Phycology. 41: 567-576.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: elemental stoichiometry, homeostasis, light, N:P, nutrients, Rhinomonas reticulata

 

Medlin LK, Elwood HJ, Stickel S & Sogin ML (1991) Morphological and genetic variation within the diatom Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta): Evidence for a new species, Skeletonema pseudocostatum. Journal of Phycology. 27: 514-524.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: bacillariophyta, diatoms, phylogeny, PCR, rRNA, sequencing, Skeletonema pseudocostatum sp. nov.

 

Barker GLA, Konopka A, Handley BA & Hayes PK (2000) Genetic variation in Aphanizomenon (Cyanobacteria) colonies from the Baltic sea and North America. Journal of Phycology. 36: 947-950.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Aphanizomenon, baltic sea, cyanobacteria, genetic diversity, intergenic spacer, phycocyanin

 

Saunders GW, Bird CJ, Ragan MA & Rice EL (1995) Phylogenetic relationships of species of uncertain taxonomic position within the Acrochaetiales-Palmariales complex (Rhodophyta): Inferrences from phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequence data. Journal of Phycology. 31: 601-611.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: molecular phylogeny, neighbor joining, parsimony, rhodophyta, rhodothamniellaceae fam. nov., small-subunit rRNA

 

Penna A, Crinelli R & Magnani M (1996) Modulation of the heat shock ubiquitin pool in Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 32: 409-415.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Bacillariophyceae, heat stress, skeletonema costatum, upibquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating activity

 

Montegut-Felkner AE & Triemer RE (1997) Phylogenetic relationships of selected euglenoid genera based on morphological and molecular data. Journal of Phycology. 33: 512-519.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: euglenoids, euglenozoa, kinetoplastida, molecular phylogeny, morphological phylogeny, small subunit rRNA

 

Gile GH, Stern RF, James ER & Keeling PJ (2010) DNA barcoding of Chlorarachniophytes using nucleomorph ITS sequences. Journal of Phycology. 46: 743-750.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.00851.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Bigelowiella, Chlorarachnion, culture collections, Gymnochlora, internal transcribed spacer, Lotharella, Norrisiella, partenskyella

 

Rodriguez MC, Noseda MD & Cerezo AS (1999) The fibrillar polysaccharides and their linkage to algaenan in the trilaminar layer of the cell wall of Coelastrum sphaericum (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 35: 1025-1031.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: DEPT, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, GC-MS, gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, GLC, gas liquid chromatography, TFA, trifluoroacetic acid

 

Bouchard JN & Purdie DA (2011) Effect of elevated temperature, darkness, and hydrogen peroxide treatment on oxidative stress and cell death in the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Phycology. 47: 1316-1325.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01074.x
Abstract:
Keywords: caspase 3-like activity, cell death, cyanobacteria, darkness, DNA degradation, hydrogen peroxide, Microcystis aeruginosa, oxidative stress, SYTOX-green, temperature, terminal deoxynucletidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling

 

Mortain-Bertrand A, Etchart F, de Boucaud M-T (1996) A method for the cryoconservation of Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae): Effect of glycerol and cold adaptation. Journal of Phycology. 32: 346-352.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: carotenogenesis, chlorophyta, cold acclimation, cryoconservation, cryoprotectant, dunaliella salina, glycerol, microalga

 

McManus HA & Lewis LA (2011) Molecular phylogenetic relationships in the freshwater family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), with an emphasis on Pediastrum duplex Journal of Phycology. 47: 152-163.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00940.x
Abstract:
Keywords: 26S rDNA, Bayesian, Hydrodictyon, Monactinus, Parapediastrum, phylogeny, Pseudopediastrum, rbcL, Stauridium

 

Juttner F & Wessel HP (2003) Isolation of di(hydroxymethyl)dihydroxypyrrolidine from the cyanobacterial genus Cylindrospermum that effectively inhibits digestive glucosidases of aquatic insects and crustacean grazers. Journal of Phycology. 39: 26-32.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: aquatic insect larvae, crustaceans, Cylindrospermum, digestive enzyme, di(hydroxymethyl)dihydroxypyrrolidine, enzyme inhibitor, a-glucosidase, B-glucosidase, 2(R),5(R)-bis-(hydroxymethyl)-3(r), 4(R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine

 

Daugbjerg N (2000) Pyramimonas tychotreta sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae), a new marine species from Antarctica: Light and electron microscopy of the motile stage and notes on growth rates. Journal of Phycology. 36: 160-171.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: growth rates, marine nanoflagellates, prasinophyceae, pyramimonas tychotreta, ultrastructure, weddell sea

 

Garrido JL, Zapata M & Muniz S (1995) Spectral characterization of new chlorophyll C pigments isolated from Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Phycology. 31: 761-768.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: chlorophyll c pigments, emiliania huxleyi, high-performance liquid chromatography, magnesium-3,8-divinylpheoporphyrin a5 monomethyl ester, pelagococcus subviridis, phytol-substituted chlorophyll c, polymeric octadecylsilica columns, prymnesiophyceae, prymnesium parvum

 

Lewis LA & Flechtner VR (2004) Cryptic species of Scenedesmus (Chlorophyta) from desert soil communities of western North America. Journal of Phycology. 40: 1127-1137.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03235.x
Abstract:
Keywords: cosmopolitan species, desert, ITS, microbiotic crust, rDNA, Scenedesmus

 

Linton EW & Triemer RE (1999) Reconstruction of the feeding apparatus in Ploeotia costata (Euglenophyta) and its relationship to other euglenoid feeding apparatuses. Journal of Phycology. 35: 313-324.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: diplonema, euglenoids, feeding apparatus, lentomonas, ploeotia, three-dimensional reconstruction, ultrastructure

 

Sluiman HJ, Guihal C & Mudimu O (2008) Assessing phylogenetic affinities and species delimitations in Klebsormidiales (Streptophyta): Nuclear-encoded rDNA phylogenies and its secondary structure models in Klebsormidium, Hormidiella, and Entransia. Journal of Phycology. 44: 183-195.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2007.00442.x
Abstract:
Keywords: Entransia, Gloeotila, Hormidiella, internal transcribed spacer, intron, Klebsormidium, Koliella, rDNA, secondary structure, Stichococcus

 

Rampen SW, Schouten S, Panoto FE, Brink M, Andersen RA, Muyzer G, Abbas B & Sinninghe Damste JS (2009) Phylogenetic position of Attheya longicornis and Attheya septentrionalis (Bacillariophyta). Journal of Phycology. 45: 444-453.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00657.x
Abstract:
Keywords: 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, Attheya, Bacillariophyta, Biddulphiophycidae, Chaetocerotophycidae, morphology, rbcL, Sterols

 

Orset S & Young AJ (1999) Low-temperature-induced synthesis of a-carotene in the microalga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 35: 520-527.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: a-carotene, B-carotene, carotenoid, Dunaliella salina, temperature

 

Aboal M & Werner O (2011) Morphology, fine structure, life cycle and phylogenetic analysis of Phyllosiphon arisari, a siphonous parasitic green alga. European Journal of Phycology. 46: 181-192.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2011.590902
Abstract:
Keywords: 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, chlorophyta, life cycle, morphology, phyllosiphon, phylogeny, taxonomy, trebouxiophyceae, ultrastructure

 

Guiheneuf F, Ulmann L, Tremblin G & Mimouni V (2011) Light-dependent utilization of two radiolabelled carbon sources, sodium bicarbonate and sodium acetate, and relationships with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in the microalga Pavlova lutheri (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology. 46: 143-152.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2011.577912
Abstract:
Keywords: carbon source, haptophyta, LC-PUFA synthesis, light intensity, lipid classes, liquid chromatography, pavlova lutheri, radiolabelling

 

John U, Cembella A, Hummert C, Elbrachter M, Groben R & Medlin L (2003) Discrimination of the toxigenic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. ostenfeldii in co-occurring natural populations from Scottish coastal waters. European Journal of Phycology. 38: 25-40.
DOI: 10.1080/0967026031000096227
Abstract:
Keywords: Alexandrium tamarense, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, molecular probes, phycotoxins, toxic algae

 

Guillou L, Eikrem W, Chretiennot-Dinet M, Le Gall F, Massana R, Romari K, Pedros-Alio C, Vaulot D (2004) Diversity of picoplanktonic prasinophytes assessed by direct nuclear SSU rDNA sequencing of environmental samples and novel isolates retrieved from oceanic and coastal marine ecosystems. Protist. 155: 193-214.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hijnen WAM, Dullemont YJ, Schijven JF, Hanzens-Brouwer AJ, Rosielle M & Medema G (2007) Removal and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum, Clostridium perfringens and small-sized centric diatoms (Stephanodiscus hantzschii) in slow sand filters. Water Research. 41: 2151-2162.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.01.056
Abstract:
Keywords: cryptosporidium, slow sand filtration, removal delayed transport, surrogates

 

Montaini E, Chini Zittelli G, Tredici MR, Molina Grima E, Fernandez Sevilla JM & Sanchez Perez JA (1995) Long-term preservation of Tetraselmis suecica: Influence of storage on viability and fatty acid profile. Aquaculture. 134: 81-90.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: long-term preservation, algae, tetraselmis suecica, fats and fatty compounds, viability

 

Rosa E, Barata C, Damasio J, Bosch MP & Guerrero A (2006) Aquatic ecotoxicology of a pheromonal antagonist in Daphnia magna and Desmodesmus subspicatus. Aquatic Toxicology. 79: 296-303.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.06.019
Abstract:
Keywords: daphnia, desmodesmus, sesamia nonagrioides, ecotoxicology, trifluoromethyl ketones, pheromone, antagonist

 

Rioboo C, Gonzalez O, Herrero C & Cid A (2002) Physiological response of freshwater microalga (
Chlorella vulgaris
) to triazine and phenylurea herbicides. Aquatic Toxicology. 59: 225-235.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: microalga, herbicide, triazine, phenylurea, toxic effects

 

Valbonesi A & Luporini P (1995) Euplotes bisulcatus, a key species for a better understanding of the organization and evolution of Euplotes argyrome patterns. European Journal of Protistology. 31: 32-37.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Harding T, Brown MW, Plotnikov A, Selivanova E, Park JS, Gunderson JH, Baumgartner M, Silberman JD, Roger AJ & Simpson AGB (2013) Amoeba stages in the deepest branching Heteroloboseans, including Pharyngomonas: Evolutionary and systematic implications. Protist. 164: 272-286.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2012.08.002
Abstract: The taxon Heterolobosea (Excavata) is a major group of protists well known for its diversity of life stages. Most are amoebae capable of transforming into flagellates (amoeboflagellates), while others are known solely as flagellates or solely as amoebae. The deepest-branching heterolobosean taxon confirmed previously, Pharyngomonas, was generally assumed to be a pure flagellate, suggesting that the amoeba form arose later in the evolution of Heterolobosea sensu lato. Here we report that multiple isolates of Pharyngomonas are actually amoeboflagellates that also have cyst stages, with only amoebae transforming into cysts. The amoeba form of Pharyngomonas showed heterolobosean characteristics (e. g. eruptive movement), but also possessed unusual morphological features like slow-flowing crenulated hyaline crescents with conical subpseudopodia, finger-like projections and branching posterior extensions. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences that included two undescribed species of amoebae showed that Pharyngomonas is not the only deep-branching heterolobosean to possess an amoeba stage. These results suggest that possession of an amoeba stage was ancestral for Heterolobosea, unifying this taxon as a group of species with amoeba stages in their lifecycle or derived from organisms with such stages.
Keywords: amoeboflagellate, evolution, molecular phylogeny, percolozoa, protist, systematics

 

Angeler DG, Schagerl M & Mullner AN (2002) Taxonomic comments on the genus Menoidium (Euglenozoa), with a description of Menoidium intermedium sp. nov. European Journal of Protistology. 38: 393-404.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Euglenozoa, Menoidium, Menoidium intermedium sp. nov., morphology, taxonomy

 

Davidson K, Flynn KJ & Cunningham A (1991) Relationships between photopigments, cell carbon, cell nitrogen and growth rate for a marine nanoflagellate. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 153: 87-96.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: growth dynamics, isochrysis, nutritional status, photopigment

 

Kleinteich J, Wood SA, Puddick J, Schleheck D, Kupper FC & Dietrich D (2013) Potent toxins in Arctic environments - Presence of saxitoxins and an unusual microcystin variant in Arctic freshwater ecosystems. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 206: 423-431.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2013.04.011
Abstract: Cyanobacteria are the predominant phototrophs in freshwater ecosystems of the polar regions where they commonly form extensive benthic mats. Despite their major biological role in these ecosystems, little attention has been paid to their physiology and biochemistry. An important feature of cyanobacteria from the temperate and tropical regions is the production of a large variety of toxic secondary metabolites. In Antarctica, and more recently in the Arctic, the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin and nodularin (Antarctic only) have been detected in freshwater microbial mats. To date other cyanobacterial toxins have not been reported from these locations. Five Arctic cyanobacterial communities were screened for saxitoxin, another common cyanobacterial toxin, and microcystins using immunological, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Saxitoxin was detected for the first time in cyanobacteria from the Arctic. In addition, an unusual microcystin variant was identified using liquid chromatography?mass spectrometry. Gene expression analyses confirmed the analytical findings, whereby parts of the sxt and mcy operon involved in saxitoxin and microcystin synthesis, were detected and sequenced in one and five of the Arctic cyanobacterial samples, respectively. The detection of these compounds in the cryosphere improves the understanding of the biogeography and distribution of toxic cyanobacteria globally. The sequences of sxt and mcy genes provided from this habitat for the first time may help to clarify the evolutionary origin of toxin production in cyanobacteria.
Keywords: saxitoxin, microcystin, gene analysis, cyanobacterial mats, arctic, climate change

 

Bolivar I, Fahrni JF, Smirnov A & Pawlowski J (2001) SSU rRNA-based phylogenetic position of the general Amoeba and Chaos (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia): The origin of Gymnamoebae revisited. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18(12): 2306-2314.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebae, rRNA, phylogeny

 

Walochnik J, Michel R & Aspock H (2004) A molecular biological approach to the phylogenetic position of the genus Hyperamoeba. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 51(4): 433-440.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: amoebozoa, classification, Hyperamoeba, mycetozoa, myxogastria

 

Amaral Zettler LA, Nerad TA, O'Kelly CJ & Sogin ML (2001) The nucleariid amoebae: More protists at the animal-fungal boundary. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 48(3): 293-297.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: aconchulinia, cristidiscoidida, filopodia, filosea, mitochondrial cristae, nuclearia, nucleariidae, phylogeny, SSU rRNA, vampyrellidium

 

Michel R, Haroder B & Müller K-D (2010) Saccamoeba limax (Hartmannellidae) isolated from Elodea sp. was colonized by two strains of endocytic bacteria and a bacteriophage. Journal of Endocytobiosis and Cell Research. 20: 38-44.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: Saccamoeba, endoparasites, chlamydia-like, bacteriophage

 

Medina M, Collins AG, Taylor JW, Valentine JW, Lipps JH, Amaral-Zettler L & Sogin ML (2003) Phylogeny of Opisthokonta and the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in fungi and metazoa. International Journal of Astrobiology. 2(3): 203-211.
DOI: 10.1017/S1473550403001551
Abstract:
Keywords: choanoflagellata, fungi, mesomycetozoea, metazoa, multicellularity, nuclearia, opisthokonta

 

Smirnov A & Goodkov A (2004) Ultrastructure and geographic distribution of the genus Paradermamoeba (Gymnamoebia, Thecamoebidae). European Journal of Protistology. 40: 113-118.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2003.12.001
Abstract:
Keywords: amoeba, lobosea, thecamoebidae, paradermamoeba, ultrastructure, biogeography, distribution

 

De Jonckheere JF, Murase J & Opperdoes FR (2011) A new thermophilic heterolobosean amoeba, Fumarolamoeba ceborucoi, gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated near a fumarole at a volcano in Mexico. Acta Protozoologica. 50: 41-48.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: group I intron, heterolobosea, new genus, new species, SSU rDNA, thermophilic

 

Droop MR (1955) Some new supra-littoral protista. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 34: 233-245.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Gallon JR, Perry SM, Rajab TMA, Flayeh KAM, Yunes JS & Chaplin AE (1988) Metabolic changes associated with the diurnal pattern of N2 fixation in Gloeothece. Journal of General Microbiology. 134: 3079-3087.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Hughes SG, Bruce T & Murray K (1980) The isolation and characterisation of a sequence-specific endonuclease from Anabaena subcylindrica Biochemical Journal. 185: 59-63.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Kong, HH, Shin JY, Yu HS, Kim J, Hahn TW, Hahn YH & Chung DI (2002) Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA PCR-RFLP analyses of Acanthamoeba isolated from contact lens storage cases of residents in southwestern Korea Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40: 1199-1206.
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.40.4.1199?1206.2002
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Krienitz L, Ustinova I, Friedl T & Huss VAR (2001) Traditional generic concepts versus 18S rRNA gene phylogeny in the green algal family Selenastraceae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology. 37: 852-865.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: 18S rRNA, Ankistrodesmus, chlorophyta, Kirchneriella, monoraphidium, molecular systematics, morphology, podohedriella, pyrenoid, Quadrigula, Selenastraceae

 

Linz B, Linz A, Migunova AV & Kvitko KV (1999) Correlation between virus-sensitivity and isoenzyme spectrum in symbiotic Chlorella-like algae. Protistology. 1: 76-81.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords: zoochlorellae, PBCV-virus, symbionts, virus-sensitivity, isoenzyme, serological characterization, agglutination, surface antigen specificity

 

McMillan R (1957) Morphogenesis and polymorphism of Ankistrodesmus spp. Journal of General Microbiology. 17: 658-677.
DOI:
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

Reveiller FL, Marciano-Cabral F, Pernin P, Cabanes PA & Legastelois S (2000) Species specificity of a monoclonal antibody produced to Naegleria fowleri and partial characterisation of its antigenic determinant. Parasitology Research. 86: 634-641.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Rippka R, Deruelles J, Waterbury JB, Herdman M & Stanier RY (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology. 111: 1-61.
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Roberts RJ (1980) Restriction and modification enzymes and their recognition sequences Nucleic Acids Research. 8: -.
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Roberts RJ (1985) Restriction and modification enzymes and their recognition sequences. Nucleic Acids Research. 13, Supplement: -.
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Schroeder JM, Booton GC, Hay J, Niszi IA, Seal DV, Markus MB, Fuerst PA & Byers TJ (2001) Use of subgenic 18S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing for genus and genotype identification of Acanthamoebae from humans with keratitis and from sewage sludge. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39: 1903-1911.
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.39.5.1903-1911.2001
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Stanier RY, Kunisawa R, Mandel M & Cohen-Bazire G (1971) Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (order Chroococcales). Bacteriological Reviews. 35: 171-205.
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Steudel B, Hector A, Friedl T, Lofke C, Lorenz M, Wesche M & Kessler M (2012) Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning change along environmental stress gradients Ecology Letters. 15: 1397-1405.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01863.x
Abstract:
Keywords: algae, biodiversity function, complementarity effect, environmental fluctuation, productivity, selection effect, species richness, stress intensity

 

Stothard DR, Schroeder-Diedrich JM, Awwad MH, Gast RJ, Ledee DR, Rodriguez-Zaragoza S, Dean CL, Fuerst P & Byers TJ (1998) The evolutionary history of the genus Acanthamoeba and the identification of eight new 18S rRNA gene sequence types. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 45: 45-54.
DOI:
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Keywords: classification, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, multiple rDNA alleles, opportunistic pathogen, phylogeny

 

Stothard DR, Hay J, Schroeder-Diedrich JM, Seal DV & Byers TJ (1999) Fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for clinical and environmental detection of Acanthamoeba and the T4 18S rRNA gene sequence type. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 37: 2687-2693.
DOI:
Abstract: The first genus- and subgenus-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for in situ staining of Acanthamoeba are described. Sequences of these phylogeny-based probes complement the 18S rRNA and the gene encoding it (18S rDNA). The genus-specific probe (GSP) is a fluorescein-labeled 22-mer specific for Acanthamoeba as shown here by its hybridization to growing trophozoites of all 12 known Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence types and by its failure to hybridize with amoebae of two other genera (Hartmannella vermiformis and Balamuthia mandrillaris), two human cell lines, and two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). The sequence type T4-specific probe (ST4P) is a rhodamine-labeled 30-mer specific for Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA sequence type T4, as shown here in hybridization tests with trophozoites of all 12 sequence types. T4 is the subgenus group associated most closely with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). GSP also was tested with corneal scrapings from 17 patients with a high index of clinical suspicion of AK plus 5 patient controls. GSP stained both trophozoites and cysts, although nonspecific cyst wall autofluorescence also was observed. Results could be obtained with GSP in 1 to 2 days, and based on results from cell culture tests, the probe correctly detected the presence or absence of Acanthamoeba in 21 of 24 specimens from the 22 patients. The use of GSP with cultured trophozoites and cysts from corneal scrapings has illustrated the suitability of using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for identification of the genus Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. In addition, the use of ST4P with cultured amoebae has indicated the potential of oligonucleotide probes for use in subgenus classification.
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Tease BE & Walker RW (1987) Comparative composition of the sheath of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece ATCC 27152 cultured with and without combined nitrogen. Journal of General Microbiology. 133: 3331-3339.
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Huss VAR, Frank C, Hartmann EC, Hirmer M, Kloboucek A, Seidel BM, Wenzeler P & Kessler E (1999) Biochemical taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of the genus Chlorella sensu lato (Chlorophyta) Journal of Phycology. 35: 587-598.
DOI:
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Keywords: 18S rRNA, chemotaxonomy, Chlorella, chlorophyta, DNA base composition, DNA/DNA hybridization, molecular systematics, Muriella, phylogeny, Prototheca, Scenedesmus

 

Figueroa FI, Bravo I, Fraga S, Garcés E & Llaveria G (2009) The life history and cell cycle of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, a dinoflagellate with two eukaryotic nuclei. Protist. 160: 285-300.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2008.12.003
Abstract:
Keywords: Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, binucleate, cell cycle, cysts, dinoflagellate, endosymbiont, life history, sexual reproduction

 

Roldán M, Ramírez M, del Campo J, Hernández-Mariné M & Komárek J (2012) Chalicogloea cavernicola gen. nov. sp. nov. (Chroococcales, Cyanobacteria) from low light aerophytic environments: Combined molecular, phenotypic and ecological criteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63: 2326-2333.
DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.045468-0
Abstract: This work characterizes a unicellular cyanobacterium with nearly spherical cells and thin outlined sheaths that divide irregularly forming small packets immersed in a diffluent mucilaginous layer. It was isolated growing on calcite speleothems and walls in a show cave in Collbató (Barcelona, Spain). Spectral confocal laser and transmission electron microscopies were used to describe the morphology, the fine structure and the thylakoid arrangement. The pigments identified were phycoerytrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a. The three-dimensional reconstructions, generated from the natural fluorescence z-stacks, evidenced a large surface area of nearly flat arm-like thylakoidal membranes connected to each other and forming a unified structure in a way that has never been described before. Phylogenetic analyses showed 95% homology to the strain Chroococcus sp. JJCM (AM710384). The phenotypic diacritic features do not correspond to any species currently described and the genetic traits support it being classified as an independent genus in the order Chroococcales and the family Chroococcaceae. Hence, we propose the name Chalicogloea cavernicola gen. nov. sp. nov. The type strain is Chalicogloea cavernicola-COLL 3T (=CCALA 975 T = CCAP 1424/1 T).
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Glücksman E, Snell EA & Cavalier-Smith T (2013) Phylogeny and evolution of Planomonadida (Sulcozoa): Eight new species and new genera Fabomonas and Nutomonas. European Journal of Protistology. 49: 179-200.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2012.08.007
Abstract: Planomonads are widespread gliding zoo?agellates from marine and freshwater sediments with seven species. We cultured 13 new strains; morphology and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequences show that 11 represent eight new species described here. The 15 species form four robust clades, corresponding to revised Planomonas and Ancyromonas and new genera Fabomonas (marine) and Nutomonas (freshwater). Fabomonas tropica differs in shape and is genetically very distant from previously known planomonads, yet ultrastructurally similar. Anterior cilium morphology maps simply onto the rDNA tree forming the basis for two revised families: Ancyromonadidae (Ancyromonas, Nutomonas) have a uniformly thin, entirely acronematic anterior cilium; Planomonadidae (Fabomonas, Planomonas micra, and new species Planomonas elongata, bulbosa, and brevis) have a more conspicuous emergent basal region of the anterior cilium of normal thickness. ITS2 secondary structure is clade-speci?c, differing most sharply in the main Nutomonas subclade from all marine species, being exceptionally short compared with earlier-diverging marine clades. Nutomonas longa is very distant but Nutomonas howeae subsp. lacustris differs from Nutomonas (Planomonas) howeae and limna (new combinations) mainly by ITS2 compensatory and/or hemi-compensatory mutations. Ancyromonas indica, atlantica, and kenti are genetically more distinct from Ancyromonas sigmoides (=Planomonas mylnikovi). The ?rst soil planomonad (new Nutomonas limna subspecies) was isolated.
Keywords: 18S rRNA phylogeny, Ancyromonas, Fabomonas, ITS2 secondary structure, Nutomonas, Planomonas

 

Park JS, De Jonckheere JF & Simpson AGB (2012) Characterization of Selenaion koniopes n. gen., n. sp., an amoeba that represents a new major lineage within Heterlobosea, isolated from the Wieliczka salt mine. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59: 601-613.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00641.x
Abstract: A new heterolobosean amoeba, Selenaion koniopes n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from 73ppt saline water in the Wieliczka salt mine, Poland. The amoeba had eruptive pseudopodia, a prominent uroid, and a nucleus without central nucleolus. Cysts had multiple crater-like pore plugs. No flagellates were observed. Transmission electron microscopy revealed several typical heterolobosean features: flattened mitochondrial cristae, mitochondria associated with endoplasmic reticulum, and an absence of obvious Golgi dictyosomes. Two types of larger and smaller granules were sometimes abundant in the cytoplasm - these may be involved in cyst formation. Mature cysts had a fibrous endocyst that could be thick, plus an ectocyst that was covered with small granules. Pore plugs had a flattened dome shape, were bipartite, and penetrated only the endocyst. Phylogenies based on the 18S rRNA gene and the presence of 18S rRNA helix 17_1 strongly confirmed assignment to Heterolobosea. The organism was not closely related to any described genus, and instead formed the deepest branch within the Heterolobosea clade after Pharyngomonas, with support for this deep-branching position being moderate (i.e. maximum likelihood bootstrap support - 67%; posterior probability - 0.98). Cells grew at 15 - 150ppt salinity. Thus, S. koniopes is a halotolerant, probably moderately halophilic heterolobosean, with a potentially pivotal evolutionary position within this large eukaryote group.
Keywords: cyst, discicristata, excavate, halophile, ITS, pores, protist, protozoa, 18S rDNA

 

Park S, Lee Y & Jin ES (2013) Comparison of the responses of two Dunaliella strains, Dunaliella salina CCAP 19/18 and Dunaliella bardawil to light intensity with special emphasis on carotenogenesis. Algae. 28: 203-211.
DOI: 10.4490/algae.2013.28.2.203
Abstract: Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are well known for carotenogenesis, the overproduction of carotenoids, under stress conditions. The effect of high light (HL) and low light (LL) on the growth, morphology, photosynthetic efficiency, and the ?-carotene and zeaxanthin production of D. salina CCAP 19/18 and D. bardawil was investigated and compared. Both strains showed similar growth kinetics under LL growth condition, but D. salina CCAP 19/18 was faster. As the light intensity increased, D. salina CCAP 19/18 cells were elongated and D. bardawil cells became larger. Both strains showed decrease of the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and election transport rate (ETR) under HL growth condition and D. salina CCAP 19/18 was less liable to the light stress. Both strains had about 1.8 and 5 times difference in the O2 evolution rate at LL and HL conditions, respectively. The ?-carotene and zeaxanthin production were increased as the light intensity increased in both strains. D. bardawil was more sensitive to light intensity than D. salina CCAP 19/18. The possible application of D. salina CCAP 19/18 as a carotenogenic strain will be discussed.
Keywords: ?-carotene, Dunaliella, electron transport rate, Fv/Fm, growth, light intensity, O2 evolution, zeaxanthin

 

Saha SK, Moane S & Murray P (2013) Effect of macro- and micro-nutrient limitation on superoxide dismutase activities and carotenoid levels in microalga Dunaliella salina CCAP 19/18. Bioresource Technology. 147: 23-28.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.022
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sixteen stress conditions on total carotenoid production and the response of antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in microalga Dunaliella salina. Of the stress conditions tested, high-light illumination (240 lmol photons m2 s1) in combination with nitrogen depletion were the conditions associated with maximum carotenoid production and which induced Fe-SOD and retained the specific Mn-SOD isoform. Removal of the micronutrients manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) as well as nitrogen from the medium enhanced carotenoid production on day 5, while the removal of nitrogen and Mn from the growth medium drastically affected carotenoid production at all time-points. The differential response of SODs influences the levels of carotenoid biosynthesis as chronic molecular defence strategies of D. salina.
Keywords: antioxidative enzyme, carotenoid, Dunaliella salina, Micronutrient limitation, superoxide dismutase

 

Li Y, Moore RB, Qin JG, Scott A & Ball AS (2013) Extractable liquid, its energy and hydrocarbon content in the green alga Botryococcus braunii. Biomass and Bioenergy. 52: 103-112.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.03.002
Abstract: Due to sparse sampling across races, studies on various strains of Botryococcus braunii have effectively been indiscriminate, and so the target strains for energy production have not come clearly into focus. This study compares extractable liquid biofuel content, bioenergy content and hydrocarbon content across 16 strains B. braunii (A, B and L races) by direct combustion of algal biomass using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All B. braunii strains were cultured in the same environmental conditions in 250 ml flasks, and were harvested for analysis when algae reached the exponential growth phase. Significant differences were detected within and between races A, B and L. The ranges of variation in extractable liquid, biofuel energy and hydrocarbon contents in algal dry biomass were 10 e40%, 10e60% and 4e25%, respectively. The race B strains (Ayame 1, Kossou 4, Overjuyo 3 and Paquemar) had more than 21% of dry weight comprising C31-C36 hydrocarbons, which are suitable for biofuel and bioenergy production. The Overjuyo 7 and CCAP 807/2 strains in race A and the Madras 3 and Yamoussoukro 4 strains in race L also showed high biofuel production with extractable liquid biofuel accounting for >30% of dry weight. This study identified particular B. braunii strains that are suitable for biofuel production. The application of TGA and PDSC provides a useful analytical approach for assessing the biodiesel production potential of microalgae.
Keywords: Botryococcus braunii, extractable liquid, biofuel energy, hydrocarbon production, algae

 

Kebelmann K, Hornung A, Karsten U & Griffiths G (2013) Intermediate pyrolysis and product identification by TGA and Py-GC/MS of green microalgae and their extracted protein and lipid components. Biomass and Bioenergy. 49: 38-48.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.12.006
Abstract: The thermo-chemical conversion of green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild type (CCAP 11/32C), its cell wall deficient mutant C. reinhardtii CW15? (CCAP 11/32CW15?) and Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B) as well as their proteins and lipids was studied under conditions of intermediate pyrolysis. The microalgae were characterised for ultimate and gross chemical composition, lipid composition and extracted products were analysed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Pyrolysis-gaschromatography/mass-spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Proteins accounted for almost 50%and lipids 16e22% of dry weight of cells with little difference in the lipid compositions between the C. reinhardtii wild type and the cell wall mutant. During TGA analysis, each biomass exhibited three stages of decomposition, namely dehydration, devolatilization and decomposition of carbonaceous solids. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed significant protein derived compounds from all algae including toluene, phenol, 4-methylphenol, 1H-indole, 1H-indole-3methyl. Lipid pyrolysis products derived from C. reinhardtii wild type and C. reinhardtii CW15? were almost identical and reflected the close similarity of the fatty acid profiles of both strains.Major products identified were phytol and phytol derivatives formed fromthe terpenoid chain of chlorophyll, benzoic acid alkyl ester derivative, benzenedicarboxylic acid alkyl ester derivative and squalene. In addition, octadecanoic acid octyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and hydrocarbons including heptadecane, 1-nonadecene and heneicosane were detected from C. vulgaris pyrolysed lipids. These results contrast sharply with the types of pyrolytic products obtained from terrestrial lignocellulosic feedstocks and reveal that intermediate pyrolysis of algal biomass generates a range of useful products with wide ranging applications including bio fuels.
Keywords: intermediate pyrolysis, BtVB process, lipid pyrolysis, protein pyrolysis, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris

 

Osundeko O, Davies H & Pittman JK (2013) Oxidative stress-tolerant microalgae strains are highly efficient for biofuel feedstock production wastewater. Biomass and Bioenergy. 56: 284-294.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.05.027
Abstract: Nutrient-rich wastewater may provide a sustainable means to cultivate microalgal biomass for biofuel use, yet many microalgal strains are very sensitive to wastewater due to toxicity caused by abiotic and biotic stresses. Naturally adapted strains that can efficiently grow in wastewater effluent are therefore of interest, however, the mechanisms by which such strains tolerate wastewater conditions are unknown. This study isolated indigenous chlorophyte microalgae strains from a municipal secondary wastewater effluent tank. The strains were identified by molecular phylogenetics and characterised by their ability to utilise exogenous organic carbon sources for mixotrophic growth and on the basis of oxidative stress tolerance, in order to elucidate the mechanisms of wastewater adaptation. Two of the strains, identified as Chlorella luteoviridis and Parachlorella hussii, could grow very well in raw wastewater due to their substantial tolerance to oxidative stress, which is highly induced by the wastewater environment. These strains exhibited high ascorbate peroxidase activity allowing increased scavenging of reactive oxygen species compared to strains that are not well adapted to the wastewater conditions. Both strains displayed high biomass and lipid productivity values in wastewater effluent. The accumulated lipids were suitable for biodiesel usage with characteristics equivalent to palm oil- and sunflower oil-derived biodiesel. The strains were also efficient in nutrient remediation from the wastewater. These results demonstrate the potential of these two strains for future biofuel applications coupled to wastewater remediation and highlight the importance of oxidative stress tolerance as a key indicator of efficient wastewater growth.
Keywords: biofuel, lipid, microalgae, oxidative stress, wastewater bioremediation

 

Talebi AF, Mohtashami SK, Tabatabaei M, Tohidfar M, Bagheri A, Zeinalabedini M, Mirzaei HH, Mirzajanzadeh M, Shafaroudi SM & Bakhtiari S (2013) Fatty acids profiling: A selective criterion for screening microalgae strains for biodiesel production. Algal Research. 2: 258-267.
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2013.04.003
Abstract: The type and amount of lipids produced by an algal species directly influence the quality of the achieved biodiesel. This study is the first to report on the isolation process and lipid profile analysis of algal strains obtained from the Persian Gulf as well as 9 previously introduced strains. Biomass productivity and lipid productivity seemed to be adequate criteria for estimating the potential of different microalgae species for producing biodiesel. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the estimated properties of biodiesel and the results obtained were plotted against lipid productivity. This led to the distinction of five different microalgae groups in regard to their potential for biodiesel production. This analysis also highlighted the dependence of the fuel properties on oil saturation level. On that basis, Amphora sp. and the two locally isolated strains (Dunaliella sp.) formed the extreme groups. The other three groups generated biodiesel of intermediate quality. The highest volumetric lipid productivity (79.08 mg l?1day?1) was found in Chlorella vulgaris. Based on the results of bioprospection by FAME profiling, the best approach for obtaining quality algal biodiesel is to mix the oils of distinct cell cultures or to specifically select proper microalgal strains for different climate conditions.
Keywords: microalgal biodiesel, FAME profile, lipid productivity, algae bioprospection, microalgae selection, biodiesel properties

 

Talukdar J, Kalita MC & Goswami BC (2013) Characterization of the biofuel potential of a newly isolated strain of the microalga Botryococcus braunii Kützing from Assam, India. Bioresource Technology. 149: 268-275.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.09.057
Abstract: B. braunii GUBIOTJTBB1 was isolated from a freshwater reservoir in Assam, India and its taxonomic identity was confirmed by 18S rRNA sequence analysis. Biofuel potential of the microalgae strain was assessed from batch culture under laboratory conditions, based on its lipid content and energy value of the dried biomass. Total lipid of 57.14% and hexane extractable crude hydrocarbon of 52.6% were recorded maximum at 56 and 28 days respectively, which vary upon culture durations. The energy value (54.69 kJ/g) of the strain?s sundried biomass was found higher than that of petroleum diesel fuel and nearly twice than other microalgae strains compared. The strain GUBIOTJTBB1 was found superior in terms of total lipid and hydrocarbon contents comparing to the previously reported Indian strains of B. braunii. With further improvements in growth, the strain could become an ideal feedstock for potential biofuel production in the prevailing climatic conditions of the region.
Keywords: Botryococcus braunii, GUBIOTJTBB1, biofuels, energy value, hydrocarbon, 18S rRNA

 

Lopez Barreiro D, Zamalloa C, Boon N, Vyverman W, Ronsse F, Brilman W & Prins W (2013) Influence of strain-specific parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae Bioresource Technology. 146: 463-471.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.07.123
Abstract: Algae are an interesting feedstock for producing biofuel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), due to their high water content. In this study, algae slurries (5?7 wt% daf) from different species were liquefied at 250 and 375 C in batch autoclaves during 5 min. The aim was to analyze the influence of strain-specific parameters (cell structure, biochemical composition and growth environment) on the HTL process. Results show big variations in the biocrude oil yield within species at 250 C (from 17.6 to 44.8 wt%). At 375 C, these differences become less significant (from 45.6 to 58.1 wt%). An appropriate characterization of feedstock appeared to be critical to interpret the results. If a high conversion of microalgae-to biocrude is pursued, near critical conditions are required, with Scenedesmus almeriensis (freshwater) and Nannochloropsis gaditana (marine) leading to the biocrude oils with lower nitrogen content from each growth environment.
Keywords: microalgae, hydrothermal liquefaction, biofuel production

 

Franchino M, Comino E, Bona F & Riggio VA (2013) Growth of three microalgae strains and nutrient removal from an agro-zootechnical digestate Chemosphere. 92: 738-744.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.04.023
Abstract: In this paper three microalgae strains (Neochloris oleoabundans, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) were cultivated on an agro-zootechnical digestate in comparable conditions. The material used as growth media was obtained from a pilot plant anaerobic digestor used to digest several mixes of cattle slurry and raw cheese whey. The main aims were to compare the algae growth, their tolerance with respect to the various dilutions of digestate, their nutrient removal efficiency and their role in the transformation of nitrogen compounds. C. vulgaris presented the highest elimination capacity of ammonium in 1:10 digestate sample; it was also observed that only 4% of ammonia was removed with stripping, microalgal and bacterial consortium recovered the remaining 96%. The three strains almost completely removed different nitrogen forms and phosphate in 11 d. The results show that microalgal biomass production offers real opportunities for addressing issues such CO2 sequestration, biofuel production and wastewater treatment.
Keywords: microalgae, digestate, nutrients removal, wastewater recovery

 

Cai T, Park SY, Racharaks R & Li Y (2013) Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source or biofuel production. Applied Energy. 108: 486-492.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.03.056
Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l-1 d-1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l-1 d-1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l-1 d-1 and 3.8 mg l-1 d-1, respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively.
Keywords: Nannochloropsis salina, anaerobic digestion effluent, biofuel, nutrient removal, lipid, microalgae

 

Achilles-Day UEM and Day JG (2013) Isolation of clonal cultures of endosymbiotic green algae from their ciliate hosts. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 92: 355-357.
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2013.01.007
Abstract: Using Paramecium bursaria as a model organism improved protocols have been developed to isolate clonal endosymbiotic algae. This involved micromanipulation of individual protists, rupturing to release endosymbionts followed by enrichment on complex media and a series of plating steps, under low light (PAR ~10 ?mol photons m?2 s?1).
Keywords: algal endosymbiosis, Paramecium bursaria, Euplotes daidaleos, Loxodes rostrum, micromanipulation

 

Hess S & Melkonian M (2013) The mystery of clade X: Orciraptor gen. nov. and Viridiraptor gen. nov. are highly specialised, algivorous amoeboflagellates (Glissomonadida, Cercozoa). Protist. 164: 706-747.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.07.003
Abstract: In freshwater ecosystems a vast diversity of elusive protists exists that specifically feed on microalgae. Due to difficulties in isolation and long-term maintenance, most of these are still poorly known. In this study stable, bacteria-free cultures of several limnetic, algivorous amoeboflagellates were investigated by light microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analyses. All strains represent naked, biflagellate cells, either occurring as rigid flagellates or as surface-attached amoebae. They perforate cell walls of certain Zygnematophyceae and Chlorophyceae (Viridiplantae) and phagocytose algal cell contents. Time-lapse microscopy revealed the feeding behaviour, locomotional processes and life histories of the amoeboflagellates. Clear differences in cell morphology and food range specificity led to the description of two new, monotypic genera Orciraptor and Viridiraptor, which occupy similar, but distinct ecological niches in aquatic ecosystems as ?necrophytophagous? and ?parasitoid? protists, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA sequence data demonstrated that Orciraptor and Viridiraptor belonged to ?clade X? within the order Glissomonadida (Cercozoa, Rhizaria). In conclusion, we established the phenotypic identity of a clade, which until now was exclusively known from environmental sequences, and erect the new family Viridiraptoridae for ?clade X?. Its algivorous members are compared with other glissomonads and nomenclatural, methodological and ecological aspects of these novel ?raptorial? amoeboflagellates are discussed.
Keywords: Barbetia, Diplophysalis, parasite, phagocytosis, phagotrophy, Pseudospora, sarcomonad flagellates, SSU rRNA phylogeny

 

Li C, Zhang Y, Xie ZX, He ZP, Lin L & Wang DZ (2013) Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals evolutionary divergence and species-specific peptides in the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Proteomics. 86: 85-96.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.05.007
Abstract: The Alexandrium tamarense/catenella/fundyense complex is the major causative agent responsible for harmful algal blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning around the world. However, taxonomy of the A. tamarense complex is contentious and the evolutionary relationships within the complex are unclear. This study compared protein profiles of the A. tamarense complex collected from different geographic regions using the two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) approach, and identified species-specific peptides using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that three Alexandrium morphotypes presented significantly different protein expression patterns with about 30-40% shared proteins. However, ecotypes from different geographic regions within a species exhibited the same expression patterns, although a few proteins were altered in abundance. Several proteins, i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase form II, plastid protein NAP50, methionine S-adenosyltransferase, and peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding protein, were identified and presented different shift patterns in isoelectric point and/or molecular weight in the 2-D DIGE gels, indicating that amino acid mutation and/or post translational modification of these proteins had occurred. The species-specific peptide mass fingerprint and amino acid sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase were characterized in the A. tamarense complex, and amino acid substitution occurred among them. This study indicated that evolutionary divergence had occurred at the proteomic level in the A. tamarense complex, and that the species-specific peptides could be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish the three morphotypes.
Keywords: Alexandrium tamarense complex, quantitative proteomics, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprints, peptide amino acid sequences, RuBisCO

 

San Pedro A, Gonzalez-Lopez CV, Acien FG & Molina-Grima E (2013) Marine microalgae selection and culture conditions optimization for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 134: 353-361.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.032
Abstract: Continuous cultures of Nannochloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chuii, Tetraselmis suecica and Phaeodactylum tricornutum were carried out at different dilution rates and culture media in order to check their influence on biomass productivity. N. gaditana attained maximum biomass productivity of 0.49 g/l day at a dilution rate of 0.42 1/day. The influence of nitrate concentration on biomass productivity was tested by continuous cultures of N. gaditana. At 8.0 mM nitrate and dilution rates ranging between 0.30 and 0.40 1/day, maximum biomass productivities were achieved. To enhance lipid accumulation, a two-stage culture strategy consisting in a first stage of nitrate-replete conditions followed by a nitrate-depleted phase was performed. The accumulated productivity was 51 mgFATTY ACIDS/l day. Results showed an important change in the fatty acids profile and an increase in the neutral lipids content, representing 73.1% of total lipids. Additionally, the combination of nitrogen depletion and light stress was proved to contribute to lipid enhancement.
Keywords: marine microalgae, biodiesel, nitrogen deprivation, two-stage culture strategy

 

Bogen C, Klassen V, Wichmann J, La Russa M, Doebbe A, Grundmann M, Uronen P, Kruse O & Mussgnug JH (2013) Identification of Monoraphidium contortum as a promising species for liquid biofuel production. Bioresource Technology. 133: 622-626.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.01.164
Abstract: In this work, 30 microalgae strains from 17 genera were investigated in regard to biomass productivity in photoautotrophic growth conditions, lipid amount, lipid quality and biomass degradability. Six strains could be identified with robust phototrophic growth properties and high biomass productivities equal or above 300 mg l-1 day-1. Anaerobic fermentation of the algal biomass was most efficient for the marine members of the genera Dunaliella and Navicula, while biogas production with the freshwater strains generally resulted in lower methane yields. Monoraphidium contortum was identified as promising candidate for liquid biofuel production, characterized by high biomass productivity during maximum growth (maximum increase of 896 mg dry biomass weight (DW) l-1 day-1) and a promising lipid profile. Neutral lipid production was strongly induced in M. contortum by nitrogen deficient conditions and accumulated to up to 20.4 ? 2.2% of DW.
Keywords: bioenergy, biogas, biodiesel, lipid profiling, microalga

 

Aravantinou AF, Theodorakopoulos MA & Manariotis ID (2013) Selection of microalgae for wastewater treatment and potential lipids production. Bioresource Technology. 147: 130-134.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.024
Abstract: In the present study, ten microalgal strains found in fresh and saline waters were cultured, and used to conduct batch experiments in order to evaluate their potential contribution to nutrient removal and biofuel production. The growth rate of microalgae was inversely analogous to their initial concentration. Three freshwater strains were selected, based on their growth rate, and their behavior with synthetic wastewater was further investigated. The strains studied were the Scenedesmus rubescens (SAG 5.95), the Neochloris vigensis (SAG 80.80), and the Chlorococcum spec. (SAG 22.83), and higher growth rate was observed with S. rubescens. Total phosphorus removal at an initial phosphate concentration of 6?7 mg P/L in the synthetic wastewater, was 53%, 25% and 11% for N. vigensis, Chlorococcum spec., and S. rubescens, respectively. Finally, the lipid content was determined at 20th and 30th day of cultivation, and the highest amount was observed at the 20th day.
Keywords: microalgae, growth kinetics, lipids production, nutrients removal

 

Lahr DJG, Grant JR & Katz LA (2013) Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida. Protist. 164: 323-339.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.02.003
Abstract: Tubulinea is a phylogenetically stable higher-level taxon within Amoebozoa, morphologically characterized by monoaxially streaming and cylindrical pseudopods. Contemporary phylogenetic reconstructions have largely relied on SSU rDNA, and to a lesser extent, on actin genes to reveal the relationships among these organisms. Additionally, the test (shell) forming Arcellinida, one of the most species-rich amoebozoan groups, is nested within Tubulinea and suffers from substantial undersampling of taxa. Here, we increase taxonomic and gene sampling within the Tubulinea, characterizing molecular data for 22 taxa and six genes (SSU rDNA, actin, a- and b-tubulin, elongation factor 2 and the 14-3-3 regulatory protein). We perform concatenated phylogenetic analyses using these genes as well as approximately unbiased tests to assess evolutionary relationships within the Tubulinea. We confirm the monophyly of Tubulinea and four of the six included lineages (Echinamoeboidea, Leptomyxida, Amoebida and Poseidonida). Arcellinida and Hartmanellidae, the remaining lineages, are not monophyletic in our reconstructions, although statistical testing does not allow rejection of either group. We further investigate more fine-grained morphological evolution of previously defined groups, concluding that relationships within Arcellinida are more consistent with general test and aperture shape than with test composition. We also discuss the implications of this phylogeny for interpretations of the Precambrian fossil record of testate amoebae.
Keywords: testate amoebae, Arcellinida, multigene phylogeny, Tubulinea, Amoebozoa

 

Corsaro D, Müller KD & Michel R (2013) Molecular characterization and ultrastructure of a new amoeba endoparasite belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex. Experimental Parasitology. 133: 383-390.
DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2012.12.016
Abstract: Naegleria and Acanthamoeba spp. were recovered from biofilm of a flushing cistern in a lavatory and both were found to be infected by rod-shaped bacteria enclosed within a vacuole. These intracellular bacteria behave like parasites, causing lysis of host amoebae. The bacteria proved unculturable on bacteriological media, and but could be maintained as endocytobionts within Acanthamoeba on agar plates. A marked differential host preference was observed in co-culture assays with various strains of amoebae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses performed on almost complete 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacteria emerged as an atypical rapidly-evolving strain within the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex (Gamma-Proteobacteria, Xanthomonadales).
Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, free-living amoebae, endocytobiont, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Stenotrophomonas

 

Lavaud J & Lepetit B (2013) An explanation for the inter-species variability of the photoprotective non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in diatoms. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 1827: 294-302.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.11.012
Abstract: Diatoms are a major group of microalgae whose photosynthetic productivity supports a substantial part of the aquatic primary production. In their natural environment they have to cope with strong fluctuations of the light climate which can be harmful for photosynthesis. In order to prevent the damage of their photosynthetic machinery, diatoms use fast regulatory processes among which the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) is one of the most important. In a previous work, we highlighted differences in the kinetics and extent of NPQ between diatom species/strains originating from different aquatic habitats. We proposed that the NPQ differences observed between strains/species could potentially participate to their ecophysiological adaptation to the light environment of their respective natural habitat. In order to better understand themolecular bases of such differences, we compared theNPQ features of four strains/species of diatoms known for their NPQ discrepancy. We could identify new spectroscopic fingerprints concomitant to NPQ and the related xanthophyll cycle. These fingerprints helped us propose a molecular explanation for the NPQ differences observed between the diatom species/strains examined. The present work further strengthens the potential role of NPQ in the ecophysiology of diatoms.
Keywords: diatom, diatoxanthin, ecophysiology, photoprotection, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, xanthophyll cycle

 

Siegmund L, Burmester A, Fischer MS & Wostemeyer J (2013) A model for endosymbiosis: Interaction between Tetrahymena pyriformis and Escherichia coli. European Journal of Protistology. 49: 552-563.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2013.04.007
Abstract: Endosymbiosis in ciliates is a common and highly diverse phenomenon in nature, but its development at the mechanistic leveland the origins are not easy to understand, since these associations may have arisen at any time during evolution. Therefore alaboratory model is helpful. It could be provided by the interaction of Tetrahymena pyriformis and Escherichia coli. Microscopicanalyses with a genetically manipulated fluorescent strain of E. coli show single bacteria leaving food vacuoles and escapingdigestion, an important prerequisite for further experiments. Under selective conditions, beneficial for T. pyriformis, the ciliatewas shown to internalize E. coli cells. After feeding, bacteria, transformed with the plasmids pBS-neoTet or pNeo4, provide T.pyriformis with the ability to handle toxic conditions, caused by the aminoglykoside antibiotic paromomycin. Axenic culturesor cocultures with untransformed bacteria show lower cell numbers and survival rates compared to cocultures with transformedbacteria after transfer to paromomycin containing media. PCR detects bacterial DNA inside T. pyriformis cells. Additionally,microscopical analysis of selectively grown cocultures reveals fluorescing particles in the cytoplasm of T. pyriformis containingDNA and lipids, corresponding in size to E. coli. This system could be a reasonable model for understanding mechanisms ofendosymbiosis establishment in ciliates.
Keywords: ciliates, endosymbiosis, model system, paromomycin, Tetrahymena

 

Mohsenpour SF & Willoughby N (2013) Luminescent photobioreactor design for improved algal growth and photosynthetic pigment production through spectral conversion of light. Bioresource Technology. 142: 147-153.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.024
Abstract: Growth characteristics of two strains of microalgae in bubble column photobioreactors were investigated under different cultivation conditions. Chlorella vulgaris and Gloeothece membranacea were cultivated in luminescent acrylic photobioreactors at different seed culture densities. Luminescent acrylic photobioreactors in blue, green, yellow, orange, and red colours capable of spectral conversion of light were used. The results indicated that the red luminescent photobioreactor enhanced biomass production in both strains of microalgae while pigmentation was induced under different light colours. Green light promoted chlorophyll production in C. vulgaris however chlorophyll production in G. membranacea cultures was less influenced by the light condition or culture density. Phycobiliproteins were the dominant pigments in G. membranacea and red light favoured synthesis of these pigments.
Keywords: photobioreactor, microalgae, light wavelength, luminescent, photosynthetic pigments

 

Oncel SS (2013) Microalgae for a macroenergy world. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 26: 241-264.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.059
Abstract: One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply enough energy with minimal environmental impact. On this demand bioenergy from renewable biofuels is of growing public and private interest. Recent developments in the scientific researches show that microalgae have potential as a source of bioenergy. With their exception of being one of the oldest residents of the Earth and playing a vital role in building up the atmosphere, microalgae have a variety of diversified strains, biochemical routes and products that can be used for biofuel processing. An increasing number of researchers, academics, entrepreneurs and investors are now working on new technologies to adapt microalgae originated energy into our daily life. The aim of this review is to focus on microalgae based biofuels under the main titles of biodiesel, biohydrogen, bioethanol and biomethane. For evolution in bioenergy that started with the first generation way through the third generation and today stepping on the concept of fourth generation, microalgae will be a good candidate for an alternative energy source.
Keywords: microalgae, biofuels, biodiesel, biohydrogen, bioethanol, biomethane

 

Caisova L, Marin B & Melkonian M (2013) A consensus secondary structure of ITS2 in the Chlorophyta identified by phylogenetic reconstruction. Protist. 164: 482-496.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.04.005
Abstract: The definition of species plays a pivotal role in biology. It has been proposed that Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs) in the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) correlate with speciation and thus can be used to distinguish species. The applicability of CBC - based species concepts using ITS2, however, rests on the homology of the investigated ITS2 positions. We studied the ITS2 molecule of 147 strains of Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae) including 26 new sequences in the order Chaetophorales, and compared their secondary structures to ITS2 in the sister class Ulvophyceae, represented by the order Ulvales. Using a phylogenetic/comparative approach, it was possible to identify 1) the first consensus structure model of the ITS2 molecule that can be applied to two classes ofgreen algae [Ulvophyceae (Ulvales), Chlorophyceae] and 2) landmarks (the spacer regions separating the ITS2 Helices) for more robust prediction of the secondary structures in green algae. Moreover, we found that CBCs in homologous positions in these 147 strains (representing 115 validly described species) are either completely absent or mostly associated with internal branches representing higher order taxonomic levels (genera, families, orders). As reported for the Ulvales, CBCs are not diagnostic at the species level in the dataset used.
Keywords: CBC, ITS2, phylogeny, robust secondary structure prediction, spacer, species concept

 

Wong DM & Franz AK (2013) A comparison of lipid storage in Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis suecica using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 95: 122-128.
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2013.07.026
Abstract: Microalgae contain lipid bodies (LBs) composed of triacylglycerols, which can be converted to biodiesel. Here we demonstrate a method to study the accumulation patterns of LBs in different microalgae strains and culture conditions utilizing laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) with BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) staining, in parallel with Nile Red (9-diethylamino-5H-benzo-aphenoxazine-5-one) fluorescence analysis of intracellular lipids in microplates. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis suecica were selected as model organisms and monitored throughout the growth phases in standard and nitrogen-deficient growth conditions. Utilizing image quantification techniques, the number and morphology of LBs suggest that P. tricornutum accumulates lipids by merging with existing LBs, while T. suecica synthesizes new LBs. We observed that T. suecica accumulates a higher number of LBs and total volume of lipids per cell, while P. tricornutum accumulates only 1?2 LBs with a larger volume per LB. LSCM analysis complements Nile Red (NR) methods because LSCM provides three-dimensional images of lipid accumulation at a cellular level, while NR analysis can quickly monitor the total levels of intracellular lipids for phenotypic screening. Using NR analysis, we have observed that the optimal harvest date for P. tricornutum and T. suecica in standard cultivation conditions is 24 and 42 days, respectively. Comparison with nitrogen-deficient growth conditions is utilized as a model to confirm that LSCM and NR analysis can be used to study lipid storage and productivity for diverse growth conditions and various strains of microalgae.
Keywords: biofuels, BODIPY 505/515, intracellular lipids, laser scanning confocal microscopy, microalgae, nile red

 

Dupuy M, Berne F, Herbelin P, Binet M, Berthelot N, Rodier MH, Soreau S & Hechard Y (2014) Sensitivity of free-living amoeba trophozoites and cysts to water disinfectants. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 335: 339.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.07.007
Abstract: Free-living amoebae are naturally present in water. These protozoa could be pathogenic and could also shelter pathogenic bacteria. Thus, they are described as a potential hazard for health. Also, free-living amoebae have been described to be resistant to biocides, especially under their cyst resistant form. There are several studies on amoeba treatments but none of them compare sensitivity of trophozoites and cysts from different genus to various water disinfectants. In our study, we tested chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide on both cysts and trophozoites from three strains, belonging to the three main genera of free-living amoebae. The results show that, comparing cysts to trophozoites inactivation, only the Acanthamoeba cysts were highly more resistant to treatment than trophozoites. Comparison of the disinfectant efficiency led to conclude that chlorine dioxide was the most efficient treatment in our conditions and was particularly efficient against cysts. In conclusion, our results would help to adapt water treatments in order to target free-living amoebae in water networks.
Keywords: amoeba, water, treatment, disinfectant, chlorine, cyst

 

Chen CY, Zhao XQ, Yen HW, Ho SH, Cheng CL, Lee DJ, Bai FW & Chang JS (2013) Microalgae-based carbohydrates for biofuel production. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 78: 1-10.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2013.03.006
Abstract: Microalgae are considered as the most promising renewable feedstock for biofuel production and biorefineries, due to their advantages of fast growth, efficient carbon dioxide fixation, not competing for arable lands and potable water, and potentially accumulating high amounts of lipids and carbohydrates. Since carbohydrates in microalgae biomass are mainly cellulose in the cell wall and starch in the plastids without lignin and low hemicelluloses contents, they can be readily converted into fermentable sugars. However, to date there are very few studies focusing on the use of microalgae-based carbohydrates for biofuel production, which requires more understanding and knowledge to support the technical feasibility of this next-generation feedstock. This review article elucidates comprehensive information on the characteristics and metabolism of main fermentable microalgal carbohydrates (e.g., starch and cellulose), as well as the key factors and challenges that should be addressed during production and saccharification of microalgal carbohydrates. Furthermore, developments on the utilization of microalgae-based feedstock in producing liquid and gaseous biofuels are summarized. The objective of this article is to provide useful knowledge and information with regard to biochemistry, bioprocess engineering, and commercial applications to assist in the viable technology development of for biofuels generation from microalgae-based carbohydrates.
Keywords: microalgae, biogas, growth kinetics, integrated processing, biofuels, biorefinery

 

Johnson EA & Lecomte JTJ (2013) Chapter Six - The globins of cyanobacteria and algae. Advances in Microbial Physiology. 63: 195-272.
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407693-8.00006-6
Abstract: Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.
Keywords: Chlamydomonas, cyanobacteria, haem, Nostoc, photosynthetic microbe, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, Synechococcus, Synechocystis, truncated haemoglobins

 

Ho SH, Huang SW, Chen CY, Hasunuma T, Kondo A & Chang JS (2013) Characterization and optimization of carbohydrate production from an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E. Bioresource Technology. 135: 157-165.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.100
Abstract: In this study, three indigenous microalgae isolates were examined for their ability to produce carbohydrates. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E displayed relatively high cell growth rate and carbohydrate content. The carbohydrate productivity of C. vulgaris FSP-E was further improved by using engineering strategies. The results show that using an appropriate light intensity and inoculum size could effectively promote cell growth and carbohydrate productivity. Nitrogen starvation triggered the accumulation of carbohydrates in the microalga, achieving a carbohydrate content of 51.3% after 4-day starvation. Under the optimal conditions, the highest biomass and carbohydrate productivity were 1.437 and 0.631 g L-1 d-1, respectively. This performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Since glucose accounted for nearly 93% of the carbohydrates accumulated in C. vulgaris FSP-E, the microalga is an excellent feedstock for bioethanol fermentation.
Keywords: microalgae, carbohydrate, Chlorella vulgaris, nitrogen starvation, light intensity

 

Marchal L, Mojaat-Guemir M, Foucault A & Pruvost J (2013) Centrifugal partition extraction of ?-carotene from Dunaliella salina for efficient and biocompatible recovery of metabolites Bioresource Technology. 134: 396-400.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.019
Abstract: A biocompatible extraction method for b-carotene recovery from the microalga Dunaliella salina was studied. The centrifugal partition extraction was used for liquid-liquid mass transfer intensification during continuous extraction. Different solvents and process parameters were compared. Ethyl oleate extraction with 5% dichloromethane achieved a 65% b-carotene recovery with the least amount of cell damage as more than 65% of the cells remained viable as demonstrated by photosynthesis activity measurements.
Keywords: centrifugal partition extraction, microalgae, ?-carotene, Dunaliella salina

 

Mayers JJ, Flynn KJ & Shields RJ (2013) Rapid determination of bulk microalgal biochemical composition by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Bioresource Technology. 148: 215-220.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.133
Abstract: Analysis of bulk biochemical composition is a key in fundamental and applied studies of microalgae and is essential to understanding responses to different cultivation scenarios. Traditional biochemical methods for the quantification of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins are often time-consuming, often involve hazardous reagents, require significant amounts of biomass and are highly dependent on practitioner proficiency. This study presents a rapid and non-destructive method, utilising Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of lipid, protein and carbohydrate content in microalgal biomass. A simple univariate regression was applied to sets of reference microalgal spectra of known composition and recognised IR peak integrals. A robust single-species model was constructed, with coefficients of determination r2 > 0.95, high predictive accuracy and relative errors below 5%. The applicability of this methodology is demonstrated by monitoring the time-resolved changes in biochemical composition of the marine alga Nannochloropsis sp. grown to nitrogen starvation.
Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy, microalgae, lipids, process monitoring, Nannochloropsis sp.

 

Mizuno Y, Sato A, Watanabe K, Hirata A, Takeshita T, Ota S, Sato N, Zachleder V, Tsuzuki M & Kawano S (2013) Sequential accumulation of starch and lipid induced by sulfur deficiency in Chlorella and Parachlorella species. Bioresource Technology. 129: 150-155.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.030
Abstract: The influence of sulfur deficiency on biomass production was analyzed in the four Chlorellaceae species, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella lobophora, and Parachlorella kessleri. Culturing under sulfur-deficient conditions promoted transient accumulation of starch followed by a steady increase in lipid storage. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an increase and decrease in starch granules and subsequent enlargement of lipid droplets under sulfur-deficient conditions. Chlorellaceae spp. accumulated 1.5-2.7-fold higher amounts of starch and 1.5-2.4-fold higher amounts of lipid under sulfur deficient conditions than under sulfur-sufficient conditions. More than 75% of the fatty acids that accumulated in Chlorellaceae spp. under the sulfur-sufficient condition were unsaturated and culturing under sulfur-deficient conditions increased the saturated fatty acid content from 24.3% to 59.7% only in P. kessleri. These results indicate that the sequential accumulation of starch and lipid is a response to the sulfur depletion that commonly occurs in Chlorellaceae spp.
Keywords: sulfur deficiency, Chlorella spp., Parachlorella kessleri, starch, lipids

 

Hegewald E, Bock C & Krienitz L (2013) A phylogenetic study on Scenedesmaceae with the description of a new species of Pectinodesmus and the new genera Verrucodesmus and Chodatodesmus (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). Fottea. 13: 149-164.
DOI:
Abstract: A comparative study of the phylogeny of Scenedesmaceae based on rRNA gene sequences (ITS1/5.8S/ITS2), cell morphology and cell wall ultrastructure resulted in the acceptance of the genus Acutodesmus and the description of the new genera Verrucodesmus and Chodatodesmus. A new species Pectinodesmus holtmannii and 11 new combinations were erected: Chodatodesmus mucronulatus, Verrucodesmus verrucosus, V. parvus, Pectinodesmus pectinatus f. tortuosus, Acutodesmus bajacalifornicus, A. bernardii, A. deserticola, A. dissociatus, A. distendus, A. nygaardii, A. obliquus var. dactylococcoides. It was shown that the new genera Verrucodesmus and two of the Chodatodesmus strains have enlarged ITS2 helices (helix I in Verrucodesmus and helix III in Chodatodesmus). The occurrence of zoospores of Scenedesmaceae in nature was discussed.
Keywords: Acutodesmus, chlorophyta, Chodatodesmus, 5.8S, ITS1, ITS2, Pectinodesmus, Scenedesmaceae, taxonomy, Verrucodesmus, zoospores

 

Vlachakis D, Pavlopoulou A, Kazazi D & Kossida S (2013) Unraveling microalgal molecular interactions using evolutionary and structural bioinformatics. Gene. 528: 109-119.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.07.039
Abstract: Microalgae are unicellular microorganisms indispensible for environmental stability and life on earth, because they produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen,with simultaneously feeding on the harmful greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Using gene fusion analysis, a series of five fusion/fission eventswas identified, that provided the basis for critical insights to their evolutionary history. Moreover, the three-dimensional structures of both the fused and the component proteins were predicted, allowing us to envisage putative protein?protein interactions that are invaluable for the efficient usage, handling and exploitation of microalgae. Collectively, our proposed approach on the five fusion/fission alga protein events contributes towards the expansion of the microalgae knowledgebase, bridging protein evolution of the ancient microalgal species and the rapidly evolving, modern, bioinformatics field.
Keywords: gene fusion, gene fission, homology modeling, protein association, microalgae

 

Wang Y, Rischer H, Eriksen NT & Wiebe MG (2013) Mixotrophic continuous flow cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides for lipids. Bioresource Technology. 144: 608-614.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.07.027
Abstract: The oleaginous alga Chlorella protothecoides accumulates lipid in its biomass when grown in nitrogenrestricted conditions. To assess the relationship between nitrogen provision and lipid accumulation and to determine the contribution of photosynthesis in mixotrophic growth, C. protothecoides was grown in mixo- and heterotrophic nitrogen-limited continuous flow cultures. Lipid content increased with decreasing C/N, while biomass yield on glucose was not affected. Continuous production of high lipid levels (57% of biomass) was possible at high C/N (87-94). However, the lipid production rate (2.48 g L-1 d-1) was higher at D = 0.84 d-1 with C/N 37 than at D = 0.44 d-1 and C/N 87 even though the lipid content of the biomass was lower (38%). Photosynthesis contributed to biomass and lipid production in mixotrophic conditions, resulting in 13-38% reduction in CO2 production compared with heterotrophic cultures, demonstrating that photo- and heterotrophic growth occurred simultaneously in the same population.
Keywords: microalgae, continuous flow culture, mixotrophic growth, lipid, C/N ratio

 

Emelogu ES, Pollard P, Dymond P, Robinson CD, Webster L, McKenzie C, Dobson J, Bresnan E & Moffat CF (2013) Occurrence and potential combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Forth estuary and Firth of Forth, Scotland assessed using passive samplers and an algal toxicity test. Science of the Total Environment. 461-462: 230-239.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.011
Abstract: As an alternative procedure to conventional water quality assessment, the presence and combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in water at five sites in the Forth estuary and the Firth of Forth, Scotland, United Kingdomwas investigated using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and an algal growth inhibition bioassay. SR-PSDs were deployed in water at the five sites for ~2 months. Following retrieval, extracts from the deployed SR-PSDs were assessed for both algal growth inhibition and the occurrence of a wide range of organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and a variety of plant protection products (PPPs; commonly referred to collectively as ?pesticides?). The 72 h algal growth inhibition test was performed using a native marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) in 24 well microplates. Freely dissolved (e.g. bioavailable) concentrations of PAHs and PCBswere determined using performance reference compounds (PRCs). The algal toxicity tests exhibited varied effects at the five sites indicating the presence of, and exposure to, phytotoxic compounds and their potential toxicity in the Forth. The individual and total dissolved concentrations of 40 PAHs and 32 PCBs measured in the study were relatively low and showed input of petrogenic, atmospheric and sewage related sources. Several pesticides of diverse polarities were identified in the water suggesting sources from both riverine input and direct discharges. The study thus illustrates the value of combining bioassays and chemical analysis (with effective sampling technique) for a realistic and rapid assessment of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.
Keywords: Forth estuary and Firth of Forth, silicone rubber passive sampling, algal growth inhibition, water quality, organic contaminants, bioavailable

 

Gangaplara A, Massilamany C, Steffen D & Reddy J (2013) Mimicry epitope from Ehrlichia canis for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein 201-216 prevents autoimmune uveoretinitis by acting as altered peptide ligand. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 263: 98-107.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.08.006
Abstract: We report here identification of novel mimicry epitopes for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) 201-216, a candidate ocular antigen that causes experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in A/J mice. One mimicry epitope from Ehrlichia canis (EHC), designated EHC 44-59, induced cross-reactive T cells for IRBP 201-216 capable of producing T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cytokines, but failed to induce EAU in A/J mice. In addition, animals first primedwith suboptimal doses of IRBP 201-216 and subsequently immunizedwith EHC 44-59 did not develop EAU; rather, the mimicry epitope prevented the disease induced by IRBP 201-216. However, alteration in the composition of EHC 44-59 by substituting alanine with valine at position 49, similar to the composition of IRBP 201-216, enabled the mimicry epitope to acquire uveitogenicity. The data provide new insights as to how microbes containingmimicry sequences for retinal antigens can prevent ocular inflammation by acting as naturally occurring altered peptide ligands.
Keywords: autoimmunity, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, molecular mimicry, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, cross-reactive T cells

 

Giovannacci D, Leclaire C, Horgnies M, Ellmer M, Mertz JD, Orial G, Chen J & Bousta F (2013) Algal colonization kinetics on roofing and façade tiles: Influence of physical parameters. Construction and Building Materials. 48: 670-676.
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.07.034
Abstract: Algal growth is responsible for aesthetic defects on roofing tiles. Accelerated water-streaming tests were done on different building materials. The results establish the ranges of porosity and roughness that can initiate the colonization under humid saturation. A smooth surface is then recommended to reduce the settlement. Experiments done on limestone and clay tiles demonstrate that coupling high porosity and rough surface should be banished to avoid any rapid algal colonization. However, the alkaline composition of concrete tiles can strongly affect the algal settlement, whatever their intrinsic porosity and roughness. Observations by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy show that calcite crystals could promote the settlement of algae on the surface.
Keywords: tiles, algae, aesthetic, accelerated test, kinetics of colonization, porosity, roughness, concrete

 

Seligmann H (2013) Systematic asymmetric nucleotide exchanges produce human mitochondrial RNAs cryptically encoding for overlapping protein coding genes. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 324: 1-20.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.01.024
Abstract: GenBank?s EST database includes RNAs matching exactly human mitochondrial sequences assuming systematic asymmetric nucleotide exchange-transcription along exchange rules: A-G-C-U/T-A (12 ESTs), A-U/T-C-G-A (4ESTs), C-G-U/T-C (3ESTs), and A-C-G-U/T-A (1EST), no RNAs correspond to other potential asymmetric exchange rules. Hypothetical polypeptides translated from nucleotide-exchanged human mitochondrial protein coding genes align with numerous GenBank proteins, predicted secondary structures resemble their putative GenBank homologue?s. Two independent methods designed to detect overlapping genes (one based on nucleotide contents analyses in relation to replicative deamination gradients at third codon positions, and circular code analyses of codon contents based on frame redundancy), confirm nucleotide-exchange-encrypted overlapping genes. Methods converge on which genes are most probably active, and which not, and this for the various exchange rules. Mean EST lengths produced by different nucleotide exchanges are proportional to (a) extents that various bioinformatics analyses confirm the protein coding status of putative overlapping genes; (b) known kinetic chemistry parameters of the corresponding nucleotide substitutions by the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (nucleotide DNA misinsertion rates); (c) stop codon densities in predicted overlapping genes (stop codon readthrough and exchanging polymerization regulate gene expression by counterbalancing each other). Numerous rarely expressed proteins seem encoded within regular mitochondrial genes through asymmetric nucleotide exchange, avoiding lengthening genomes. Intersecting evidence between several independent approaches confirms the working hypothesis status of gene encryption by systematic nucleotide exchanges.
Keywords: RNA transcription, RNA editing, DNA polymerase gamma, circular code, replicational mutation gradients

 

Meneely JP, Campbell K, Greef C, Lochhead MJ & Elliott CT (2013) Development and validation of an ultrasensitive fluorescence planar waveguide biosensor for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine algae. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 41: 691-697.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.09.043
Abstract: Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination andrisks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CCb were determined as 12pg/mL and 20pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CCb and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10cells/L.
Keywords: paralytic shellfish toxins, fluorescence immunoassay, planar waveguide, Alexandrium spp., early warning, ultra sensitive

 

Devlin S, Meneely JP, Greer B, Greef C, Lochhead MJ & Elliott CT (2013) Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta. 769: 108-113.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2013.01.033
Abstract: The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL?1 and the CCb to be 1 ng mL?1. Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL?1, and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL?1. This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 µg L?1. This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications.
Keywords: microcystin, planar waveguide, portable biosensor, novel lysis, blue-green algae, cyanobacteria

 

Gonzalez-Araya R, Quillien V & Robert R (2013) The effects of eight single microalgal diets on sex-ratio and gonad development throughout European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) conditioning. Aquaculture. 400-401: 1-5.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.02.036
Abstract: To determine the effects of food quality on Ostrea edulis reproduction, European flat oysters were conditioned during two sets of experiments, carried out in spring and autumn, during 40 days at 19°C, in 50 l transparent flow-through tanks, in triplicate, and fed constantly at 900 ?m3 ?l?1, with eight different types of microalgae. Four species were fed per group of trials: Isochrysis affinis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Skeletonema marinoï, and Tetraselmis suecica were fed to flat oysters in the first set; whereas Rhodomonas salina, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Pavlova lutheri were provided during the second set of experiments. At the beginning and end of both conditioning periods, oysters were sampled and processed for histology analysis for each diet. Each oyster was classified for its sex and gonad development stage. Oysters fed S. marinoï and C. gracilis exhibited the highest ratio of hermaphrodites with 96 and 77% respectively, whereas those fed T. suecica showed the lowest hermaphrodite percentage, 59%. When oysters were conditioned throughout the second set of experiments with four other species, oysters fed R. salina and T. weissflogii exhibited 83 and 87% of hermaphrodites. Regardless of the diet, a gonad development occurred during the first set of experiments with ?60% ripe oysters (stage 3) and spawned oysters (stage 4). In the second set of trials, oysters fed R. salina and T. weissflogii were highly mature with 90% and 75% of stage 3 and stage 4 respectively; whereas those fed P. lutheri showed low maturation with only 17% of ripe oysters.
Keywords: Ostrea edulis, broodstock conditioning, gametogenesis, microalgal diets

 

Yabuki A, Ishida KI & Cavalier-Smith T (2013) Rigifila ramosa n. gen., n. sp., a filose Apusozoan with a distinctive pellicle, is related to Micronuclearia. Protist. 164: 75-88.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2012.04.005
Abstract: We report the ultrastructure, 18S and 28S rDNA sequences, and phylogenetic position of a distinctive free-living heterotrophic filose protist, Rigifila ramosa n. gen., n. sp., from a freshwater paddyfield. Rigifila lacks cilia and has a semi-rigid, radially symmetric, well-rounded, partially microtubule-supported, dorsal pellicle, and flat mitochodrial cristae. From a central aperture in a ventral depression emerges a protoplasmic stem that branches into several branching filopodia that draw bacteria to it. Electron microscopy reveals a general cell structure similar to Micronuclearia, the only non-flagellate previously known in Apusozoa; the large basal vacuole is probably an unusual giant contractile vacuole. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated rDNA sequences groups Rigifila and Micronuclearia as sisters with maximal statistical support. However, novel morphological differences unique to Rigifila, notably a double (not single) proteinaceous layer beneath the cell membrane, and cortical microtubules, lead us to place it in a new family Rigifilidae. Our morphological and molecular analyses show that Rigifila is the closest known relative of Micronuclearia. Therefore we group Micronucleariidae and Rigifilidae as a new order Rigifilida within the existing class Hilomonadea, which now excludes planomonads. Rigifilida groups weakly with Collodictyon (Diphyllatea). We discuss the possible relationships of Rigifilida to other Apusozoa and Diphyllatea.
Keywords: Apusozoa, Diphyllatea, Micronuclearia, molecular phylogeny, Rigifilida, Ultrastructure

 

Theroux S, Toney J, Amaral-Zettler L & Huang Y (2013) Production and temperature sensitivity of long chain alkenones in the cultured haptophyte Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa. Organic Geochemistry. 62: 68-73.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2013.07.006
Abstract: The alkenone unsaturation index (UK37 or UKo37) serves as a critical tool for reconstructing temperature in marine environments. Lacustrine haptophyte algae are genetically distinct from their ubiquitous and well studied marine counterparts, and the unknown species-specific genetic imprints on long chain alkenone production by lacustrine species have hindered the widespread application of the UK37 temperature proxy to lake sediment records. The haptophyte Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa produces alkenones but its UK37 calibration has never been determined. It has an alkenone fingerprint abundant in tetraunsaturated alkenones, a hallmark of lacustrine environments. We present here the first calibration of the UK37 index to temperature for a culture of P. paradoxa. We found that the UK37 index accurately captured the alkenone response to temperature whereas the UKo37 index failed to do so, with UKo37 values below 0.08 projecting to two different temperature values. Our results add a fifth species-specific UK37 calibration and provide another line of evidence that different haptophyte species require different UK37 calibrations. The findings also highlight the necessary inclusion of the C37:4 alkenone when reconstructing temperatures from P. paradoxa-derived alkenone records.
Keywords:

 

Lee MA, Faria DG, Han MS, Lee J & Ki JS (2013) Evaluation of nuclear ribosomal RNA and chloroplast gene markers for the DNA taxonomy of centric diatoms. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 50: 163-174.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2013.03.025
Abstract: Diatoms are highly diversified microeukaryotes with a taxonomy that has been under perpetual revision, particularly by means of molecular analyses. In this study, we evaluated typical genes to find the best molecular marker for the DNA taxonomy of centric diatoms, including Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, Cyclotella Kützing ex de Brébisson, Discostella Houk & Klee, Stephanodiscus Ehrenberg, and Thalassiosira Cleve. Our test genes included nuclear ribosomal RNA (e.g. small subunit, 5.8S, and large subunit [LSU]), and chloroplast genes (e.g. ribulose-1, 5-biphoshate carboxylase oxygenase and D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction centre core complex [psbA]). Calculated genetic divergence was highest for LSU ribosomal RNA D1-D5 (p-distance of 12.3), followed by 5.8S (7.7), ribulose-1, 5-biphoshate carboxylase oxygenase (7.4), small subunit (6.6), and psbA (3.7). The phylogenetic trees for individual genes effectively separated taxonomically tested centric diatoms with different phylogenetic resolutions; however, psbA was incongruent with others. These taxonomic resolving powers were in agreement with genetic divergences. Parsimony analysis showed that LSU evolved 1.97 times more rapidly than psbA and 1.07 times more rapidly than 5.8S. These results suggest that all of the tested genes except psbA can be used as taxonomic markers for centric diatoms and that LSU is the best molecular marker.
Keywords: diatom, divergence, molecular taxonomy, rRNA, chloroplast gene

 

Cavalier-Smith T & Scoble JM (2013) Phylogeny of heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes. European Journal of Protistology. 49: 328-353.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2012.09.002
Abstract: Environmental rDNA sequencing has revealed many novel heterokont clades of unknown morphology. We describe a new marine heterotrophic heterokont flagellate, Incisomonas marina, which most unusually lacks an anterior cilium. It glides and swims with its cilium trailing behind, but is predominantly sedentary on the substratum, with or without a cilium. 18S rDNA sequence phylogeny groups Incisomonas strongly within clade MAST-3; with others it forms a robust sister clade to Solenicola, here grouped with it as new order Uniciliatida, placed within new class Nanomonadea encompassing MAST-3. Our comprehensive maximum likelihood heterokont phylogeny shows Nanomonadea as sister to MAST-12 plus Opalinata within Opalozoa, and that Actinophryida are not Opalozoa (previously suggested by distance trees), but highly modified raphidomonads, arguably related to Heliorapha (formerly Ciliophrys) azurina gen., comb. n. We discuss evolution of Actinophryida from photosynthetic raphidophytes. Clades MAST-4,6-11 form one early-branching bigyran clade. Olisthodiscus weakly groups with Hypogyristea not Raphidomonadea. Phylogenetic analysis shows that MAST-13 is all Bicosoeca. Some gliding uniciliates similar to Incisomonas marina seem to have been misclassified: therefore we establish Incisomonas devorata comb. n. for Rigidomastix devoratum, revise the genus Rigidomastix, transfer Clautriavia parva to Kiitoksia. We make 17 new familes (13 heterokont (three algal), two cercozoan, two amoebozoan).
Keywords: Actinosphaerium, Incisomonas, Aurophyceae, Uniciliatida, Opalozoa, Heliorapha

 

Guiheneuf F, Ulmann L, Mimouni V & Tremblin G (2013) Use of radiolabeled substrates to determine the desaturase and elongase activities involved in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri. Phytochemistry. 90: 43-49.
DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.02.014
Abstract: The marine flagellate Pavlova lutheri is a microalga known to be rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and able to produce large amounts of n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). As no previous study had attempted to measure the metabolic step of fatty acid synthesis in this alga, we used radiolabeled precursors to explore the various desaturation and elongation steps involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways. The incorporation of 14C-labeled palmitic ([1-14C] 16:0) and dihomo-c-linolenic ([1-14C] 20:3n-6) acids as ammonium salts within the cells was monitored during incubation periods lasting 3, 10 or 24 h. Total lipids and each of the fatty acids were also monitored during these incubation periods. A decrease in the availability and/or accessibility of the radiolabeled substrates was observed over the incubation time. This decrease with incubation time observed using [1-14C] 16:0 and [1-14C] 20:3n-6 as substrates was used to monitor the conversion of 14C-labeled arachidonic acid ([1-14C] 20:4n-6) into longer and more unsaturated fatty acids, such as 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, over shorter incubation times (1 and 3 h). A metabolic relationship between the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid series was demonstrated in P. lutheri by measuring the D17-desaturation activity involved in the conversion of eicosatetraenoic acid to 20:5n-3. Our findings suggest that the biosynthesis pathway leading to n-3 LC-PUFA involves fatty acids of the n-6 family, which act as precursors in the biosynthesis of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. This preliminary work provides a method for studying microalgal LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways and desaturase and elongase activities in vivo using externally-radiolabeled fatty acid precursors as substrates. The use of the [1-14C] 20:4n-6 substrate also highlighted the relationships between the n-6 and the n-3 fatty acid series (e.g. D17-desaturation), and the final elongation and desaturation steps required for n-3 LC-PUFA formation in P. lutheri.
Keywords: Pavlova lutheri, pavlovophyceae, marine microalga, in vivo 14C-labeling, 1-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis, 17-Desaturation

 

Jauffrais T, Kilcoyne J, Herrenknecht C, Truquet P, Sechet V, Miles CO & Hess P (2013) Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Toxicon. 65: 81-89.
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.01.010
Abstract: The relationship between azaspiracid shellfish poisoning and a small dinoflagellate, Azadinium spinosum, has been shown recently. The organism produces AZA1 and -2, while AZA3 and other analogues are metabolic products formed in shellfish. We evaluated whether mussels were capable of accumulating dissolved AZA1 and -2, and compared the toxin profiles of these mussels at 24 h with profiles of those exposed to live or lysed A. spinosum. We also assessed the possibility of preparative production of AZA metabolites by exposing mussels to semi-purified AZA1. We exposed mussels to similar concentration of AZAs: dissolved AZA1 + 2 (crude extract) at 7.5 and 0.75 mg L-1, dissolved AZA1+2 (7.5 mg L-1) in combination with Isochrysis affinis galbana, and lysed and live A. spinosum cells at 1 x 105 and 1 x 104 cell mL-1 (containing equivalent amounts of AZA1 + 2). Subsequently, we dissected and analysed digestive glands, gills and remaining flesh. Mussels (whole flesh) accumulated AZAs to levels above the regulatory limit, except at the lower levels of dissolved AZAs. The toxin profile of the mussels varied significantly with treatment. The gills contained 42-46% and the digestive glands 23-24% of the total toxin load using dissolved AZAs, compared to 3-12% and 75-90%, respectively, in mussels exposed to live A. spinosum. Exposure of mussels to semipurified AZA1 produced the metabolites AZA17 (16.5%) and AZA3 (1.7%) after 4 days of exposure, but the conversion efficiency was too low to justify using this procedure for preparative isolation.
Keywords: dissolved marine biotoxins, AZA, tissue distribution, bivalve molluscs, LC-MS/MS, Azaspiracid

 

Castrillo M, Lucas-Salas LM, Rodriguez-Gil C & Martinez D (2013) High pH-induced flocculation-sedimentation and effect of supernatant reuse on growth rate and lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology. 128: 324-329.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.114
Abstract: High pH-induced flocculation-sedimentation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris was studied with the objective of improving the efficiency of microalgae harvesting, since it is one of the most expensive steps of production of microalgae. Desired pH values were achieved by addition of NaOH and Ca(OH)2. Growth rate and lipid productivity in fresh media prepared with tap water and with analytical- grade water, and in reused media prepared with culture centrifuged supernatant and the supernatant from high pH-induced flocculation-sedimentation were compared. Since the growth rates for reused media were about 1.7 times higher than in fresh media, and the lipid productivities were about 25 and 26 mg L-1 d-1 in flocculated and centrifuged reused media respectively, medium reuse is a suitable method of saving water and nutrients.
Keywords: flocculation, harvesting, pH increase, microalgae, medium reuse

 

Fuentes MS & Wikfors GH (2013) Control of domoic acid toxin expression in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries by copper and silica: Relevance to mussel aquaculture in New England (USA). Marine Environmental Research. 83: 23-28.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.10.005
Abstract: The production of the toxin Domoic Acid (DA) by the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp. is affected by several environmental factors, among them copper and silica. The effects of these nutrients upon DA production have been studied individually, but not in combination. There is evidence, however, that in diatoms copper can enter the cell via the silicic-acid transport site. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of the interaction between copper and silicic-acid supply upon DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. The study was motivated by concerns about the risk of toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. impacting mussel aquaculture in New England (USA). The results of the present study do not indicate that copper uses the silicic acid transport site to enter the cell; nevertheless, there is an interaction between these two nutrients that produces a synergistic affect upon toxin production. A small increase in copper, without a simultaneous increase in silicate, as well as an increase in both copper and silicate, leads to DA up-regulation. Furthermore, the field component of this study reports the presence of species of Pseudonitzschia on the New England coast that are capable of producing DA. Together these findings indicate that risk of DA impacting mussel aquaculture along the coast of New England would be increased by an unusual enrichment of copper in the vicinity of mussel farms.
Keywords: Pseudo-nitzschia, domoic acid, copper, silicate

 

Pei S & Laws EA (2013) Does the 14C method estimate net photosynthesis? Implications from batch and continuous culture studies of marine phytoplankton. Deep-Sea Research I. 82: 1-9.
DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2013.07.011
Abstract:
Keywords: carbon-14, net photosynthesis, gross photosynthesis, respiration

 

Perez-Lopez P, Gonzalez-Garcia S, Allewaert C, Verween A, Murray P, Feijoo G & Moreira MT (2014) Environmental evaluation of eicosapentaenoic acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Science of the Total Environment. 466-467: 991-1002.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.105
Abstract: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in human health. Due to the increased market demand, the production of PUFAs from potential alternative sources such as microalgae is receiving increased interest. The aim of this study was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the biotechnological production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, followed by the identification of avenues to improve its environmental profile. The LCA tackles two production schemes of P. tricornutumPUFAs with an EPA content of 36%: lab and pilot scales. The results at lab scale show that both the electricity requirements and the production of the extraction agent (chloroform) have significant influence on the life cycle environmental performance of microalgal EPA production. An alternative method based on hexane was proposed to replace chloroform and environmental benefits were identified. Regarding the production of EPA at pilot scale, three main environmental factors were identified: the production of the nitrogen source required for microalgae growing, the transport activities and electricity requirements. Improvement alternatives were proposed and discussed concerning: a) the use of nitrogen based fertilizers, b) the valorization of the residual algal paste as soil conditioner and, c) the anaerobic digestion of the residual algal paste for bioenergy production. Encouraging environmental benefits could be achieved if sodiumnitrate was substituted by urea, calciumnitrate or ammonium nitrate, regardless the category under assessment. In contrast, minor improvement was found when valorizing the residual algal paste as mineral fertilizer, due to its overall lowcontent inN and P. Concerning the biogas production fromthe anaerobic digestion, the improvement on the environmental profile was also limited due to the discrepancy between the potential energy production from the algal paste and the high electricity requirements in the culturing and extraction stages.
Keywords: environmental assessment, marine eukaryotic microalgae, life cycle assessment, life cycle inventory (LCI), PUFAs, EPA

 

Maury-Ramirez A, De Muynck W, Stevens R, Demeestere K & De Belie N (2013) Titanium dioxide based strategies to prevent algal fouling on cementitious materials. Cement & Concrete Composites. 36: 93-100.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.030
Abstract: Algal growth is an important phenomenon largely affecting the aesthetical properties of building facades worldwide. Based on the photocatalytic degrading action together with the photo-induced hydrophilic nature of TiO2, three TiO2 containing white cements and one novel TiO2 coating applied on autoclaved aerated concrete have been evaluated as strategies to avoid algal fouling on new and existing buildings, respectively. During 16 weeks (4 months), the evaluation was conducted using an accelerated algal growth test set-up running with Chlorella vulgaris as the algae specie. Monitoring of the fouling was based on visual inspections, algal coverage (%) and human perception of the color changes (DE) produced on the samples. A commercially available TiO2 containing cement evidenced ?not visible? algal growth (DE 6 0.2) and almost no significant algal coverage (0.1%). The new TiO2 based coating evidenced 20% less algal coverage compared to uncoated reference samples after the test. However, ?very large? color changes (DE = 20) were observed on these samples.
Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete, cement paste, water repellent, microbial growth, algae, self-cleaning

 

Lucas-Salas LM, Castrillo M & Martinez D (2013) Effects of dilution rate and water reuse on biomass and lipid production of Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage novel photobioreactor. Bioresource Technology. 143: 344-352.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.06.007
Abstract: Continuous culture of fresh water microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus was developed in a two-stage photobioreactor, avoiding the intermediate harvesting step to achieve a half-way point between the progressive and the sudden N-starvation strategies, guaranteeing light limited conditions in the first stage and N-stress conditions in the second stage. This methodology resulted in biomass productivity values at the best dilution rate (0.118 days-1) of 15.25 ? 1.06 g m-2 d-1, slightly higher than that expected according to batch experiment (12.90 ? 0.75 g m-2 d-1). The dilution rate that maximized the lipid content was coincident with that for the maximum biomass productivity, resulting in a intensification of the lipid productivity. Microalgae can be successfully cultured in reused medium clarified by high pH flocculation-sedimentation and neutralized by bubbling the photobioreactors outlet CO2 current through it. Microalgae flocculation with NaOH does not result in a variation of the obtained lipid profile.
Keywords: photobioreactor, microalgae, two-stage processing, N-starvation, continuous culture

 

Hoshina R & Fujiwara Y (2013) Molecular characterization of Chlorella cultures of the National Institute for Environmental Studies culture collection with description of Micractinium inermum sp. nov., Didymogenes sphaerica sp. nov., and Didymogenes soliella sp. nov. (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae). Phycological Research. 61: 124-132.
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12010
Abstract: Chlorella Beijerinck (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae) strains from the collection of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) were characterized using gene sequence data. The misidentification of a number of strains was rectified. Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck NIES-2173 was reclassified as C. sorokiniana Shihira et Krauss. Chlorella sp. NIES-2171 was described as a new species in the genus Micractinium Fresinius, M. inermum Hoshina et Fujiwara. Chlorella sorokiniana NIES-2167 and Chlorella sp. NIES-2330 were found to be phylogenetically related to Didymogenes Schmidle. We propose these two strains be transferred to the genus Didymogenes and given new names: D. sphaerica Hoshina et Fujiwara and D. soliella Hoshina et Fujiwara. Taxonomic decisions were primarily based on small subunit-internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA phylogeny for genus assignment and ITS2 sequence-structure to determine species autonomy. Our findings suggest that this strategy is the most effective way to use the species concept among autosporic coccoids.
Keywords: Chlorella, Didymogenes, group I intron, internal transcribed spacer 2, Micractinium, species concept

 

Wang WC, Allen E, Campos AA, Killens Cade R, Dean L, Dvora M, Immer JG, Mixson S, Srirangan S, Sauer ML, Schreck S, Sun K, Thapaliya N, Wilson C, Burkholder J, Grunden AM, Lamb HH, Sederoff H, Stikeleather LF & Roberts WL (2013) ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. -: -.
DOI:
Abstract: Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into longchain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired.
Keywords: biofuels, algal oils, Dunaliella, microalgae, deoxygenation

 

Hallmann C, Stannek L, Fritzlar D, Hause-Reitner D, Friedl T & Hoppert M (2013) Molecular diversity of phototrophic biofilms on building stone. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 84: 355-372.
DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12065
Abstract: Composition and diversity of aeroterrestrial phototrophic microbial communities are up to now poorly understood. Here, we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal communities on sandstone substrata based upon the analysis of rRNA gene clone libraries from environmental samples and crude cultures. From a west-facing, shaded wall area of the mediaeval castle ruin Gleichen (Thuringia, Germany), sequences mainly related to the green algae Prasiococcus and Trebouxia (Trebouxiophyceae) were retrieved. A southwest- facing, sun-exposed wall area was mainly colonized by Apatococcus and a Phyllosiphon-related alga. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, were ubiquitous in both areas. Samples from a basement vault exposed to low irradiance exhibited Chlorophyceae like Chromochloris and Bracteacoccus. Thus, most green algae on the daylight-exposed walls were affiliated to Trebouxiophyceae, whereas Chlorophyceae were dominant in samples taken from the site kept under low irradiance. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities were different: the sun-exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-related organisms, while on the shaded wall area, cyanobacteria were almost absent. The filamentous Leptolyngbya dominated samples from the basement vault. Scanning electron microscopy revealed endolithic algal morphotypes (coccoid algae and diatoms) dominant in open pores between mineral particles. Here, the organisms may be also involved in biogenic weathering of stone.
Keywords: green algae, cyanobacteria, environmental sample, 18S rRNA gene, scanning electron microscopy

 

Mardare C, Delahay RJ & Dale JW (2013) Environmental amoebae do not support the long-term survival of virulent mycobacteria. Journal of Applied Phycology. 114: 1388-1394.
DOI: 10.1111/jam.12166
Abstract: Aims: To test the hypothesis that Mycobacterium bovis can persist in the environment within protozoa. Methods and Results: In this study, we used a novel approach to detect internalized mycobacteria in environmental protozoa from badger latrines. Acid-fast micro-organisms were visualized in isolated amoebae, although we were unable to identify them to species level as no mycobacteria were grown from these samples nor was M. bovis detected by IS6110 PCR. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with virulent M. bovis substantially reduced levels of bacilli, indicating that the amoebae have a negative effect on the persistence of M. bovis. Conclusions: The internalization of mycobacteria in protozoa might be a rare event under environmental conditions. The results suggest that amoebae might contribute to the inactivation of M. bovis rather than representing a potential environmental reservoir. Significance and Impact of the Study: Protozoa have been suggested to act as an environmental reservoir for M. bovis. The current study suggests that environmental amoebae play at most a minor role as potential reservoirs of M. bovis and that protozoa might inhibit persistence of M. bovis in the environment.
Keywords: environmental, mycobacteria, protozoa, soil

 

Saw JHW, Schatz M, Brown MV, Kunkel DD, Foster JS, Shick H, Christensen S, Hou S, Wan X & Donachie SP (2013) Cultivation and complete genome sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a lava cave in Kilauea Caldera Hawai'i PLoS ONE. 8(10): e76376.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076376
Abstract: The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain?s genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1T, from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in K??lauea Caldera, Hawai?i. The strain?s genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1T and G. violaceus PCC 7421T genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1T, for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1T has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute?s Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1T genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1T may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis.
Keywords:

 

Assuncao P, Jaen-Molina R, Caujape-Castells J, Wolf M, Buchheim MA, de la Jara A, Freijanes K, Carmona L & Mendoza H (2013) Phylogenetic analysis of ITS2 sequences suggests the taxonomic re-structuring of Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae, Dunaliellales). Phycological Research. 61: 81-88.
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12003
Abstract: We analyzed the ITS2 primary and secondary structure (including Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs)) of 17 new Dunaliella strains (11 D. viridis, two D. tertiolecta, and four Dunaliella sp.), and compared these with other Dunaliella sequences available from the ITS2 database to circumscribe their taxonomic position. The ITS2 primary and secondary structure analysis positioned the majority of D. viridis strains in four main clades, showing that D. viridis is polyphyletic. The detection of at least one CBC among these clades strongly suggests that they could correspond to different biological species. Unexpectedly, while D. viridis var. euchlora (CCAP19/21) was positioned within the subgenus Dunaliella, D. viridis var. palmelloides (CCAP11/34) was positioned clearly outside this subgenus, suggesting that this taxon may not be properly placed in Dunaliella. Furthermore, the detection of at least three compensatory base changes (CBCs) between D. viridis var. palmelloides (CCAP11/34) and the other strains analyzed, confirm that this strain is a different species. For these reasons we propose re-naming D. viridis var. palmelloides (CCAP11/34) to incertae sedis, and D. viridis var. euchlora (CCAP19/21) to Dunaliella sp. Therefore, the ITS2 primary and secondary structure data suggest a taxonomic re-structuring of D. viridis.
Keywords: compensatory base changes, Dunaliella viridis, internal transcribed spacer, saltworks, taxonomy

 

Simon M, Lopez-Garcia P, Moreira D & Jardillier L (2013) New haptophyte lineages and multiple independent colonizations of freshwater ecosystems. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 5: 32-332.
DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12023
Abstract: The diversity and ecological relevance of small haptophytes in marine systems is increasingly recognized. Similar investigations in freshwater remain scarce, despite some recent studies showing the existence of divergent haptophyte lineages and indicating that these microalgae can occur at high abundance in lakes. We studied the diversity of haptophytes in a wide variety of marine, salty continental and, most particularly, freshwater environments by amplifying, cloning and sequencing 18S rRNA genes. For this purpose, we designed two sets of primers specific for the two recognized haptophyte classes, Prymnesiophyceae and Pavlovophyceae. We detected pavlovophyte sequences only in freshwater systems as well as several novel prymnesiophyte phylotypes in both freshwater and marine environments. In addition, we retrieved a cluster of sequences (HAP-3) from the Marmara Sea branching deeply in the haptophyte tree with no clear affiliation to either of the two recognized classes. Five of the freshwater prymnesiophyte phylotypes detected formed a divergent monophyletic group (EV) without close described representatives that branched within the Isochrysidales, a group of generally marine and most often calcifying coccolithophorids. The presence of several sequences of freshwater haptophytes scattered among marine taxa in phylogenetic trees confirms the occurrence of several independent haptophyte transitions between marine and freshwater environments.
Keywords:

 

Formighieri C, Cazzaniga S, Kuras R & Bassi R (2013) Biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires ARSA1, a homolog of prokaryotic arsenite transporter and eukaryotic TRC40 for guided entry of tail-anchored proteins. The Plant Journal. 73: 850-861.
DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12077
Abstract: as1, for antenna size mutant 1, was obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This strain has a low chlorophyll content, 8% with respect to the wild type, and displays a general reduction in thylakoid polypeptides. The mutant was found to carry an insertion into a homologous gene, prokaryotic arsenite transporter (ARSA), whose yeast and mammal counterparts were found to be involved in the targeting of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to cytosol-exposed membranes, essential for several cellular functions. Here we present the characterization in a photosynthetic organism of an insertion mutant in an ARSA-homolog gene. The ARSA1 protein was found to be localized in the cytosol, and yet its absence in as1 leads to a small chloroplast and a strongly decreased chlorophyll content per cell. ARSA1 appears to be required for optimal biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes because of its involvement in the accumulation of TOC34, an essential component of the outer chloroplast membrane translocon (TOC) complex, which, in turn, catalyzes the import of nucleus-encoded precursor polypeptides into the chloroplast. Remarkably, the effect of the mutation appears to be restricted to biogenesis of chlorophyllbinding polypeptides and is not compensated by the other ARSA homolog encoded by the C. reinhardtii genome, implying a non-redundant function.
Keywords: ARSA, tail-anchored proteins, TOC34, Chlamydomonas, protein targeting, chloroplast

 

Bechet Q, Munoz R, Shilton A & Guieysse B (2013) Outdoor cultivation of temperature-tolerant Chlorella sorokiniana in a column photobioreactor under low power-input. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 110: 118-126.
DOI: 10.1002/bit.24603
Abstract: Temperature-tolerant Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in a 51-L column photobioreactor with a 1.1m2 illuminated area. The reactor was operated outdoors under tropical meteorological conditions (Singapore) without controlling temperature and the culture was mixed at a power input of 7.5W/m3 by sparging CO2-enriched air at 1.2 L/min (gas hold-up of 0.02). Biomass productivity averaged 10+-2.2 g/m2 illuminated area-day over six batch studies, yielding an average photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of 4.8+-0.5% of the total solar radiation (P?0.05, N?6). This demonstrates that temperature-tolerant microalgae can be cultivated at high PE under a mixing input sevenfold to ninefold lower than current operational guidelines (50? 70W/m3) and without the need for temperature control (the culture broth temperature reached 418C during operation). In this study, the PE value was determined based on the amount of solar radiation actually reaching the algae and this amount was estimated using a mathematical model fed with onsite solar irradiance data. This determination was found to be particularly sensitive to the value of the atmospheric diffusion coefficient, which generated a significant uncertainty in the PE calculation. The use of the mathematical model, however, confirmed that the vertical reactor geometry supported efficient photosynthesis by reducing the duration and intensity of photoinhibition events. The model also revealed that all three components of direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation were quantitatively important for the vertical column photobioreactor, accounting for 14%, 65%, and 21% of the total solar radiation reaching the culture, respectively. The accurate prediction of the discrete components of solar radiation reaching the algae as a function of climatic, geographic, and design parameters is therefore crucial to optimize the individual reactor geometry and the layout/spacing between the individual reactors in a reactor farm.
Keywords: biofuel, microalgae, photobioreactor, photosynthetic efficiency, radiation modeling, scale-up

 

Pronker AE, Peene F, Donner S, Wijnhoven S, Geijsen P, Bossier P & Nevejan NM (2013) Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule L.): From conditioning to grow-out. Aquaculture Research. 46: 302-312.
DOI: 10.1111/are.12178
Abstract: This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth. Broodstock animals were conditioned with diets of Isochrysis galbana (T-Iso) or Tetraselmis suecica, whereas a third group was not fed. The best diet, T. suecica, induced 12 females out of 100 animals to spawn a total of 3 380 000 eggs. The non-fed group did not spawn. Cockle spat (4.9  1.0 mm) grew best when given a mixed diet of C. muelleri, T-Iso and Sceletonema costatum, or a mixture of P. tricornutum and S. costatum at a concentration of 240 cells ll 1 day 1, resulting in a tripling of their wet weight after 14 days. The impact of density, burrowing substrate and food availability on cockle spat growth (41 days old, 5.6  1.2 mm) was studied for 11 weeks. Best results were obtained by culturing spat at ad libitum food conditions at 500 ind m 2, resulting in an average growth rate of 168 lm day 1, an average final size of 19.0  1.9 mm and a total final biomass of 1040 g m 2.
Keywords: hatchery, nursery, grow-out, Cerastoderma edule, microalgae diets

 

Friman VP & Buckling A (2013) Effects of predation on real-time host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics. Ecology Letters. 16: 39-46.
DOI: 10.1111/ele.12010
Abstract: The impact of community complexity on pairwise coevolutionary dynamics is theoretically dependent on the extent to which species evolve generalised or specialised adaptations to the multiple species they interact with. Here, we show that the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens diversifies into defence specialists, when coevolved simultaneously with a virus and a predatory protist, as a result of fitness trade-offs between defences against the two enemies. Strong bacteria?virus pairwise coevolution persisted, despite strong protist- imposed selection. However, the arms race dynamic (escalation of host resistance and parasite infectivity ranges) associated with bacteria?virus coevolution broke down to a greater extent in the presence of the protist, presumably through the elevated genetic and demographic costs of increased bacteria resistance ranges. These findings suggest that strong pairwise coevolution can persist even in complex communities, when conflicting selection leads to evolutionary diversification of different defence strategies.
Keywords: antagonism, arms race dynamics, community ecology, conflicting selection, diffuse coevolution, experimental evolution, fluctuating selection dynamics, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Tetrahymena thermophila

 

van Bergeijk SA, Herandez Javier L, Manchado M & Canavate JP (2013) Uptake of iodide in the marine haptophyte Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO) driven by iodide oxidation. Journal of Phycology. 49: 640-647.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12073
Abstract: Uptake of iodide was studied in the marine microalga Isochrysis sp. (isol. Haines, T.ISO) during short-term incubations with radioactive iodide (125I ). Typical inhibitors of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) did not inhibit iodide uptake, suggesting that iodide is not taken up through this transport protein, as is the case in most vertebrate animals. Oxidation of iodide was found to be an essential step for its uptake by T.ISO and it seemed likely that hypoiodous acid (HOI) was the form of iodine taken up. Uptake of iodide was inhibited by the addition of thiourea and of other reducing agents, like L-ascorbic acid, L-glutathione and L-cysteine and increased after the addition of oxidized forms of the transition metals Fe and Mn. The simultaneous addition of both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a known iodide-oxidizing myeloperoxidase (MPO) significantly increased iodine uptake, but the addition of H2O2 or MPO separately, had no effect on uptake. This confirms the observation that iodide is oxidized prior to uptake, but it puts into doubt the involvement of H2O2 excretion and membrane-bound or extracellular haloperoxidase activity of T.ISO. The increase of iodide uptake by T.ISO upon Fe(III) addition suggests the nonenzymatic oxidation of iodide by Fe(III) in a redox reaction and subsequent influx of HOI. This is the first report on the mechanism of iodide uptake in a mar
Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, iodide, iodine, iron, Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO), microalga, redox, uptake mechanism

 

Zhuang Y, Zhang H & Lin S (2013) Polyadenylation of 18S rRNA in algae Journal of Phycology. 49: 570-579.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12068
Abstract: Polyadenylation is best known for occurring to mRNA of eukaryotes transcribed by RNA polymerase II to stabilize mRNA molecules and promote their translation. rRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase I or III are typically believed not to be polyadenylated. However, there is increasing evidence that polyadenylation occurs to nucleus-encoded rRNAs as part of the RNA degradation pathway. To examine whether the same polyadenylation-assisted degradation pathway occurs in algae, we surveyed representative species of algae including diatoms, chlorophytes, dinoflagellates and pelagophytes using oligo (dT)- primed reversed transcription PCR (RT-PCR). In all the algal species examined, truncated 18S rRNA or its precursor molecules with homo- or hetero-polymeric poly(A) tails were detected. Mining existing algal expressed sequence tag (EST) data revealed polyadenylated truncated 18S rRNA in four additional phyla of algae. rRNA polyadenylation occurred at various internal positions along the 18S rRNA and its precursor sequences. Moreover, putative homologs of noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (ncPAP) Trf4p, which is responsible for polyadenylating nuclearencoded RNA and targeting it for degradation, were detected from the genomes and transcriptomes of five phyla of algae. Our results suggest that polyadenylationassisted RNA degradation mechanism widely exists in algae, particularly for the nucleus-encoded rRNA and its precursors.
Keywords: 18S rRNA, algae, poly (A) polymerase, polyadenylation, RNA degradation

 

Reeb VC, Peglar MT, Yoon HS, Bai JR, Wu M, Shiu P, Grafenberg JL, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Gross J & Bhattacharya D (2009) Interrelationships of chromalveolates within a broadly sampled tree of photosynthetic protists. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53: 202-211.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.012
Abstract: The Chromalveolata "supergroup" is a massive assemblage of single-celled and multicellular protists such as ciliates and kelps that remains to be substantiated in molecular trees. Recent multigene analyses place chromalveolates into two major clades, the SAR (Stramenopiles, Alveolata, and Rhizaria) and the Cryptophyta + Haptophyta. Here we determined 69 new sequences from different chromalveolates to study the interrelationships of its constituent phyla. We included in our trees, the novel groups Telonemia and Katablepharidophyta that have previously been described as chromalvoleate allies. The best phylogenetic resolution resulted from a 6-protein (actin, a-tubulin, b-tubulin, cytosolic HSP70, BIP HSP70, HSP90) and a 5-protein (lacking HSP90) alignment that validated the SAR and cryptophyte + haptophyte clades with the inclusion of telonemids in the former and katablepharids in the latter. We assessed the Plastidophila hypothesis that is based on EF2 data and suggest this grouping may be explained by horizontal gene transfers involving the EF2 gene rather than indicating host relationships.
Keywords: Chromalveolata, multigene phylogenetics, plastidophila, Rhizaria, supergroup, tree of life

 

Barbrook AC, Voolstra CR & Howe CJ (2014) The chloroplast genome of a Symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate. Protist. 165: 1-13.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.09.006
Abstract: Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as ?minicircles?. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any ?empty? minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome shows a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic.
Keywords: Symbiodinium, minicircle, dinoflagellate, chloroplast genome, diversity

 

Sheets JP, Ge X, Park SY & Li Y (2013) Effect of outdoor conditions on Nannochloropsis salina cultivation in artificial seawater using nutrients from anaerobic digestion effluent. Bioresource Technology. 152: 154-161.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.115
Abstract: The effects of simulated outdoor seasonal climatic conditions on Nannochloropsis salina (N. salina) grown using nutrients from anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent were evaluated in this study. Under various light exposure (LE) and temperature (10-30°C) conditions, N. salina specific growth rate (?) was strongly affected by LE. Light availability (LA) was observed to becrucial for biomass production, with ? values of 0.038 ? 0.013 d-1, 0.093 ? 0.013 d-1, and 0.151?0.021 d-1 15 for 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h LA conditions, respectively. Temperature was not significant in affecting the light dependent growth coefficient (?/LE), indicating suitability of culturing this strain in the Ohio climate. Cultures exposed to low illumination had significantly higher unsaturated fatty acid content than those under high illumination, with nearly 29% higher eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) content. Using LE and light attenuation resulted in adequate prediction of N.salina growth in a 1000 L open raceway pond.
Keywords: Nannochloropsis salina, anaerobic digestion effluent, biodiesel, microalgae, lipids

 

Li HB, Cheng KW, Wong CC, Fan KW, Chen F & Jiang Y (2007) Evaluation of antioxident capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae. Food Chemistry. 102: 771-776.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.022
Abstract: In order to identify new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants, the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of 23 microalgae were evaluated, using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the Folin Ciocalteu method, respectively. The microalgae were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate and water by a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Most of these microalgae were evaluated for the first time for their antioxidant activities. It was found that the microalgae Synechococcus sp. FACHB 283, Chlamydomonas nivalis and Nostoc ellipsosporum CCAP 1453/17 possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic contents were very small in hexane (R2 = 0.0075), ethyl acetate (R2 = 0.5851) and water (R2 = 0.3599) fractions. Thus, phenolic compounds were not a major contributor to the antioxidant capacities of these microalgae. This was very different from many other plant species like fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. The microalgae could contain different antioxidant compounds from other plants.
Keywords: microalgae, antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay

 

Kana R, Kotabova E, Sobotka R & Prasil O (2012) Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae. PLoS ONE. 7(1): e29700.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029700
Abstract: Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.
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Kana R, Kotabova E & Prasil O (2013) Presence of flexible non-photochemical quenching in cryptophytes (Rhodomonas salina. In: Photosynthesis Research for Food, Fuel and the Future. Springer Berlin Heidelbe: pp 489-492.
DOI:
Abstract:
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Brown S & De Jonckheere JF (2004) Isolation of a new vahlkampfiid amoeba from soil: Paravahlkampfia lenta n. sp. European Journal of Protistology. 40: 289-294.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2004.07.002
Abstract: When the genus Paravahlkampfia was distinguished from the genus Vahlkampfia on the basis of significant differences in small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences, Paravahlkampfia ustiana was the only described species of this new genus. More recently, a vahlkampfiid strain has been isolated (from soil from an upland farm in Scotland) which has trophozoite and cyst morphology more similar to P. ustiana than to other non-flagellating vahlkampfiid species. Also, it clusters with P. ustiana in phylogenetic trees derived from 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences. However, it is significantly different from P. ustiana in both phenotype and internal transcribed spacer sequence. Consequently, a new species, Pavarahlkampfia lenta, is proposed.
Keywords: Vahlkampfiidae, new species, Paravahlkampfia, 5.8S rDNA

 

Burja AM, Abou-Mansour E, Banaigs B, Payri C, Burgess JG & Wright PC (2002) Culture of the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula (Oscillatoriaceae), for bioprocess intensified production of cyclic and linear lipopeptides. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 48: 207-219.
DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00324-4
Abstract: Cyanobacteria are an ancient and diverse group of photosynthetic microorganisms, which inhabit many different and extreme environments. This indicates a high degree of biological adaptation, which has enabled these organisms to thrive and compete effectively in nature. The filamentous cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, produces several promising antifungal and cytotoxic agents, including laxaphycin A and B and curacin A. Samples of L. majuscula collected from Moorea Island, Tahiti (French Polynesia) and from the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1446/4) were studied and adapted to large scale laboratory culture (5 l). This constitutes a 100-fold scale-up for the culture of this particular strain of L. majuscula. The effect of culture vessel configurations, growth conditions and media compositions on growth of L. majuscula was examined. Using optimised culture conditions, two strains of L. majuscula are currently being evaluated for their production of secondary metabolites. Results will be compared with those obtained from four environmental extracts. Comparisons were made by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). It was shown that varying the culture conditions under which L. majuscula was grown had the greatest effect on secondary metabolite production, thus providing potential for future bioprocess intensified production.
Keywords: bioprocess intensification, cyanobacteria, lipopeptides, FTICR-MS, Lyngbya majuscula, oscillatoriaceae

 

Kudryavtsev A, Pawlowski J & Hausmann K (2011) Description of Paramoeba atlantica n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) - a marine amoeba from the eastern Atlantic, with emendation of the Dactylopodid families. Acta Protozoologica. 50: 239-253.
DOI:
Abstract: A strain of marine amoeba has been isolated and studied from the bottom sediments of the Great Meteor Seamount (Atlantic Ocean, 29°36.29?N; 28°59.12?W; 267.4 m deep). This amoeba has a typical dactylopodiid morphotype, a coat of delicate, boat-shaped scales, and a Perkinsela-like organism (PLO), an obligatory, deeply-specialized kinetoplastid symbiont near the nucleus. These characters allow us to include this species into the genus Paramoeba. However, it differs from its only described species, P. eilhardi, in the structure of scales. P. atlantica n. sp. is established therefore to accommodate the studied strain. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis suggests that P. atlantica belongs to the Dactylopodida, and is sister to a monophyletic clade of P. eilhardi and all Neoparamoeba spp., branching separately from P. eilhardi. Therefore, the genera Paramoeba and Neoparamoeba, currently defined based on the cell surface ultrastructure, might be paraphyletic and probably should be synonymized, as further evidence is accumulated. Based on the data available we emend the families Vexilliferidae and Paramoebidae to make them more consistent with the current phylogenetic schemes.
Keywords: Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida, deep-sea protists, Paramoeba atlantica n. sp., phylogeny, SSU rDNA, taxonomy, ultrastructure

 

Edvardsen B, Eikrem W, Throndsen J, Saez AG, Probert I & Medlin LK (2011) Ribosomal DNA phylogenies and a morphological revision provide the basis for a revised taxonomy of the Prymnesiales (Haptophyta) European Journal of Phycology. 46: 202-228.
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2011.594095
Abstract: Nucleotide sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit (18S rDNA) and partial large subunit (28S rDNA) ribosomal DNA were determined in 30 different species of the haptophyte genera Prymnesium, Chrysocampanula, Chrysochromulina, Imantonia and Platychrysis, all belonging to the order Prymnesiales. Phylogenies based on these and other available haptophyte 18S, 28S and plastid 16S rDNA sequences were reconstructed, and compared with available morphological and ultrastructural data. The rDNA phylogenies indicate that the genus Chrysochromulina is paraphyletic and is divided into two major clades. This is supported by ultrastructural and morphological data. There is a major split between Chrysochromulina species with a saddle-shaped cell form (clade B2) and the remaining species in the genus (clade B1). Clade B2 includes the type species C. parva and taxa belonging to this clade thus retain the name Chrysochromulina. The non-saddle-shaped Chrysochromulina species analysed are closely related to Hyalolithus, Prymnesium and Platychrysis species. Imantonia species are sister taxa to these species within clade B1. An amendment to the classification of the order Prymnesiales and the genera Prymnesium, Platychrysis and Chrysochromulina is proposed with one new and one emended family (Chrysochromulinaceae and Prymnesiaceae, respectively), two new genera (Haptolina and Pseudohaptolina), and one new species (Pseudohaptolina arctica). We suggest a revision of the taxonomy of the Prymnesiales that is in accordance with available molecular evidence and supported by morphological data.
Keywords: Chrysochromulinaceae, Haptophyta, phylogeny, phytoplankton, Prymnesiales, Pseudohaptolina arctica, ribosomal DNA, taxonomy

 

Bendif EM, Probert I, Schroeder DC & de Vargas C (2013) On the description of Tisochrysis lutea gen. nov. sp. nov. and Isochrysis nuda sp. nov. in the Isochrysidales, and the transfer of Dicrateria to the Prymnesiales (Haptophyta) Journal of Applied Phycology. 25: 1763-1776.
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-013-0037-0
Abstract: The Isochrysidaceae is a family of non-calcifying organisms within the haptophyte order Isochrysidales. Isochrysis galbana, a species widely used as a food source in aquaculture, is the best-known representative of this family that contains three genera but only six described species. We sequenced partial nuclear small subunit (SSU) and large subunit rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 genes of 34 isochrysidacean culture strains (including authentic strains when available) and compared molecular phylogenetic inferences with cytological and ultrastructural observations. The isochrysidaceaen culture strain Isochrysis affinis galbana (Tahiti isolate), widely used in aquaculture and commonly known as T-Iso, is clearly genetically distinct from Isochrysis galbana, despite seemingly being morphologically identical. A strain with a similar ultrastructure to that of Isochrysis galbana except for the lack of body scales had sequences that were more similar to but still distinct from those of Isochrysis galbana. Dicrateria inornata, a species that lacks body scales, is classified within the Isochrysidaceae, but the SSU rDNA sequence of the authentic strain of this species matches that of Imantonia rotunda within another haptophye order, the Prymnesiales. D. inornata and Imantonia rotunda have similar ultrastructure except for the respective absence/presence of scales. These results lead us to propose the erection of one new genus (Tisochrysis gen. nov.) and two new species (Tisochrysis lutea sp. nov. and Isochrysis nuda sp. nov.). D. inornata is reclassified within the Prymnesiales, and Imantonia rotunda is transferred to this genus (Dicrateria rotunda comb. nov.).
Keywords: Dicrateria, Imantonia, Isochrysidaceae, Isochrysis galbana, phylogeny, Taxonomy, ultrastructure

 

Yang EC, Peters AF, Kawai H, Stern R, Hanyuda T, Barbara I, Müller DG, Strittmatter M, Prud'Homme van Reine WF & Kupper FC (2014) Ligulate Desmarestia (Desmarestiales, Phaeophyceae) revisited: D. japonica sp. nov. and D. dudresnayi differ from D. ligulata. Journal of Phycology. 50: 149-166.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12148
Abstract: The phylogeny of ligulate and sulfuric-acid containing species of Desmarestia, occurring worldwide from polar to temperate regions, was revised using a multigenic and polyphasic approach. Sequence data, gametophyte characteristics, and sporophyte morphology support reducing a total of 16 taxa to four different species. (1) D. herbacea, containing broad-bladed and highly branched forms, has dioecious gametophytes. The three other species have monoecious gametophytes: (2) D. ligulata which is profusely branched and, except for one subspecies, narrow-bladed, (3) Japanese ligulate Desmarestia, here described as D. japonica sp. nov., which is morphologically similar to D. ligulata but genetically distant from all other ligulate taxa. This species may have conserved the morphology of original ligulate Desmarestia. (4) D. dudresnayi, including unbranched or little branched broad-bladed taxa. A figure of the holotype of D. dudresnayi, which was lost for decades, was relocated. The taxonomy is complemented by a comparison of internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) as potential barcode loci, with cox1 offering good resolution, reflecting species delimitations within the genus Desmarestia.
Keywords: brown algae, cox1, Desmarestia, DNA barcoding, multigene phylogeny, Phaeophyceae, psaA, rbcL, SSU-ITS, sulfuric acid

 

Gottschling M, Keupp H, Plotner J, Knop R, Willems H & Kirsch M (2005) Phylogeny of calcareous dinoflagellates as inferred from ITS and ribosomal sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36: 444-455.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.036
Abstract: The phylogenetic relationships of calcareous dinoXagellates (i.e., Calciodinellaceae and Thoracosphaera) are investigated. Molecular data from the ribosomal 5.8S rRNA and highly conserved motifs of the ITS1 show Calciodinellaceae s.l. to be monophyletic when few non-calcareous taxa are included. They segregate into three monophyletic assemblages in a molecular analysis that considers the 5.8S rRNA and both the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2: a clade comprising species of Ensiculifera and Pentapharsodinium (E/P-clade), Scrippsiella s.l. (including fossil-based taxa such as Calciodinellum and Calcigonellum), and a heterogeneous group (T/P-clade) of calcareous (e.g., Thoracosphaera) and non-calcareous taxa (e.g., the highly toxic PWesteria). The potential to produce calcareous structures is considered as apomorphic within alveolates, and non-calcareous taxa nesting with calcareous dinoXagellates may have reduced calciWcation secondarily. Molecular results do not contradict general evolutionary scenarios provided by previous morphological (mainly paleontological) investigations.
Keywords: 5.8S rRNA, Calciodinellaceae, internal transcribed spacer, paleontology, molecular systematics, secondary structure

 

Gu H, Kirsch M, Zinssmeister C, Soehner S, Meier KJS, Liu T & Gottschling M (2013) Waking the dead: Morphological and molecular characterization of extant Posoniella tricarinelloides (Thoracosphaeraceae, Dinophyceae). Protist. 164: 583-597.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.06.001
Abstract: The Thoracosphaeraceae are dinophytes that produce calcareous shells during their life history, whoseoptical crystallography has been the basis for the division into subfamilies. To evaluate the validity ofthe classification (mainly applied by palaeontologists), living material of phylogenetic key species isnecessary albeit frequently difficult to access for contemporary morphological and molecular analy-ses. We isolated and established five living strains of the rare fossil-taxon Posoniella tricarinelloidesfrom different sediment samples collected in the South China Sea, Yellow Sea and in the MediterraneanSea (west coast off Italy). Here, we provide detailed descriptions of its morphology and conductedphylogenetic analyses based on hundreds of accessions and thousands of informative sites on con-catenated rRNA datasets. Within the monophyletic Peridiniales, P. tricarinelloides was reliably nestedin the Thoracosphaeraceae and exhibited two distinct morphological types of coccoid cells. The twomorphologies of coccoid cells would have been assigned to different taxa at the subfamily level iffound separately in fossil samples. Our results thus challenge previous classification concepts withinthe dinophytes and underline the importance of comparative morphological and molecular studies tobetter understand the complex biology of unicellular organisms such as P. tricarinelloides.
Keywords: calcareous dinoflagellates, cyst, distribution, molecular systematics, theca, ultrastructure

 

Soehner S, Zinssmeister C, Kirsch M & Gottschling M (2012) Who am I - and if so, how many? Species diversity of calcareous dinoflagellates (Thoracosphaeraceae, Peridiniales) in the Mediterranean Sea Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 12: 339-348.
DOI: 10.1007/s13127-012-0109-z
Abstract: The diversity of extant calcareous dinophytes (Thoracosphaeraceae, Dinophyceae) is not fully recorded at present. The establishment of algal strains collected at multiple localities is necessary for a rigorous study of taxonomy, morphology and evolution in these unicellular organisms. We collected sediment and water tow samples from more than 60 localities in coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and documented 15 morphospecies of calcareous dinophytes. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcoding identified numerous species of the Scrippsiella trochoidea species complex that were genetically distinct, but indistinguishable in gross morphology (i.e. with the same tabulation patterns of the motile theca and similar spiny coccoid stages). We assessed a possible minimal number of cryptic species using ITS ribotype networks that indicated the existence of at least 21 species within the Scrippsiella trochoidea species complex. Species diversity of calcareous dinophytes appears higher in the Mediterranean Sea than in other parts of the world?s oceans such as the North Sea. Our data underline the importance of field work to record the diversity of calcareous dinophytes and other unicellular life forms.
Keywords: calcareous dinoflagellates, ITS, ribotype, cryptic species

 

Zinssmeister C, Soehner S, Facher E, Kirsch M, Meier KJS & Gottschling M (2011) Catch me if you can: the taxonomic identity of Scrippsiella trochoidea (F.Stein) A.R.Loebl. (Thoracosphaeraceae, Dinophyceae) Systematics and Biodiversity. 9: 145-157.
DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2011.586071
Abstract: The species concept is challenged for the unicellular dinophytes, exhibiting both high intraspecific variability (in terms of morphology) and cryptic speciation (as inferred from molecular data). As one of the most abundant species assigned to calcareous dinophytes (Thoracosphaeraceae, Dinophyceae), Scrippsiella trochoidea is cosmopolitan in distribution, but its taxonomic identity is presently unclear. We collected, isolated and cultivated Scrippsiella trochoidea (strain GeoB?185) from the type locality in the Kiel Fjord (Baltic Sea, Germany). We barcoded the species of the Thoracosphaeraceae based on ITS sequences (including 22 new sequences) and investigated the morphology of strain GeoB?185 by using light, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Numerous distinct lineages that had previously been determined as Scrippsiella trochoidea constituted a species complex rather than a single species. This species complex subsequently comprised three primary clades, for which the strain GeoB?185 was assigned to one of them. We designate an epitype for Scrippsiella trochoidea, which has been prepared from the culture collected in the Kiel Fjord. The unambiguous links between a scientific species name, its protologue, genetic characterization and spatial distribution bear particular importance for character-poor, unicellular organisms such as the dinophytes.
Keywords: calcareous dinoflagellates, coccoid stage, cryptic speciation, distribution, epitypification, morphology, Peridiniales, phylogeny, thecate cell

 

Zinssmeister C, Soehner S, Kirsch M, Facher E, Meier KJS, Keupp H & Gottschling M (2012) Same but different: Two novel bicarinate species of extant calcareous dinophytes (Thoracosphaeraceae, Peridiniales) from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Phycology. 48: 1107-1118.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01182.x
Abstract: The diversity of extant calcareous dinophytes (Thoracosphaeraceae, Dinophyceae) is currently not sufficiently recorded. The majority of their coccoid stages are cryptotabulate or entirely atabulate, whereas relatively few forms exhibit at least some degree of tabulation more than the archeopyle. A survey of coastal surface sediment samples from the Mediterranean Sea resulted in the isolation and cultivation of several strains of calcareous dinophytes showing a prominent tabulation. We investigated the morphologies of the thecate and the coccoid cells and conducted phylogenetic analyses using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The coccoid cells showed a distinct reflection of the cingulum (and were thus cingulotabulate), whereas thecal morphology corresponded to the widely distributed and species- rich Scrippsiella. As inferred from molecular sequence data (including 81 new GenBank entries), the strains belonged to the Scrippsiella sensu lato clade of the Thoracosphaeraceae and represented two distinct species. Morphological details likewise indicated two distinct species with previously unknown coccoid cells that we describe here as new, namely S. bicarinata spec. nov. and S. kirschiae spec. nov. Cingulotabulation results from the fusion of processes representing the pre- and postcingular plate series in S. bicarinata, whereas the ridges represent sutures between the cingulum and the pre- and postcingular series in S. kirschiae, respectively. Bicarinate cingulotabulation appears homoplasious among calcareous dinophytes, which is further supported by a comparison to similar, but only distantly related fossil forms.
Keywords: coccoid cell, cytochrome b, distribution, molecular systematics, morphology, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, thecate cell

 

Hoshina R & Fujiwara Y (2012) Photobiont flexibility in Paramecium bursaria: Double and triple photobiont co-habitation. Advances in Microbiology. 2: 227-233.
DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23027
Abstract: The green ciliate, Paramecium bursaria, has evolved a mutualistic relationship with endosymbiotic green algae (photo-bionts). Under culture conditions, photobionts are usually unified (to be single species) within each P. bursaria strain. In most cases, the algal partners are restricted to either Chlorella variabilis or Micractinium reisseri (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae). Both species are characterized by particular physiology and atypical group I intron insertions, al-though they are morphologically indistinguishable from each other or from other Chlorella-related species. Both algae are exclusive species that are viable only within P. bursaria cells, and therefore their symbiotic relationship can be con-sidered persistent. In a few cases, the other algal species have been reported as P. bursaria photobionts. Namely, P. bursaria have occasionally replaced their photobiont partner. This paper introduces some P. bursaria strains that main-tain more than one species of algae for a long period. This situation prompts speculations about flexibility of host-photo- biont relationships, how P. bursaria replaced these photobionts, and the infection theory of the group I introns.
Keywords: Paramecium bursaria, photobiont, symbiosis

 

Ginzburg M & Ginzburg BZ (1981) Interrelationships of light, temperature, sodium chloride and carbon source in growth of halotolerant and halophilic strains of Dunaliella. British Phycological Journal. 16: 313-324.
DOI: 10.1080/00071618100650331
Abstract: The growth rate of several Dunaliella strains was measured as a function of several environmental parameters. The strains tested fell into two groups, the halototerant capable of growing at 0-5 M NaCI and above, and the halophilic which cannot grow in media containing less than 2 M NaC1. It proved to be difficult to find optima for the different parameters tested because of their integrated effects within the plant cell; for instance the temperature optimum was higher at high light intensity than at lower intensities. Similarly, higher concentrations of NaCI were tolerated when the light intensity was high and carbon plentiful.
Keywords:

 

Assuncao P, Jaen-Molina R, Caujape-Castells J, de la Jara A, Carmona L, Freijanes K & Mendoza H (2012) Molecular taxonomy of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae), with a special focus on D. salina: ITS2 sequences revisited with an extensive geographical sampling. Aquatic Biosystems. 8: 2.
DOI:
Abstract: We used an ITS2 primary and secondary structure and Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs) analyses on new French and Spanish Dunallela salina strains to investigate their phylogenetic position and taxonomic status within the genus Dunaliella. Our analyses show a great diversity within D. salina (with only some clades not statistically supported) and reveal considerable genetic diversity and structure within Dunaliella, although the CBC analysis did not bolster the existence of different biological groups within this taxon. The ITS2 sequences of the new Spanish and French D. salina strains were very similar except for two of them: ITC5105 ?Janubio? from Spain and ITC5119 from France. Although the Spanish one had a unique ITS2 sequence profile and the phylogenetic tree indicates that this strain can represent a new species, this hypothesis was not confirmed by CBCs, and clarification of its taxonomic status requires further investigation with new data. Overall, the use of CBCs to define species boundaries within Dunaliella was not conclusive in some cases, and the ITS2 region does not contain a geographical signal overall.
Keywords: Canary Islands, compensatory base changes, Dunaliella salina, Internal Transcribed Spacer, saltworks, taxonomy

 

Corsaro D, Walochnik J, Venditti D, Steinmann J, Müller KD & Michel R (2014) Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozellomycota. Parasitology Research. 113: 1909-1918.
DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3838-4
Abstract: Molecular phylogenies based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU or 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) revealed recently the existence of a relatively large and widespread group of eukaryotes, branching at the base of the fungal tree. This group, comprising almost exclusively environmental clones, includes the endoparasitic chytrid Rozella as the unique known representative. Rozella emerged as the first fungal lineage in molecular phylogenies and as the sister group of the Microsporidia. Here we report rDNA molecular phylogenetic analyses of two endonuclear parasites of freeliving naked amoebae having microsporidia-like ultrastructural features but belonging to the rozellids. Similar to microsporidia, these endoparasites form unflagellated walled spores and grow inside the host cells as unwalled nonphagotrophic meronts. Our endonuclear parasites are microsporidia-like rozellids, for which we propose the name Paramicrosporidium, appearing to be the until now lacking morphological missing link between Fungi and Microsporidia. These features contrast with the recent description of the rozellids as an intermediate wall-less lineage of organisms between protists and true Fungi.We thus reconsider the rozellid clade as themost basal fungal lineage, naming it Rozellomycota.
Keywords: Microsporidia, Rozellomycota, Paramicrosporidium, Chytrids, amoebae, endoparasite

 

Hoef-Emden K (2014) Osmotolerance in the Crpytophyceae: Jacks-of-all-trades in the Chroomonas clade. Protist. 165: 123-143.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.01.001
Abstract: No detailed studies have been performed to date on osmotolerance in cryptophytes, although one species, Chroomonas africana, had previously been reported to grow in freshwater as well as seawater. This study focused on osmotolerance in Chroomonas. Growth at different osmolalities and parameters of contractile vacuole function were examined and compared across a high-resolution phylogeny. Two evolutionary lineages in the Chroomonas clade proved to be euryhaline. Ranges of osmotolerance depended not only on osmolality, but also on culture medium. All cryptophytes contained contractile vacuoles. In the euryhaline strain CCAP 978/08 contractile vacuoles could be observed even at an osmolality beyond that of seawater. In addition the cells accumulated floridoside, an osmoprotectant likely originating from the red algal carbohydrate metabolism of the complex rhodoplast. Further evi-dence for functional contractile vacuoles also in marine cryptophytes was provided by identification of contractile vacuole-specific genes in the genome of Guillardia theta.
Keywords: Chroomonas, contractile vacuole, cryptomonads, floridoside, osmolarity, osmoregulation, osmotolerance, phylogeny

 

Dillon A, Achilles-Day UEH, Singhrao SK, Pearce M, Morton LHG & Crean S (2014) Biocide sensitivity of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolated from dental-unit-waterline systems. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 88: 97-105.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.10.026
Abstract: This study isolated amoebae from two different dental-unit-waterline (DUWL) sources, a simulated laboratory system (sDUWL) and a decommissioned system (dDUWL), within 24 h of it being dismantled from a working clinical practice. Molecular profiles of the isolates were determined and morphological characteristics of the test organisms were examined using microscopy. DNA barcoding identified the amoebae from both sources as being Vermamoeba vermiformis (previously described as Hartmannella vermiformis). These amoebae have been deposited at the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa and as CCAP 1534/16, GenBank accession number KC161965 (in-vitro simulated system) and CCAP 1534/17, GenBank accession number KC188996 (decommissioned system). The organisms from both sources exhibited two main forms: motile trophozoites and non-motile cysts. Mature cysts displayed natural fluorescence with excitation and emission wavelength of 488 nm, attributed to the presence of natural flavins and nicotinamide compounds. Both the encysted and the trophozoite forms of V. vermiformis remained unaffected when exposed to the proprietary biocides tested at the concentrations recommended for use in dental surgeries and cysts successfully excysted, to release trophozoites upon subsequent culture. However, two out of three proprietary dental biocides tested on isolated heterotrophic bacteria were effective at controlling bacterial contamination.
Keywords: amoeba, dental unit waterlines, DUWL, biocides, Hartmannella vermiformis, Vermamoeba vermiformis

 

Garnier M, Carrier G, Rogniaux H, Nicolau E, Bougaran G, Saint-Jean B & Cadoret JP (2014) Comparative proteomics reveals proteins impacted by nitrogen deprivation in wild-type and high lipid-accumulating mutant strains of Tisochrysis lutea. Journal of Proteomics. 105: 107-120.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.02.022
Abstract: Understanding microalgal lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation is of major interest for biomass feedstock, food and biofuel production. Using a domesticated oleaginous algae Tisochrysis lutea, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis on the wild type strain and a selected lipid over-accumulating mutant. 2-DE analysis was made on these strains cultured in two metabolic conditions, with and without nitrogen deprivation, which revealed significant differences in proteomes according to both strain and nitrogen availability. Mass spectrometry allowed us to identify 37 proteins that were differentially expressed between the two strains, and 17 proteins regulated by nitrogen starvation concomitantly with lipid accumulation. The proteins identified are known to be involved in various metabolic pathways including lipid, carbohydrate, amino acid, energy and pigment metabolisms, photosynthesis, protein translation, stress response and cell division. Four candidates were selected for possible implication in the over accumulation of lipids during nitrogen starvation. These include the plastid beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase protein, the coccolith scale associated protein and two glycoside hydrolases involved in biosynthesis of fatty acids, carbon homeostasis and carbohydrate catabolism, respectively. This proteomic study confirms the impact of nitrogen starvation on overall metabolism and provides new perspectives to study the lipid over-accumulation in the prymnesiophyte haptophyte T. lutea. Biological significance This paper study consists of the first proteomic analysis on Tisochrysis lutea, a non-model marine microalga of interest for aquaculture and lipids production. Comparative proteomics revealed proteins putatively involved in the up-accumulation of neutral lipids in a mutant strain during nitrogen starvation. The results are of great importance for future works to improve lipid accumulation in microalgae of biotechnological interest for biofuel production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms.
Keywords: microalgae, biotechnology, lipid, nitrogen, proteomic, selection

 

Dillon A, Singhrao SK, Achilles-Day UEM, Pearce M, Morton LHG & Crean S (2014) Vermamoeba vermiformis does not propagate Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei in a simulated laboratory dental-unit waterline system. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 90: 1-7.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.01.019
Abstract: This study investigated whether Vermamoeba vermiformis and Legionella spp., co-habited within an established, mature biofilm of a simulated laboratory dental-unit waterline (sDUWL) and if this amoebic vector supported the life cycle of Legionella pneumophila. Trophozoites of V. vermiformis, isolated in a previous study, were cultured on a natural mixed biofilm bacterial culture and a pure culture of an avirulent, L. pneumophila (non-Sgp1strain ST707) as food sources. Vermamoeba did not show a preference for L. pneumophila. Legionella species were isolated from the sDUWL discharge water and identified by DNA profiling using 16s bacterial rDNA primers as L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei strain U8W. Electron microscopy was performed to establish whether V. vermiformis was acting as a carrier, whilst within the biofilm, for Legionella species isolated from the sDUWL water. Ultrastructure failed to demonstrate vast numbers of any bacteria within the cytoplasm of V. vermiformis that emerged from the same heterogeneous biofilm organisms. These results were taken to indicate that Vermamoeba was unable to propagate either of the Legionella strains studied.
Keywords: Legionella, Vermamoeba vermiformis, dental-unit-waterlines, DUWL, Hartmannella vermiformis

 

Chong J, Jackson C, Kim JI, Yoon HS & Reyes-Prieto A (2014) Molecular markers from different genomic compartments reveal cryptic diversity within glaucophyte species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 76: 181-188.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.03.019
Abstract: Glaucophytes are the least studied of the three major Archaeplastida (Plantae sensu lato) lineages. It has been largely recognized that comprehensive investigations of glaucophyte genetic and species diversity will shed light on the early evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Here we used molecular phylogenetics and genetic distance estimations of diverse molecular markers to explore strain and species diversity within the glaucophyte genera Cyanophora and Glaucocystis. Single gene and concatenated maximum likelihood analyses of markers from three different genetic compartments consistently recovered similar intrageneric genetic groups. Distance analyses of plastid (psbA and rbcL) and mitochondrial (cob and cox1) genes, and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, revealed substantial genetic divergence between some Cyanophora paradoxa and Glaucocystis nostochinearum strains. The genetic distances estimated between some glaucophyte strains currently considered the same species are similar or greater than divergence values calculated between different species in other unicellular algae, such as certain green algae and diatoms. The analyzed molecular markers are prospective candidates for future studies of species diversity in glaucophytes. Overall, our results unveil previously unrecognized cryptic diversity within Cyanophora and Glaucocystis species.
Keywords: Glaucophyta, Cyanophora, Glaucocystis, cryptic species diversity, Archaeplastida

 

Geisen S, Weinert J, Kudryavtsev A, Glotova A, Bonkowski M & Smirnov A (2014) Two new species of the genus Stenamoeba (Discosea, Longamoebia): Cytoplasmic MTOC is present in one more amoebae lineage. European Journal of Protistology. 50: 153-165.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2014.01.007
Abstract: Two new species of the recently described genus Stenamoeba, named S. berchidia and S. sardiniensis were isolated from a single soil sample on Sardinia, Italy. Both share morphological features characteristic to Stenamoeba and form in phylogenetic analyses together with other Stenamoeba spp. a highly supported clade within the family Thecamoebidae. The ultrastructural investigation of Stenamoeba sardiniensis revealed the presence of cytoplasmic microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), located close to one of several dictyosomes found inside the cell. This is the first report of cytoplasmic MTOCs among Thecamoebidae. The presence of MTOCs is now shown in five of nine orders comprising the class Discosea and potentially could be a phylogenetic marker in this group. We re-isolated Stenamoeba limacina from German soils. This strain shows a similar morphology and an almost complete SSU rDNA sequence identity with the type strain of S. limacina originating from gills of fishes, collected in Czech Republic.
Keywords: Amoebozoa, Discosea, MTOC, morphology, phylogeny, ultrastructure

 

Tabatabai SAA, Schippers JC & Kennedy MD (2014) Effect of coagulation on fouling potential and removal of algal organic matter in ultrafiltration pretreatment to seawater reverse osmosis. Water Research. 59: 283-294.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.001
Abstract: This paper investigated the effect of coagulation on fouling potential and removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in seawater ultrafiltration (UF) systems. AOM harvested from a strain of bloom forming marine diatom, Chaetoceros affinis, was coagulated with ferric chloride under different coagulation modes and conditions. The effect of coagulation on fouling potential was determined with the Modified Fouling Index-Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF). Removal of AOM was studied for three different modes of coagulation, namely, coagulation followed by sedimentation, coagulation followed by sedimentation and filtration through 0.45 mm, and inline coagulation followed by filtration through 150 kDa UF membranes. Liquid chromatography e organic carbon detection was used to determine the removal of AOM with particular emphasis on biopolymers. AOM (as biopolymers) had a high fouling potential as measured by MFI-UF, which strongly depended on filtration flux. Moreover, the developed cake/gel layer on the membrane was fairly compressible during filtration; manifested as higher fouling potential at higher filtration flux and non-linear development of pressure in filtration tests. Coagulation substantially reduced fouling potential and compressibility of the AOM cake/gel layer. The impact of coagulation was particularly significant at coagulant doses >1 mg Fe/L. Coagulation also substantially reduced the flux-dependency of AOM fouling potential, resulting in linear development of pressure in filtration tests at constant flux. This was attributed to adsorption of biopolymers on precipitated iron hydroxide and formation of Fe-biopolymer aggregates, such that the fouling characteristics of iron hydroxide precipitates prevailed and AOM fouling characteristics diminished. At low coagulant dose, inline coagulation/UF was more effective in removing AOM than the other two coagulation modes tested. At high coagulant dose where sweep floc conditions prevailed, AOM removal was considerably higher and controlled by coagulant dose rather than coagulation mode.
Keywords: algal bloom, seawater reverse osmosis, pretreatment, inline coagulation, algal organic matter (AOM)

 

Maity JP, Bundschuh J, Chen CY & Bhattacharya P (2014) Microalgae for third generation biofuel production, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and wastewater treatment: Present and future perspectives - A mini review. Energy. 78: 104-113.
DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2014.04.003
Abstract: The extensive use of fossil fuels is increasingly recognized as unsustainable as a consequence of depletion of supplies and the contribution of these fuels to climate change by GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions into the atmosphere. Microalgae indicate alternative renewable sustainable energy sources as they have a high potential for producing large amounts of biomass which in turn can be used for production of different third-generation biofuels at large scale. Microalgae transform the solar energy into the carbon storage products, leads to lipid accumulation, including TAG (triacylglycerols), which then can be transformed into biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethanol. This paper reviews the selection, production and accumulation of target bioenergy carrier?s strains and their advantages as well as the technological development for oil, biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, biogas production and GHG mitigation. The feedstock of promising algal strain exhibits the suitable biofuel production. The current progress of hybridtechnologies (biomass production, wastewater treatment, GHG mitigation) for production of primeproducts as biofuels offer atmospheric pollution control such as the reduction of GHG (CO2 fixation) coupling wastewater treatment with microalgae growth. The selection of efficient strain, microbial metabolism, cultivation systems, biomass production are key parameters of viable technology for microalgae-based biodiesel-production.
Keywords: microalgae, biofuel, mitigation of greenhouse gases, wastewater treatment

 

Ghorbani A, Rahimpour HR, Ghasemi Y, Zoughi S & Rahimpour MR (2014) A review of carbon capture and sequestration in Iran: Microalgal biofixation potential in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 35: 73-100.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.013
Abstract: The continuous rise in CO2 and global warming is a major issue facing the world today. Iran with annual CO2 production of 532.4 million tons in 2010 has been reported to be the 9th country in the world. Shortage, low efficiency, losses, subsidies and unsuitable consumption pattern in sub-sectors challenge Iran's energy sector. Country's energy supply is intensively dependent on oil and gas, which lead to produce more greenhouse-gas emission. Therefore, Iran should establish some policies to control its environmental pollutions and place carbon-mitigation strategy within the government agenda as soon as possible. Efficient use of energy, progress of renewable energy and enhancing CO2 sequestration to mitigate more CO2 can be alternatives for reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions. Regarding major geological formations such as the second largest natural-gas reservoir and the third-greatest oil reservoir in the world and the second largest basin in the Middle East, storage of carbon and enhanced oil recovery seem to be a suitable choice for carbon capture and storage. Moreover, in Iran due to a vast land area, presence of various saline lakes which containing different species of microalgae and opportunity of establishing microalgae culture ponds, the capture unit and microalgal culture can be located close to carbon sources, which are scattered and far from geological formations. Besides CO2 mitigation, microalgae cultures can also produce valuable products and cause carbon capture more efficient. This article with the aim of anthropogenic CO2 reduction, reviews programs in the field of energy manage- ment and sustainable energy development to control emission. Then carbon sources and the potentials to capture and sequester CO2 are explored. In the end, potentials of microalgae in Iran to mitigate CO2 are described. This review is designed to investigate abilities in Iran to utilize or minimize CO2 and deploy biological carbon sequestration in the context of Iran's policy environment.
Keywords: CO2 capture, geological formation, enhanced oil recovery, microalgae biomitigation

 

Mekhalfi M, Amara S, Robert S, Carrière F & Gontero B (2014) Effect of environmental conditions on various enzyme activities and triacylglycerol contents in cultures of the freshwater diatom, Asterionella formosa (Baccillariophyceae). Biochimie. 101: 21-30.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2013.12.004
Abstract: A detailed analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) contents, fatty acid patterns and key enzyme activities in the freshwater diatom Asterionella formosa was performed under various conditions, including nitrate, iron and silicon limitation (stress conditions), or bicarbonate and phytohormones supplementation (stimulation conditions). Of all the conditions tested, the addition of bicarbonate produced the greatest increase (5-fold) in TAGs contents compared to the control while the biomass increased. The addition of phytohormones also allowed a significant increase in TAGs of about 3-fold while the biomass increased. Silicon, unlike iron and nitrate limitation, also triggered a significant increase in TAGs contents of 3.5-fold but negatively affected the biomass. Analysis of fatty acid profiles showed that the mono-unsaturated C16:1 fatty acid was the most abundant in A. formosa, followed by C16:0, C14:0 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3). EPA levels were found to increase under nitrate and iron limitation. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities differed with growth conditions. Most enzymes were up-regulated in stimulated cells while in the case of stressed cells, the pattern of activities was more variable. Detailed analysis of all enzyme activities showed that the most important enzyme among those tested was GAPDH which could be a good candidate for genetic engineering of high lipid-producing algae. This study provides a better understanding of key enzymes and biochemical pathways involved in lipid accumulation processes in diatoms.
Keywords: nitrogen, iron, silicon limitation, bicarbonate, phytohormone

 

Adesanya VO, Davey MP, Scott SA & Smith AG (2014) Kinetic modelling of growth and storage molecule production in microalgae under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions. Bioresource Technology. 157: 293-304.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.032
Abstract: In order to improve algal biofuel production on a commercial-scale, an understanding of algal growth and fuel molecule accumulation is essential. A mathematical model is presented that describes biomass growth and storage molecule (TAG lipid and starch) accumulation in the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris, under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions. Biomass growth was formulated based on the Droop model, while the storage molecule production was calculated based on the carbon balance within the algal cells incorporating carbon fixation via photosynthesis, organic carbon uptake and functional biomass growth. The model was validated with experimental growth data of C. vulgaris and was found to fit the data well. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model performance was highly sensitive to variations in parameters associated with nutrient factors, photosynthesis and light intensity. The maximum productivity and biomass concentration were achieved under mixotrophic nitrogen sufficient conditions, while the maximum storage content was obtained under mixotrophic nitrogen deficient conditions.
Keywords: kinetic model, microalgae, triacylglycerides (TAG), starch, mixotrophic

 

Zhang W, Wang J, Wang J & Liu T (2014) Attached cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis for astaxanthin production. Bioresource Technology. 158: 329-335.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.044
Abstract: Haematococcus pluvialis, the best natural source for astaxanthin, was cultivated with an immobilized biofilm method, viz. ??attached cultivation??, which was high in photosynthetic efficiency. A practical operational protocol for this ??attached cultivation?? method was investigated by studying the effects of inoculum density, light intensity, nitrogen quantity as well as medium volume on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Results indicated the optimized inoculum density and light intensity were 10 g m2 and 100 lmol m2 s1, respectively. The optimized nitrogen supply strategy was circulating ca. 30 L of BG-11 medium with initial sodium nitrate concentration of ca. 1.8 mM for 1 m2 of cultivation surface. With this strategy, the maximum astaxanthin productivity reached ca. 160 mg m2 d1 which is much higher than many other indoor researches. Both of the red and green cells were found in the biofilm with red cells on the top.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis, attached cultivation, astaxanthin, nitrogen, productivity

 

Kudryavtsev A, Brown MW, Tice A, Spiegel FW, Pawlowski J & Anderson OR (2014) A revision of the order Pellitida Smirnov et al., 2011 (Amoebozoa, Discosea) based on ultrastructural and molecular evidence, with description of Endostelium crystalliferum n. sp. Protist. 165: 208-229.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.02.003
Abstract: We present the results of an ultrastructural re-investigation of two amoebae strains that can be identified morphologically as previously described species of the genus Pellita, as well as the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of these amoebae based on SSU rRNA and actin gene sequences. The results obtained show close relationships between the genera Pellita, Gocevia, and Endostelium. These relationships are further supported by the description of Endostelium crystalliferum n. sp., which shares morphological characters simultaneously with Pellita spp. and Endostelium zonatum. The three genera form a robust clade that branches deeply within Amoebozoa, among either Flabellinia, or Longamoebia, depending on taxon sampling. The results suggest that Gocevia and Endostelium should not be included in the Himatismenida; therefore, we transfer the family Goceviidae into Pellitida. The type of cell organisation that was considered to be typical of Himatismenida (a lens-shaped cell covered dorsally with a flexible layer of organic material) has most probably evolved in some of these amoebae independently of Cochliopodiidae and Parvamoebidae. The robustness of the Pellitida clade in themolecular trees is consistent with the fine structure cytoplasmic evidence for these taxa, in particular,the presence of a centrosphere (a dictyosome-associated lamellar MTOC) in all these genera.? 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Keywords: actin, amoebae, cell coat, Pellitida, SSU rRNA, ultrastructure

 

Hochmuth JD, Asselman J & De Schamphelaere KAC (2014) Are interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution a concern for water quality management? Water Research. 60: 41-53.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.041
Abstract: Toxicity of mixtures of stressors is one of the major challenges in water quality management. Yet until now risk assessment focuses almost exclusively on the effect characterization of individual stressors. An important concern is the potential interactive effects of cyanobacteria, sometimes referred to as harmful algal blooms, with chemical stressors. Here, we evaluated the response of two clones of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to the combined effects of five cyanobacteria and copper. The latter remains the most commonly applied chemical algaecide and is also often detected in eutrophic run-offs that promote harmful algal blooms. Because the different cyanobacteria studied here have known modes of action that are similar, as well as dissimilar compared to the known modes of actions of copper, we based our assessment on two widely used reference models, i.e. the Concentration Addition (CA) model for similarly acting stressors and the Independent Action (IA) model for dissimilarly acting stressors. We highlight four major findings. First, the conclusions drawn on the interaction type (non-interaction vs. synergism or antagonism) between either of the five cyanobacteria species and copper were the same for both D. magna clones. Second, the interaction type differed between the Microcystis + copper mixture (non-interaction according to CA and synergism according to IA) and the four other cyanobacteria + copper mixtures (antagonism according to CA and non-interaction according to IA). Third, both reference models provided reasonable predictions for all observed mixture toxicities. Fourth, we consistently obtained different results with the IA reference model compared to the CA model. More specifically, mixtures of Cu and Microcystis were synergistic with IA whereas non-interaction was observed with CA, while the remaining four cyanobacteria + copper combinations all displayed non-interaction with IA and antagonism with CA. Despite the IA reference model providing a marginally better fit to the data in general, the CA reference model delivered more conservative predictions for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria + copper in all cases compared to the IA reference model. Thus, the CA model could serve as a conservative model to account for mixture toxicity of cyanobacteria and copper in water quality management, as it gives rise to conservative predictions of mixed stressor toxicity at sub-lethal effect levels in D. magna. Finally, and in accordance with other studies of cyanobacteria + chemical mixtures, we did not detect any strong synergistic effects of copper and cyanobacteria mixtures on D. magna. Consequently, based on our study with the model freshwater zooplankton species Daphnia, interactive effects of harmful algal blooms and copper pollution appear to be of limited concern for water quality management.
Keywords: water quality, cyanobacteria, mixture toxicity, copper, risk assessment, Daphnia

 

Mera R, Torres E & Abalde J (2014) Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity. Aquatic Toxicology. 148: 92-103.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.12.034
Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, -Glu?Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC50value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ? 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors.
Keywords: sulphate, cadmium, low-molecular mass thiol compounds, tolerance, Chlamydomonas moewusii, toxicity

 

Devlin S, Meneely JP, Greer B, Campbell K, Vasconcelos V & Elliott CT (2014) Production of a broad specificity antibody for the development and validation of an optical SPR screening method for free and intracellular microcystins and nodularin in cyanobacteria cultures. Talanta. 12: 8-15.
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.12.065
Abstract: A highly sensitive broad specificity monoclonal antibody was produced and characterised for microcystin detection through the development of a rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor based immunoassay. The antibody displayed the following cross-reactivity: MC-LR 100%; MC-RR 108%; MC-YR 68%; MC-LA 69%; MC-LW 71%; MC-LF 68%; and Nodularin 94%. Microcystin-LR was covalently attached to a CM5 chip and with the monoclonal antibody was employed in a competitive 4 min injection assay to detect total microcystins in water samples below the WHO recommended limit (1 mg/L). A ?total microcystin 0 level was determined by measuring free and intracellular concentrations in cyanobacterial culture samples as this toxin is an endotoxin. Glass bead beating was used to lyse the cells as a rapid extraction procedure. This method was validated according to European Commission Decision 96/23/EC criteria. The method was proven to measure intracellular microcystin levels, the main source of the toxin, which often goes undetected by other analytical procedures and is advantageous in that it can be used for the monitoring of blooms to provide an early warning of toxicity. It was shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with recoveries from spiked samples ranging from 74 to 123%, and had %CVs below 10% for intra-assay analysis and 15% for inter-assay analysis. The detection capability of the assay was calculated as 0.5 ng/mL for extracellular toxins and 0.05 ng/mL for intracellular microcystins. A comparison of the SPR method with LC?MS/MS was achieved by testing six Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and this study yielded a correlation R2 value of 0.9989.
Keywords: microcystin, nodularin, SPR, cyanobacteria, blue-green algae cultures, freshwater

 

Memon AR, Andresen J, Habib M & Jaffar M (2014) Simulated sugar factory wastewater remediation kinetics using algal-bacterial raceway reactor promoted by Polyacrylate polyalcohol. Bioresource Technology. 157: 37-43.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.047
Abstract: The remediation kinetics of simulated sugar factory wastewater (SFW) using an algal?bacterial culture (ABC) of Chlorella vulgaris in association with Pseudomonas putida in a raceway reactor was found to be enhanced by 89% with the addition of 80 ppm of copolymer Polyacrylate polyalcohol (PAPA). This was achieved by efficient suspension of the ABC throughout the water body maintaining optimum pH and dissolved oxygen that led to rapid COD removal and improved algal biomass production. The suspension of the ABC using the co-polymer PAPA maintained a DO of 8?10 mg l1 compared to 2?3 mg l1 when not suspended. As a result, the non-suspended ABC only achieved a 50% reduction in COD after 96 h compared to a 89% COD removal using 80 ppm PAPA suspension. In addition, the algae biomass increased from 0.4 g l1 d1 for the non-suspended ABC to 1.1 g l1 d1 when suspended using 80 ppm PAPA.
Keywords: C. vulgaris, P. putida, polyacrylate polyalcohol, sugar factory wastewater, wastewater treatment

 

Toi HT, Boeckx P, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P & Van Stappen G (2014) Co-feeding of microalgae and bacteria may result in increased N assimilation in Artemia as compared to mono-diets, as demonstrated by a 15N isotope uptake laboratory study. Aquaculture. 422-423: 109-114.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.12.005
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of the co-feeding of bacteria and microalgae on nitrogen (N) assimilation in an Artemia franciscana gnotobiotic laboratory culture test. Two strains of bacteria were used, HT3 and HT6, isolated from previous Artemia laboratory cultures. These were fed in combination with microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta strains, either the high quality DT 19/6B or the low quality DT 19/27 strain. Each combination of algae and bacteria was offered in different proportions, i.e. 10/90, 50/50 and 90/10% on a dry weight basis, while the total amount of food supplied, which was based on a reference algae mono-diet, was kept constant. Mono-diets consisting of 100% algae and 100% bacteria were added as controls. N assimilation from either food source was determined by feeding in separate tests 15N labeled microalgae with non-labeled bacteria and vice versa. Axenically hatched Artemia nauplii were fed these diets for 24 h, after which they were analyzed for 15N content. The results of 15N analysis showed that the N assimilation from bacteria in Artemia was improved when the bacteria were 10% replaced by microalgae, and for the combination of DT 19/6B and HT6 this increase was significant (P b 0.05). Also 50% replacement of HT6 by DT 19/6B resulted in higher, but non-significant, N assimilation from the bacteria as compared to the 100% bacteria mono-diet. A similar non-significant increase of N assimilation from DT 19/6B was observed as compared to the 100% algae diet when these algae were up to 50% replaced by HT6 bacteria. Other combinations of bacterial andmicroalgal strains generally produced similar or lower N assimilation as compared to the labeledmono-diet,when the labeled food component (bacteria or algae)was gradually replaced by the other (algae or bacteria). This study shows that, provided suitable strains are used, offering microalgae and bacteria together as food for Artemia may result in a synergistic effect in how this filter-feeding organism takes advantage of the respective food sources. This Artemia study can also be considered as a model for future research on the feeding biology of other filter-feeding aquaculture organisms.
Keywords: Artemia, bacteria, Dunaliella tertiolecta, 15N, Trypsin

 

Kolar B, Arnus L, Jeretin B, Gutmaher A, Drobne D & Durjava MK (2014) The toxic effect of oxytetracycline and trimethoprim in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere. 115: 75-80.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.049
Abstract: The objective of our study was the investigation of the toxic properties of two antimicrobial drugs: oxytetracycline (OTC) and trimethoprim (TMP) in the aquatic environment. The toxic effects were tested according to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals, on the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aque, on the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, on the daphnid Daphnia magna as well as on the activated sludge. We discussed the short term and long term results of tests on cyanobacteria and microalgae. Both experiments were concluded in 72 h allowing direct comparison of sensitivity of the two tested species. The results of our study showed toxic effect in the same range for both groups. In the test on the toxicity of OTC to P. subcapitata we obtained the 72 h ErC50 of 1.04 mg L1 (72 h ErC10 0.47 mg L1) which are lower in comparison to the results on the toxicity to A. flos-aque of ErC50 of 2.7 mg L1 (72 h ErC10 1.5 mg L1). TMP is less toxic to both photosynthetic plankton species. Similar to the test results on OTC, the P. subcapitata is more sensitive to TMP (ErC50 129 mg L1; ErC10 65 mg L1) than A. flos-aque (72 h ErC50 253 mg L1; 72 h ErC10 26 mg L1). OTC is toxic to the activated sludge (3 h EC50 17.9 mg L1), while the calculated 3 h EC50 value for TMP exceeded solubility for the compound. In comparison to other species, both tested antimicrobials showed low toxicity to daphnids.
Keywords: oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, algae, cyanobacteria, activated sludge

 

Carbonera D, Agostini A, Di Valentin M, Gerotto C, Basso S, Giacometti GM & Morosinotto T (2014) Photoprotective sites in the violaxanthin-chlorophyll a binding protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis gaditana. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 1837: 1235-1246.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.03.014
Abstract: Violaxanthin?chlorophyll a binding protein (VCP) is the major light harvesting complex (LHC) of the Heterokonta Nannochloropsis gaditana. It binds chlorophyll a, violaxanthin and vaucheriaxanthin, the last in the form of 19? deca/octanoate esters. Photosynthetic apparatus of algae belonging to this group have been poorly characterized in the past, but they are now receiving an increasing interest also because of their possible biotechnological application in biofuel production. In this work, isolated VCP proteins have been studied by means of advanced EPR techniques in order to prove the presence of the photoprotective mechanism based on the triplet?triplet energy transfer (TTET), occurring between chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules. This process has been observed before in several light harvesting complexes belonging to various photosynthetic organisms. We used Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) to identify the triplet states populated by photoexcitation, and describe the optical properties of the chromophores carrying the triplet states. In parallel, time-resolved EPR (TR-EPR) and pulse EPR has been employed to get insight into the TTET mechanism and reveal the structural features of the pigment sites involved in photoprotection. The analysis of the spectroscopic data shows a strong similarity among VCP, FCP from diatoms and LHC-II from higher plants. Although these antenna proteins have differentiated sequences and bind different pigments, results suggest that in all members of the LHC superfamily there is a protein corewith a conserved structural organization, represented by two central carotenoids surrounded by five chlorophyll a molecules, which plays a fundamental photoprotective role in Chl triplet quenching through carotenoid triplet formation.
Keywords: triplet state, VCP, carotenoid, EPR, ODMR, violaxanthin, triplet-triplet energy transfer

 

Hultberg M, Larsson Jonsson H, Bergstrand K & Carlsson AS (2014) Impact of light quality on biomass production and fatty acid content in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology. 159: 465-467.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.092
Abstract: In this study, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to monochromatic light at six different wavelengths in order to study the effect on biomass productivity and fatty acid content. A significantly higher amount of biomass by produced in the treatments with yellow, red and white light compared with blue, green and purple light. There were also significant differences in total lipid content and fatty acid profile between the treatments. The green light regime gave the lowest concentration of lipids, but increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus it can be concluded that light quality significantly affects biomass productivity, total lipid concentration and fatty acid profile in the microalga C. vulgaris.
Keywords: FAME, light emitting diode, microalgae, wavelength

 

Carteau D, Vallee-Rehel K, Linossier I, Quiniou F, Davy R, Compere C, Delbury M & Fay F (2014) Development of environmentally friendly antifouling paints using biodegradable polymer and lower toxic substances. Progress in Organic Coatings. 77: 485-493.
DOI: 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2013.11.012
Abstract: The development of new antifouling coatings with respect to the marine environment is actually crucial.The aim of the present work is to concept an erodible paint formulated with biodegradable polyester asbinders and which combines two modes of prevention: chemical and physical repelling of biofouling.This system is principally dedicated to disturb durable settlement of microfouling. Each component waschosen according to its specific properties: chlorhexidine is a bisdiguanide antiseptic with antibacterialactivity, zinc peroxide is an inorganic precursor of high instable entities which react with seawater tocreate hydrogen peroxide, Tween 85 is a non ionic surfactant disturbing interactions between colonizingorganisms and surface. Obtained results highlighted the interest on mixing such molecules to obtain apromising coating with lower toxicity than traditional systems.
Keywords: environmental coatings, antifouling, active substances, microfouling

 

Rahman MM, Rahman MA, Maki T, Nishiuchi T, Asano T & Hasegawa H (2014) A marine phytoplankton (Prymnesium parvum) up-regulates ABC transporters and several other proteins to acclimatize with Fe-limitation. Chemosphere. 95: 213-219.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.001
Abstract: Iron (Fe) is one of the vital limiting factors for phytoplankton in vast regions of the contemporary oceans, notably the high nutrient low chlorophyll regions. Therefore, it is apparent to be acquainted with the Fe uptake strategy of marine phytoplankton under Fe-limited condition. In the present study, marine phytoplankton Prymnesium parvum was grown under Fe-deplete (0.0025 lM) and Fe-rich (0.05 lM) conditions, and proteomic responses of the organism to Fe conditions were compared. In sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, 7 proteins (16, 18, 32, 34, 75, 82, and 116 kDa) were highly expressed under Fe-deplete condition, while one protein (23 kDa) was highly expressed under Fe-rich condition. These proteins were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) to differentiate individual proteins, and were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption?ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. The results showed that under Fe-deplete condition P. parvum increases the biosynthesis of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, flagellar associated protein (FAP), and Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase. These proteins are assumed to be involved in a number of cellular biochemical processes that facilitate Fe acquisition in phytoplankton. Under Fe-deplete condition, P. parvum increases the synthesis of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo), malate dehydrogenase, and two Fe-independent oxidative stress response proteins, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and Serine threonine kinase (STK). Thus, marine phytoplankton may change their Fe acquisition strategy by altering the biosynthesis of several proteins in order to copewith Fe-limitation.
Keywords: marine phytoplankton, Prymnesium parvum, iron limitation, protein expression, ABC transporter

 

Manso S, De Muynck W, Segura I, Aguado A, Steppe K, Boon N & De Belie N (2014) Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth. Science of the Total Environment. 481: 232-241.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.059
Abstract: Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious constructionmaterials constituting thewall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. Thiswork aims at assessing the suitability of magnesiumphosphate cement (MPC) materials to allowa rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, thew/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binderswere modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material.MPC mortarwith moderate porosity and roughness appears to be themost feasiblematerial to be used for the development of green concrete walls.
Keywords: bioreceptivity, ordinary portland cement, magnesium phosphate cement, Chlorella vulgaris

 

Machado MD & Soares EV (2014) Modification of cell volume and proliferative capacity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata cells exposed to metal stress. Aquatic Toxicology. 147: 1-6.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.11.017
Abstract: The impact of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) on growth, cell volume and cell division of the freshwateralga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed over a period of 72 h was investigated. The algal cells wereexposed to three nominal concentrations of each metal: low (closed to 72 h-EC10values), intermediate(closed to 72 h-EC50values) and high (upper than 72 h-EC90values). The exposure to low metal concen-trations resulted in a decrease of cell volume. On the contrary, for the highest metal concentrations anincrease of cell volume was observed; this effect was particularly notorious for Cd and less pronouncedfor Zn. Two behaviours were found when algal cells were exposed to intermediate concentrations ofmetals: Cu(II) and Cr(VI) induced a reduction of cell volume, while Cd(II) and Zn(II) provoked an oppositeeffect. The simultaneous nucleus staining and cell image analysis, allowed distinguishing three phases inP. subcapitata cell cycle: growth of mother cell; cell division, which includes two divisions of the nucleus;and, release of four autospores. The exposure of P. subcapitata cells to the highest metal concentrationsresulted in the arrest of cell growth before the first nucleus division [for Cr(VI) and Cu(II)] or after thesecond nucleus division but before the cytokinesis (release of autospores) when exposed to Cd(II). Thedifferent impact of metals on algal cell volume and cell-cycle progression, suggests that different toxic-ity mechanisms underlie the action of different metals studied. The simultaneous nucleus staining andcell image analysis, used in the present work, can be a useful tool in the analysis of the toxicity of thepollutants, in P. subcapitata, and help in the elucidation of their different modes of action.
Keywords: algal growth, biovolume, cell division, cell proliferation, cell size, metal toxicity

 

Basso S, Simionato D, Gerotto C, Segalla A, Giacometti GM & Morosinotto T (2014) Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus of the Eustigmatophycean Nannochloropsis gaditana: Evidence of convergent evolution in the supramolecular organization of photosystem I. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta. 1837: 306-314.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.11.019
Abstract: Nannochloropsis gaditana belongs to Eustigmatophyceae, a class of eukaryotic algae resulting from a secondary endosymbiotic event. Species of this class have been poorly characterized thus far but are now raising increasing interest in the scientific community because of their possible application in biofuel production. Nannochloropsis species have a peculiar photosynthetic apparatus characterized by the presence of only chlorophyll a, with violaxanthin and vaucheriaxanthin esters as the most abundant carotenoids. In this study, the photosynthetic apparatus of this species was analyzed by purifying the thylakoids and isolating the different pigment-binding complexes uponmild solubilization. The results fromthe biochemical and spectroscopic characterization showed that the photosystem II antenna is loosely bound to the reaction center, whereas the association is stronger in photosystemI,with the antenna-reaction center super-complexes surviving purification. Such a supramolecular organization was found to be conserved in photosystem I from several other photosynthetic eukaryotes, even though these taxa are evolutionarily distant. A hypothesis on the possible selective advantage of different associations of the antenna complexes of photosystems I and II is discussed.
Keywords: photosynthetic apparatus, thylakoid, photosystem, photosynthesis, light-harvesting complex, heterokonta

 

Geisen S, Kudryavtsev A, Bonkowski M & Smirnov A (2014) Discrepancy between species borders at morphological and molecular levels in the genus Cochliopodium (Amoebozoa, Himatismenida), with the description of Cochliopodium plurinucleolum n. sp. Protist. 165: 364-383.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.04.002
Abstract: Amoebae of the genus Cochliopodium are characterized by a tectum that is a layer of scales covering the dorsal surface of the cell. A combination of scale structure, morphological features and, nowadays, molecular information allows species discrimination. Here we describe a soil species Cochliopodium plurinucleolum n. sp. that besides strong genetic divergence from all currently described species of Cochliopodium differs morphologically by the presence of several peripheral nucleoli in the nucleus. Further, we unambiguously show that the Golgi attachment associated with a dictyosome in Cochliopodium is a cytoplasmic microtubule organizing center (MTOC). Last, we provide detailed morphological and molecular information on the sister clade of C. plurinucleolum, containing C. minus, C. minutoidum, C. pentatrifurcatum and C. megatetrastylus. These species share nearly identical sequences of both, small subunit ribosomal RNA and partial Cox1 genes, and nearly identical structure of the scales. Scales of C. pentatrifurcatum differ, however, strongly from scales of the others while sequences of C. pentatrifurcatum and C. minus are nearly identical. These discrepancies urge for future sampling efforts to disentangle species characteristics within Cochliopdium and to investigate morphological and molecular patterns that allow reliable species differentiation.
Keywords: amoebozoa, Cochliopodium, MTOC, scales, phylogeny, ultrastructure

 

Birungi ZS & Chirwa EMN (2014) The kinetics of uptake and recovery of lanthanum using freshwater algae as biosorbents: Comparative analysis. Bioresource Technology. 160: 43-51.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.033
Abstract: In this study, the adsorption and desorption kinetics of lanthanum (La) on micro algal cells was investigated. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) were used for molecular identification of the species. The algal species were found to have 95?98% identities to Desmodesmus multivariabilis, Scenedesmus acuminutus, Chloroidium saccharophilum and Stichococcus bacillaris. The species were cultured and tested independently. D. multivariabilis was found to be the most efficient at adsorbing lanthanum with a maximum sorption capacity (qmax) of 100 mg/g and a high affinity (b) of 4.55 L/g. Desorption of La was also highest in D. multivariabilis with recovery up to 99.63% at initial concentration as high as 100 mg/L. Desorption data fitted best to the modified pseudo second-order with a better correlation coefficient (R2) of 60.98 than first order model. The results showed feasibility of lanthanum recovery using algal sorbents, a cost effective method.
Keywords: lanthanum, micro algae, cell wall properties, biosorption, modelling

 

Martinez T, Bertron A, Escadeillas G & Ringot E (2014) Algal growth inhibition on cement mortar: Efficiency of water repellent and photocatalytic treatments under UV/VIS illumination. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 89: 115-125.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.01.018
Abstract: Building materials are regularly affected by the growth of microalgae. The consequences are mainly aesthetic but the colonization can cause biodeterioration of the material in the most extreme cases. This study investigates two building material treatments that can potentially inhibit or slow down such growth: photocatalytic coatings and water repellent treatments. The efficiency of these treatments in terms of biological growth inhibitionwas tested on the algae species Graesiella emersonii. Algal growth on building materials was investigated using two accelerated tests simulating different types of humidification (water capillary ascent and water run-off) under different lighting conditions. Mortars treated with photocatalytic coating or with water repellent were studied. The algal growth on the mortar surface was evaluated using image analysis (area covered and intensity of fouling). No slow down of the biological growth kinetics could be attributed to photocatalytic substrates. However, for mortars impregnated with a water-repellent preparation, algal growth slowed significantly under water run-off and even stopped under water capillary ascent.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, TiO2, coating, water repellent, algae, UV illumination, building materials, bioreceptivity

 

Ometto F, Pozza C, Whitton R, Smyth B, Gonzalez Torres A, Henderson RK, Jarvis P, Jefferson B & Villa R (2014) The impacts of replacing air bubbles with microspheres for the clarification of algae from low cell-density culture. Water Research. 53: 168-179.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.012
Abstract: Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is a well-known coagulation-flotation system applied at large scale for microalgae harvesting. Compared to conventional harvesting technologies DAF allows high cell recovery at lower energy demand. By replacing microbubbles with microspheres, the innovative Ballasted Dissolved Air Flotation (BDAF) technique has been reported to achieve the same algae cell removal efficiency, while saving up to 80% of the energy required for the conventional DAF unit. Using three different algae cultures (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima), the present work investigated the practical, economic and environmental advantages of the BDAF system compared to the DAF system. 99% cells separation was achieved with both systems, nevertheless, the BDAF technology allowed up to 95% coagulant reduction depending on the algae species and the pH conditions adopted. In terms of floc structure and strength, the inclusion of microspheres in the algae floc generated a looser aggregate, showing a more compact structure within single cell alga, than large and filamentous cells. Overall, BDAF appeared to be a more reliable and sustainable harvesting system than DAF, as it allowed equal cells recovery reducing energy inputs, coagulant demand and carbon emissions.
Keywords: microalgae harvesting, dissolved air flotation, ballasted flotation, floc structure, carbon footprint

 

Pretti C, Oliva M, Di Pietro R, Monni G, Cevasco G, Chiellini F, Pomelli C & Chiappe C (2014) Ecotoxicity of pristine graphene to marine organisms. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 101: 138-145.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.008
Abstract: The ecotoxicity of pristine graphene nanoparticles (GNC1, PGMF in model marine organisms was investigated. PGMF resulted more toxic than GNC1 to the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta on the basis of EC50 values (endpoints: inhibition of bioluminescence and growth, respectively). No acute toxicity was demonstrated with respect to the crustacean Artemia salina although light microscope images showed the presence of PGMF and GNC1 aggregates into the gut; a 48-h exposure experiment revealed an altered pattern of oxidative stress biomarkers, resulting in a significant increase of catalase activities in both PGMF and GNC1 1mg/L treated A.salina and asignificant increase of glutathione peroxidase activities in PGMF (0.1 and 1mg/L) treated A.salina. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation of membranes was also observed in PGMF 1mg/L exposed A.salina.
Keywords: graphene, toxicity, Vibrio fischeri, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Artemia salina, oxidative stress

 

Cervero-Arago S, Rodriguez-Martinez S, Canals O, Salvado H & Araujo RM (2014) Effect of thermal treatment on free-living amoeba inactivation. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 116: 728-736.
DOI: 10.1111/jam.12379
Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the effect of temperature on two amoeba strains of the genera Acanthamoeba and two amoeba strains of the genera Hartmannella separately treated depending on their life stage, trophozoite or cyst, when cell are directly exposed under controlled conditions. Methods and Results: For thermal treatments, three temperatures were selected 50, 60 and 70°C, and a microcosm was designed using dialysis bags. The inactivation of each strain was determined using a method based on the most probable number quantification on agar plates. The results showed that for all amoeba strains, thermal treatment was more effective against trophozoites compared with cyst stages. The inactivation patterns showed statistical differences between the two genera analysed at temperatures above 50°C. The effectiveness of the thermal treatments at 60 and 70°C was higher for both life stages of Hartmannella vermiformis strains compared with Acanthamoeba strains, being the most resistant Acanthamoeba cysts. Conclusions: Free-living amoebae have been isolated in a wide range of environments worldwide due to their capacity to survive under harsh conditions. This capacity is mainly based on the formation of resistant forms, such as double-walled cysts, which confers a high level of resistance as shown here for thermal treatments. Significance and Impact of Study: Free-living amoebae survival can promote a rapid recolonization of drinking water systems and is a likely source of emerging opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella. Because of that a better understanding of the factors that affect micro-organism inactivation in water systems would allow more efficient application of disinfection treatments.
Keywords: Acanthamoeba, amoeba, dialysis, disinfection, Hartmannella, thermal

 

Kremp A, Tahvanainen P, Litaker W, Krock B, Suikkanen S, Leaw CP & Tomas C (2014) Phylogenetic relationships, morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: Implications for species boundaries and identities. Journal of Phycology. 50: 81-100.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12134
Abstract: Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech and Tangen and A. peruvianum (Balech and B.R. Mendiola) Balech and Tangen are morphologically closely related dinoflagellates known to produce potent neurotoxins. Together with Gonyaulax dimorpha Biecheler, they constitute the A. ostenfeldii species complex. Due to the subtle differences in the morphological characters used to differentiate these species, unambiguous species identification has proven problematic. To better understand the species boundaries within the A. ostenfeldii complex we compared rDNA data, morphometric characters and toxin profiles of multiple cultured isolates from different geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences from cultures characterized as A. ostenfeldii or A. peruvianum formed a monophyletic clade consisting of six distinct groups. Each group examined contained strains morphologically identified as either A. ostenfeldii or A. peruvianum. Though key morphological characters were generally found to be highly variable and not consistently distributed, selected plate features and toxin profiles differed significantly among phylogenetic clusters. Additional sequence analyses revealed a lack of compensatory base changes in ITS2 rRNA structure, low to intermediate ITS/5.8S uncorrected genetic distances, and evidence of reticulation. Together these data (criteria currently used for species delineation in dinoflagellates) imply that the A. ostenfeldii complex should be regarded a single genetically structured species until more material and alternative criteria for species delimitation are available. Consequently, we propose that A. peruvianum is a heterotypic synonym of A. ostenfeldii and this taxon name should be discontinued.
Keywords: Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Alexandrium peruvianum, ITS2 compensatory base changes, morphology, paralytic shellfish toxins, phylogeny, spirolides

 

Valiadi M & Iglesias-Rodriguez MD (2014) Diversity of the luciferin binding protein gene in bioluminescent dinoflagellates - insights from a new gene in Noctiluca scintillans and sequences from gonyaulacoid general. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 61: 134-145.
DOI: 10.1111/jeu.12091
Abstract: Dinoflagellate bioluminescence systems operate with or without a luciferin binding protein, representing two distinct modes of light production. However, the distribution, diversity, and evolution of the luciferin binding protein gene within bioluminescent dinoflagellates are not well known. We used PCR to detect and partially sequence this gene from the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a group of ecologically important gonyaulacoid species. We report an additional luciferin binding protein gene in N. scintillans which is not attached to luciferase, further to its typical combined bioluminescence gene. This supports the hypothesis that a profound re-organization of the bioluminescence system has taken place in this organism. We also show that the luciferin binding protein gene is present in the genera Ceratocorys, Gonyaulax, and Protoceratium, and is prevalent in bioluminescent species of Alexandrium. Therefore, this gene is an integral component of the standard molecular bioluminescence machinery in dinoflagellates. Nucleotide sequences showed high within-strain variation among gene copies, revealing a highly diverse gene family comprising multiple gene types in some organisms. Phylogenetic analyses showed that, in some species, the evolution of the luciferin binding protein gene was different from the organism?s general phylogenies, highlighting the complex evolutionary history of dinoflagellate bioluminescence systems.
Keywords: bioluminescence, gene evolution, luciferase, PCR

 

Zhang J, Ianora A, Wu C, Pellegrini D, Esposito F & Buttino I (2014) How to increase productivity of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): Effects of population density and food concentration. Aquaculture Research. -: 1-9.
DOI: 10.1111/are.12456
Abstract: In this study, we analysed the effect of population density and food concentration on the fecundity of a Mediterranean strain of Acartia tonsa to maximize egg production. During 4-day feeding experiments, egg hatching success and faecal pellet production were also followed. The algae Rhinomonas reticulata was supplied at different concentrations corresponding to 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 lg C L1 day 1 at the following adult copepod density: 40, 80 and 160 ind. L1. Our results show a positive relationship between algal concentration and egg production under all experimental conditions confirming that the quantity of food strongly limits A. tonsa fecundity. Maximum egg production (57 eggs per female) was reached at the lowest density and at the maximum food concentration. Percentage of egg hatching success was not dependent on the quantity of food used. At the same food concentration, an increase in population density from 40 to 80 ind. L1 induced an increase in faecal pellet production per couple which did not correspond to an increase in egg production, suggesting that higher energetic costs were shifted to swimmin activity. Productivity of the A. tonsa Mediterranean strain is mainly limited by the quantity of food rather than by crowding conditions.
Keywords: zooplankton rearing, egg production, hatching success, algal concentration

 

Cripps G, Lindeque P & Flynn KJ (2014) Have we been underestimating the effects of ocean acidification in zooplankton? Global Change Biology. 20: 3377-3385.
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12582
Abstract: Understanding how copepods may respond to ocean acidification (OA) is critical for risk assessments of ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. The perception that copepods are insensitive to OA is largely based on experiments with adult females. Their apparent resilience to increased carbon dioxide (pCO2) concentrations has supported the view that copepods are ?winners? under OA. Here, we show that this conclusion is not robust, that sensitivity across different life stages is significantly misrepresented by studies solely using adult females. Stage-specific responses to pCO2 (385?6000 latm) were studied across different life stages of a calanoid copepod, monitoring for lethal and sublethal responses. Mortality rates varied significantly across the different life stages, with nauplii showing the highest lethal effects; nauplii mortality rates increased threefold when pCO2 concentrations reached 1000 latm (year 2100 scenario) with LC50 at 1084 latm pCO2. In comparison, eggs, early copepodite stages, and adult males and females were not affected lethally until pCO2 concentrations ?3000 latm. Adverse effects on reproduction were found, with >35% decline in nauplii recruitment at 1000 latm pCO2. This suppression of reproductive scope, coupled with the decreased survival of early stage progeny at this pCO2 concentration, has clear potential to damage population growth dynamics in this species. The disparity in responses seen across the different developmental stages emphasizes the need for a holistic life-cycle approach to make species-level projections to climate change. Significant misrepresentation and error propagation can develop from studies which attempt to project outcomes to future OA conditions solely based on single life history stage exposures.
Keywords: copepod, developmental stages, mortality, ocean acidification, recruitment, zooplankton

 

Friman VP, Jousset A & Buckling A (2014) Rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 27: 374-380.
DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12303
Abstract: Although microevolution has been shown to play an important role in pairwise antagonistic species interactions, its importance in more complex communities has received little attention. Here, we used two Pseudomonas fluorescens prey bacterial strains (SBW25 and F113) and Tetrahymena thermophila protist predator to study how rapid evolution affects the structuring of predator?prey communities. Both bacterial strains coexisted in the absence of predation, and F113 was competitively excluded in the presence of both SBW25 and predator during the 24-day experiment, an initially surprising result given that F113 was originally poorer at growing, but more resistant to predation. However, this can be explained by SBW25 evolving greater antipredatory defence with a lower growth cost than F113. These results show that rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator?prey communities, having different effects depending on the initial composition of the evolving community. From a more applied perspective, our results suggest that the effectiveness of biocontrol bacteria, such as F113, could be weaker in communities characterized by intense bacterial competition and protist predation.
Keywords: antagonism, competition, Pseudomonas fluorescens, resistance, Tetrahymena thermophila, trade-off

 

Clement-Larosiere B, Lopes F, Goncalves A, Taidi B, Benedetti M, Minier M & Pareau D (2014) Carbon dioxide biofixation by Chlorella vulgaris at different CO2 concentrations and light intensities. Engineering in Life Sciences. 14: 509-519.
DOI: 10.1002/elsc.201200212
Abstract: In order to develop an effective CO2 mitigation process using microalgae for potential industrial application, the growth and physiological activity of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactor cultures were studied. C. vulgaris was grown at two CO2 concentrations (2% and 13% of CO2 v/v) and at three incident light intensities (50, 120 and 180 ?mol.m-2.s-1) for 9 days. The measured specific growth rate was similar under all conditions tested but an increase in light intensity and CO2 concentration affected the biomass and cell concentrations. Although carbon limitation was observed at 2% CO2, similar cellular composition was measured in both conditions. Light limitation induced a net change in the growth behavior of C. vulgaris. Nitrogen limitation seemed to decrease the nitrogen quota of the cells and a rise of the C:N cellular ratios. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production per cell appeared to be affected by light intensity. In order to avoid underestimation of the CO2 biofixation rate of the microalgae, EPS production was taken into account. The maximum CO2 removal rate (0.98 g CO2.L-1.d-1) and the highest biomass concentration (4.14 g DW.L-1) were determined at 13% (v/v) CO2 and 180 ?mol.m-2.s-1. Our results show that C. vulgaris has a real potential for industrial CO2 remediation.
Keywords: bioremediation, carbon dioxide, Chlorella vulgaris, microalgae, photobioreactor

 

Villaneuva L, Rijpstra WIC, Schouten S & Sinninghe Damste JS (2014) Genetic biomarkers of the sterol-biosynthetic pathway in microalgae. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 6: 35-44.
DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12106
Abstract: Sterols are cyclic isoprenoid lipids present in all eukaryotes. These compounds have been used to determine the composition of algal communities in marine and lake environments, and because of their preservation potential have been used to reconstruct the evolution of eukaryotes. In the last years, there have been major advances in understanding the sterol biosynthetic pathways and the enzymes involved. Here, we have explored the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of the gene coding the cycloartenol synthase (CS), a key enzyme of the phytosterol biosynthetic pathway. We propose a gene-based approach that can be used to assess the sterol-forming potential of algal groups. CS coding gene was annotated in genomes of microalgae using protein homology with previously annotated CS sequences. Primers for the detection of CS gene sequences of diatoms, one of the most dominant groups of microalgae, were designed and evaluated in cultures and environmental samples. A comparison of the phylogeny of the recovered CS sequences in combination with sequence data of the gene rbcL coding for the large subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) demonstrates the potential of the CS gene as phylogenetic marker, as well as an indicator for the identity of sterol-producing organisms in the environment.
Keywords:

 

Samanta B & Bhadury P (2014) Analysis of diversity of chromophytic phytoplankton in a mangrove ecosystem using rbcL gene sequencing. Journal of Phycology. 50: 328-340.
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12163
Abstract: Phytoplankton forms the basis of primary production in mangrove environments. The phylogeny and diversity based on the amplification and sequencing of rbcL, the large subunit encoding the key enzyme ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was investigated for improved understanding of the community structure and temporal trends of chromophytic eukaryotic phytoplankton assemblages in Sundarbans, the world?s largest continuous mangrove. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) were by far the most frequently detected group in clone libraries (485 out of 525 clones), consistent with their importance as a major bloom-forming group. Other major chromophytic algal groups including Cryptophyceae, Haptophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, and Raphidophyceae which are important component of the assemblages were detected for the first time from Sundarbans based on rbcL approach. Many of the sequences from Sundarbans rbcL clone libraries showed identity with key bloom forming diatom genera namely Thalassiosira, Skeletonema and Nitzschia. Similarly, several rbcL sequences which were diatom-like were also detected highlighting the need to explore diatom communities from the study area. Some of the rbcL sequences detected from Sundarbans were ubiquitous in distribution showing 100% identities with uncultured rbcL sequences targeted previously from the Gulf of Mexico and California upwelling system that are geographically separated from study area. Novel rbcL lineages were also detected highlighting the need to culture and sequence phytoplankton from the ecoregion. Principal component analysis revealed that nitrate is an important variable that is associated with observed variation in phytoplankton assemblages (operational taxonomic units). This study applied molecular tools to highlight the ecological significance of diatoms, in addition to other chromophytic algal groups in Sundarbans.
Keywords: chromophytic phytoplankton, diatom, mangrove, phylogeny, rbcL

 

Jager CG, Vrede T, Persson L & Jansson M (2014) Interactions between metazoans, autotrophs, mixotrophs and bacterioplankton in nutrient-depleted high DOC environments: a long term experiment. Freshwater Biology. 59: 1596-1607.
DOI: 10.1111/fwb.12366
Abstract: 1. Humic lakes with a high external supply of DOC and low input of nutrients can often support a high biomass of metazoan zooplankton. In such lakes, autotrophic algae compete with bacteria for inorganic nutrients, but bacteria support mixotrophic growth. Consequently, planktonic communities are often dominated by mixotrophic flagellates, while obligate autotrophic phytoplankton occurs in low numbers for extended periods. 2. To test the importance of autotrophic phytoplankton and mixotrophic flagellates as food resources for metazoan grazers and, in turn, the feedback effects of grazers on basal food-web interactions, we conducted a long-term experiment where we simulated abiotic resource relationships of humic lakes (high DOC [glucose] and low P input). We examined the population dynamics of Daphnia galeata when inoculated in systems with autotrophic algae only, mixotrophic algae only and a mixture of autotrophic and mixotrophic algae, and how the systems changed after the inoculation of Daphnia. All combinations were run at high- and low-light conditions to analyse the effects of light on food quantity and quality. 3. Daphnia grew to high densities only when mixotrophs were present at high-light conditions and showed no or only weak growth at low-light conditions or with autotrophs as the only food source. 4. Autotrophic algae and bacteria showed a strong competition for nutrients. Autotrophic algae were released from competition for nutrients after Daphnia grazed on bacteria, which led to a probable change of the bacteria community to less edible but less competitive taxa. As a consequence, there was a mutualistic interaction between autotrophs and mixotrophs before Daphnia were introduced which turned into competition after Daphnia inoculation. 5. We suggest that mixotrophic flagellates can be a critical resource for cladocerans and thereby also have a cascading effect on higher trophic levels, and cladocerans, in turn, have important indirect effects on basal planktonic food webs; hence, both might affect whole lake ecosystems.
Keywords: Daphnia, Dinobryon, food quality, indirect effects, Scenedesmus

 

Liu J & Bangert K (2014) Effect of nitrogen source in low-cost media on biomass and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina for large-scale biodiesel production. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 34: 297-303.
DOI: 10.1002/ep.11967
Abstract: A major cost component for large-scale algal cultivation is the medium. In this study, a significantly higher growth rate was found for Nannochloropsis salina in an inexpensive medium of seawater and agricultural fertilizer than was reached in the f/2 medium. A key difference between this new low-cost medium and the f/2 medium is the nitrogen source. In the conditions tested herein, with aeration using air, biomass productivity reached 0.5496 g L21 day21 after 10 days in the low-cost medium compared with 0.1215 g L21 day21 in the f/2 medium. The lipid productivity of algae grown in the low-cost medium was also higher than that in the f/2 medium (0.1281 g L21 day21 versus 0.0432 g L21 day21). The strong linear correlation (R250.9721) between chlorophyll content and biomass concentration demonstrated that this new medium can support healthy and consistent growth of algal cells. The results suggest that it would be preferable to feed the algae for large-scale biodiesel production with agricultural waste stream or untreated swine wastewater containing high levels of ammonia rather than treated effluent in which the ammonia/urea has been oxidized to nitrate.
Keywords: Nannochloropsis salina, agricultural fertilizer, seawater, lipid productivity, algal biodiesel

 

Pennekamp F, Mitchell KA, Chaine A & Schtickzelle N (2014) Dispersal propensity in Tetrahymena thermophila ciliates - a reaction norm perspective. Evolution. 68: 2319-2330.
DOI: 10.1111/evo.12428
Abstract: Dispersal and phenotypic plasticity are two main ways for species to deal with rapid changes of their environments. Understanding how genotypes (G), environments (E) and their interaction (genotype and environment; G x E) each affects dispersal propensity is therefore instrumental for predicting the ecological and evolutionary responses of species under global change. Here we used an actively dispersing ciliate to quantify the contributions of G, E, and G x E on dispersal propensity, exposing 44 different genotypes to three different environmental contexts (densities in isogenotype populations). Moreover, we assessed the condition-dependence of dispersal, i.e. whether dispersal is related to morphological, physiological or behavioral traits. We found that genotypes showed marked differences in dispersal propensity and that dispersal is plastically adjusted to density, with the overall trend for genotypes to exhibit negative density-dependent dispersal. A small, but significant G x E interaction indicates genetic variability in plasticity and therefore some potential for dispersal plasticity to evolve. We also show evidence consistent with condition-dependent dispersal suggesting that genotypes also vary in how individual condition is linked to dispersal under different environmental contexts thereby generating complex dispersal behavior due to only three variables (genes, environment, and individual condition).
Keywords: context-dependent dispersal, condition-dependent dispersal, density-dependence, phenotypic plasticity, genotype x environment

 

Sjollema SB, van Beusekom SAM, van der Geest HG, Booij P, de Zwart D, Vethaak AD & Admiraal W (2014) Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: Effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 33: 1017-1022.
DOI: 10.1002/etc.2537
Abstract: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed.
Keywords: Pulse Amplitude Modulation fluorometry, test conditions, algal bioassay, test outcome, applicability

 

Bock C, Krienitz L & Proschold T (2011) Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description of seven new species. Fottea. 11: 293-312.
DOI:
Abstract: After the description of Chlorella vulgaris by Beijerinck, 120 years ago, members of the genus Chlorella belong to the best studied green algae worldwide. However, numerous open questions remained regarding their systematics. Recent molecular studies showed the polyphyly of the genus within the Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. Chlorella species were traditionally characterized by spherical to oval cell shape, solitary lifeform and the absence of mucilaginous envelopes. The challenge in the past was how to distinguish species due to their high phylogenetic diversity combined with a limited amount of morphological characters. Using a polyphasic approach of SSU and ITS rDNA phylogeny, secondary structure of the ITS and light microscopic observations, we were able to detect six lineages with Dictyosphaerium-like strains in close relationship to C. vulgaris, here described or combined newly as C. coloniales sp. nov., C. pituita sp. nov., C. pulchelloides sp. nov., C. singularis sp. nov., C. elongata comb. nov. and C. chlorelloides comb. nov. Furthermore, three new species without mucilage were described as C. lewinii sp. nov., C. rotunda sp. nov. and C. volutis sp. nov. Using the 5.8S rRNA and part of the ITS2 as molecular signature (barcode), we were able to distinguish not only the five already known species of Chlorella, C. vulgaris, C. sorokiniana, C. heliozoae, C. lobophora and C. variabilis but the seven new species and two new combinations as well. CBCs and hemi-CBCs within the secondary structure of the ITS2 confirmed the separation of the species. Our study led to a new understanding of the evolution of morphology within the genus Chlorella and to an emendation of the generic description.
Keywords: barcode, Chlorella, Dictyosphaerium, ITS, mucilage, phylogeny

 

Laabir M, Grignon-Dubois M, Masseret E, Rezzonico B, Soteras G, Rouquette M, Rieuvilleneuve F & Cecchi P (2013) Algicidal effects of Zostera marina L. and Zostera noltii Hornem. extracts on the neuro-toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium catanella. Aquatic Botany. 111: 16-25.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2013.07.010
Abstract: The inhibitory effects of crude extracts of Zostera marina L. and Zostera noltii Hornemann on the growth ofthe toxic red tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella were investigated through bio-assays. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared from fresh and detrital leaves of Z. marina and Z. noltii collected in the Thau lagoon and Arcachon bay (France). All the extracts exhibited significant inhibition of A. catenella growth, whatever the species and without the need of continuous addition of extracts. The effective concentrations (EC50) varied in the range 0.036-0.199 g L?1 for Z. noltii and 0.036-0.239 g L?1 for Z. marina. Methanolic extracts prepared from fresh plant tissues were the most potent, with EC50 of 0.036-0.039 and 0.036-0.045 g L?1, for Z. noltii and Z. marina, respectively. After exposure to the extracts, Alexandrium cells exhibited severe morphological anomalies. Hence many cells exhibited a lytic membrane and became necrotic. Cellular degradation appeared dose- and time-dependent. The observed algicidal activities demonstrated the existence of bioactive molecules in the tissues of Zostera leaves, which were stable in the culture medium. The chemical contents of the crude extracts were determined by NMR, LC/MS, and quantitative HPLC. Results showed the predominance of flavonoids and phenolic acids. The total phenolics concentrations correlated negatively with the EC50 values, suggesting that these secondary metabolites might be responsible for the observed algicidal effects.
Keywords: growth inhibition, allelopathy, Alexandrium catanella, Zostera marina, Zostera noltii, phenolics

 

Rolland J, Pelletier K, Masseret E, Rieuvilleneuve F, Savar V, Santini A, Amzil Z & Laabir M (2012) Paralytic toxins accumulation and tissue expression of a-amylase and lipase genes in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas fed with the neurotoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catanella. Marine Drugs. 10: 2519-2534.
DOI: 10.3390/md10112519
Abstract: The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was experimentally exposed to the neurotoxic Alexandrium catenella and a non-producer of PSTs, Alexandrium tamarense (control algae), at concentrations corresponding to those observed during the blooming period. At fixed time intervals, from 0 to 48 h, we determined the clearance rate, the total filtered cells, the composition of the fecal ribbons, the profile of the PSP toxins and the variation of the expression of two ?-amylase and triacylglecerol lipase precursor (TLP) genes through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed a significant decrease of the clearance rate of C. gigas fed with both Alexandrium species. However, from 29 to 48 h, the clearance rate and cell filtration activity increased only in oysters fed with A. tamarense. The toxin concentrations in the digestive gland rose above the sanitary threshold in less than 48 h of exposure and GTX6, a compound absent in A. catenella cells, accumulated. The ?-amylase B gene expression level increased significantly in the time interval from 6 to 48 h in the digestive gland of oysters fed with A. tamarense, whereas the TLP gene transcript was significantly up-regulated in the digestive gland of oysters fed with the neurotoxic A. catenella. All together, these results suggest that the digestion capacity could be affected by PSP toxins.
Keywords: Crassostrea gigas, Alexandrium catanella, PSP toxins, digestion, gene expression

 

Laabir M, Collos Y, Masseret E, Grzebyk D, Abadie E, Savar V, Sibat M & Amzil Z (2013) Influence of environmental factors on the paralytic shellfish toxin content and profile of Alexandrium catanella (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Drugs. 11: 1583-1601.
DOI: 10.3390/md11051583
Abstract: Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12-18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon.
Keywords: Alexandrium catanella, PSP toxins, temperature, salinity, light

 

Laabir M, Jauzein C, Genovesi B, Masseret E, Grzebyk D, Cecchi P, Vaquer A, Perrin Y & Collos Y (2011) Influence of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth and cell yield of the harmful red tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium catanella colonizing Mediterranean waters. Journal of Plankton Research. 33: 1550-1563.
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbr050
Abstract: In a laboratory study, we determined the influence of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin producer Alexandrium catenella, which can form toxic blooms in the Thau lagoon (western Mediterranean Sea). The strain studied, ACT03, was grown in an artificial seawater medium. The influence of temperature and that of salinity were analysed using 48 different combinations of 6 salinities (10-40 psu) and 8 temperatures (9-30 C) under saturating irradiance (100 mmol photons m22 s21). ACT03 appeared to be an euryhaline strain that can survive at salinities as low as 10 psu and can grow at salinities up to 40 psu. This strain can grow between 15 and 308C. The highest growth rates (.0.4 day21) were observed between 35 and 40 psu and 15 and 278C. The influence of irradiance on growth and cell pigment content was tested between 10 and 260 mmol photons m22 s21 at 20 C and 38 psu. The results revealed both a low compensation irradiance and that light saturation was reached at 90 mmol photons m22 s21. Temperature had the greatest influence on growth. The ecophysiological characteristics reported here are consistent with the environmental conditions encountered in the Thau lagoon. A. catenella exhibited important adaptive capacities over the large range of tested physical factors. This flexibility helps us to explain its ability to bloom seasonally on the Mediterranean coast, where the physico-chemical environmental conditions are characterized by high seasonal variations.
Keywords: Alexandrium catanella, toxic blooms, Thau lagoon, growth, cell yield, temperature, irradiance, salinity

 

Vieler A et al. (2012) Genome, functional gene annotation, and nuclear transformation of the heterokont oleaginous alga Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779. PLoS Genetics. 8(11): e1003064.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003064
Abstract: Unicellular marine algae have promise for providing sustainable and scalable biofuel feedstocks, although no single species has emerged as a preferred organism. Moreover, adequate molecular and genetic resources prerequisite for the rational engineering of marine algal feedstocks are lacking for most candidate species. Heterokonts of the genus Nannochloropsis naturally have high cellular oil content and are already in use for industrial production of high-value lipid products. First success in applying reverse genetics by targeted gene replacement makes Nannochloropsis oceanica an attractive model to investigate the cell and molecular biology and biochemistry of this fascinating organism group. Here we present the assembly of the 28.7 Mb genome of N. oceanica CCMP1779. RNA sequencing data from nitrogen-replete and nitrogen depleted growth conditions support a total of 11,973 genes, of which in addition to automatic annotation some were manually inspected to predict the biochemical repertoire for this organism. Among others, more than 100 genes putatively related to lipid metabolism, 114 predicted transcription factors, and 109 transcriptional regulators were annotated. Comparison of the N. oceanica CCMP1779 gene repertoire with the recently published N. gaditana genome identified 2,649 genes likely specific to N. oceanica CCMP1779. Many of these N. oceanica-specific genes have putative orthologs in other species or are supported by transcriptional evidence. However, because similarity-based annotations are limited, functions of most of these species-specific genes remain unknown. Aside from the genome sequence and its analysis, protocols for the transformation of N. oceanica CCMP1779 are provided. The availability of genomic and transcriptomic data for Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779, along with efficient transformation protocols, provides a blueprint for future detailed gene functional analysis and genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis species by a growing academic community focused on this genus.
Keywords:

 

De Muynck W, Maury Ramirez A, De Belie N & Verstraete W (2009) Evaluation of strategies to prevent algal fouling on white architectural and cellular concrete. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 63: 679-689.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2009.04.007
Abstract: In this study, different strategies have been examined for the prevention of algal fouling on two types of concrete with different bioreceptivity, i.e. white architectural and autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). These strategies are aimed towards the decrease of the bioreceptivity and comprised the application of water repellents and/or biocides. Both traditional (stearates, silanes, silane siloxane mixtures and a pyridine biocide) and innovative compounds (quaternary ammonium silane-based biocides, silver copper zeolites and silver nanoparticles) have been assessed for their performance by means of an accelerated water run-off test. A modular setup was designed which allowed the simultaneous evaluation of 12 different product formulations. Algal fouling was evaluated by means of colorimetric and image analysis, for which two new evaluation criteria have been proposed. For white concrete, contrary to untreated specimens which had 40% of the surface covered with algae, no fouling was observed for surface treated specimens after 12 weeks of exposure to algae under the test conditions. For AAC, the different strategies examined were unable to completely prevent the algal fouling. The use of water repellents resulted in green algal streaks along the surface. Biocide treated specimens showed a delay of onset of fouling of two to four weeks under the test conditions. The best performance was obtained with a combination of a silane-based water repellent and a chlorinated pyridine-based biocide, for which only limited fouling was observed after eight weeks of intensive fouling exposure.
Keywords: concrete, algae, water repellent, biocide, bioreceptivity

 

Lee WJ & Simpson AGB (2014) Ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of Neometanema parovale sp. nov. (Neometanema gen nov.), a marine phagotrophic euglenid with skidding motility. Protist. 165: 452-472.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.05.001
Abstract: Heteronema is a commonly encountered genus of phagotrophic euglenids that contains very different morphotypes, including elongate gliding species and ovoid skidding forms. We report the first ultrastructural and sequence data from a culture of an ovoid skidding heteronemid, KM051. Cells were 8-23.5 m long with 22 pellicular strips and a fibrous extracellular layer. The tubular extrusomes had dense centre sections. The feeding apparatus was barely visible by light microscopy, but included two microtubule-supported rods. The flagella had hollow, inflated transition zones, heteromorphic paraxonemal rods, and sheaths of flagellar hairs. The posterior flagellum bore a knob that, unusually, sat >2 m distal to the flagellar base. No ultrastructural features were uniquely shared by KM051 and the elongate, gliding species Heteronema scaphurum. Conversely, the pellicular microtubule array resembles that in deep-branching primary osmotrophs (Aphagea). 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) phylogenies showed that KM051 is related to a recently obtained Heteronema c.f. exaratum sequence. These skidding heteronemids are not closely related to H. scaphurum, and instead are closely related to Dinema, Anisonema and specifically, Aphagea. The skidding species in Heteronema are transferred to Neometanema gen. nov. (along with most species of Metanema Klebs, 1893), with KM051 described as Neometanema parovale sp. nov.
Keywords: Neometanema, Heteronema, Metanema, phagotrophic euglenids, ultrastructure

 

Jahn MT, Schmidt K & Mock T (2014) A novel cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae. Plant Methods. 10: 26.
DOI: 10.1186/1746-4811-10-26
Abstract:
Keywords:

 

McLellan MR (1989) Cryopreservation of diatoms. Diatom Research. 4: 301-318.
DOI:
Abstract: Attempts have been made to develop cryopreservation procedures that would allow indefinite storage of freshwater and marine diatoms in culture. Where suitable methods were not achieved, investigation into the cause of freezing injury at the cellular level was made, using cryomicroscopy, salt stress experiments, and electron microscopy. Of ten strains of marine diatom tested, eight proved amenable to cryopreservation. Unsatisfactory recovery occurred following freezing in all four strains of freshwater diatom used. At fast (10degC min-1) rates of cooling, freezing injury in Stephanodiscus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis resulted from intracellular ice formation (IIF). At slow (0.5degC min-1) rates of cooling, IIF was avoided, but freezing injury still occurred, probably due to cytotoxic leakage of vacuolar contents to the cell cytoplasm, as a result of freezing-induced hypertonic stress.
Keywords:

 

Nakisah MA, Faezah SS & Mohd TN (2014) Discovery of proteins in Acanthamoeba polyphaga with potential as biomarker for ammonium chloride contamination. Asian pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 4: 252.
DOI: 10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60568-5
Abstract: Introduction: Several stressed proteins expressed by live cells have been recognised as biomarker especially those related to certain implications in human?s health. Other stressed proteins observed in other cells such as in free-living amoebae isolated from polluted water can be biomarker candidates for environmental health. In the present study, Acanthamoeba poyphaga CCAP 1501/3A was exposed to various concentrations of ammonium chloride as example of pollutants in our environment. The expression of proteins in this amoeba was analysed and the potential biomarker was identified. Objective: To analyse and identify proteins in Acanthamoeba polyphaga as biomarker for ammonium chloride contamination Methods: 2-D electrophoresis was employed to analyse protein profile in Acanthamoeba polyphaga (CCAP 1501/3A) after the amoeba was exposed for 72 h at various concentrations (ranging from 0.5mg to 3.0 mg) of the ammonium chloride. Pellets of amoebae were collected by centrifugation and were then sonicated and centrifuged to obtain protein samples from the amoeba. A supernatant part (protein sample) from treated and control amoebae was subjected to 2D electrophoresis. A control gel was used as a reference/master gel when protein profiles in treated amoebae were analysed using ImageMaster 2DPlatinum. The potential biomarker (protein dots/peptides) in Acanthamoeba were analysed by MALDITOF-TOF mass spectrometer using a 5800 Proteomics Analyzer [AB Sciex]. Spectra were analysed to identify protein of interest using Mascot sequence matching software [Matrix Science] with Ludwig NR Database. Results & Discussion: Three protein dots were identified and analysed in Acanthamoeba as potential biomarker for ammonium chloride contamination. The expression of these proteins in ammonium-treated amoeba was dose dependant, and was categorized as either under expressed, over expressed or a new protein. These proteins, therefore are suitable candidates as biomarkers in amoebae for ammonium chloride contamination in the aquatic ecosystem. Conclusion: Three proteins observed in Acanthamoeba polyphaga (CCAP 1501/3A) are potential biomarkers for ammonium chloride contamination in the environment.
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Revel GM, Martarelli M, Emiliani M, Gozalbo A, Orts MJ, Begochea MA, Delgado LG, Gaki A, Katsiapi A, Taxiarchou M, Arabatzis I, Fasaki I & Hermanns S (2014) Cool products for buiding envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing. Solar Energy. 105: 770-779.
DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2014.03.029
Abstract: The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for facades and roof membranes have been developed and tested at lab scale. Spectral reflectance measurements have been performed demonstrating a significant improvement of reflectance in the Near InfraRed (NIR) range (up to +0.40) while keeping dark colour and high absorbance in the visible. The development of new products has been also oriented to the improvement of durability properties, being this aspect of relevance for high reflecting materials that have to keep their cooling properties over the time. While ceramic tiles naturally offer superior resistance to outdoor ageing, a significant increase of biological growth resistance has been achieved also for roof membranes by including ZnO nanoparticles. The approach followed by the authors aimed at delivering products, that besides having higher NIR reflectance, were capable of satisfying industrial and market requirements being compatible with standard manufacturing processes and offering additional functionalities. A complementary paper will be dedicated to the extensive experimental and numerical evaluation of new materials? thermal performances.
Keywords: cool roof, solar reflectance, cool ceramics, cool paint, nanotechnology, urban heat island

 

Onay M, Sonmez C, Avni Oktem H & Meral Yucel A (2014) Thermo-resistant green microalgae for effective biodiesel production: Isolation and characterization of unialgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia Bioresource Technology. 169: 62-71.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.078
Abstract: Oil content and composition, biomass productivity and adaptability to different growth conditions are important parameters in selecting a suitable microalgal strain for biodiesel production. Here, we describe isolation and characterization of three green microalgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia. All three isolates, namely, Scenedesmus sp. METUNERGY1402 (Scenedesmus sp. ME02), Hindakia tetrachotoma METUNERGY1403 (H. tetrachotoma ME03) and Micractinium sp. METUNERGY1405 (Micractinium sp. ME05) are adaptable to growth at a wide temperature range (25?50 C). Micractinium sp. ME05, particularly has superior properties for biodiesel production. Biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity of this isolate are 0.17 g L1 d1, 22.7% and 0.04 g L1 d1, respectively. In addition, Micractinium sp. ME05 and Scenedesmus sp. ME03 mainly contain desirable fatty acid methyl esters (i.e. 16:0, 16:1, 18:0 and 18:1) for biodiesel production. All isolates can further be improved via genetic and metabolic engineering strategies.
Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, thermo-resistant, geothermal flora, biodiesel productivity

 

Tekle YI (2014) DNA barcoding in Amoebozoa and challenges: The example of Cochliopodium. Protist. 165: 473-484.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.05.002
Abstract: The diversity of microbial eukaryotes in general and amoeboid lineages in particular is poorly documented. Even though amoeboid lineages are among the most abundant microbes, taxonomic progress in the group has been hindered by the limitations of traditional taxonomy and technical difficultly in studying them. Studies using molecular approaches such as DNA barcoding with cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene are slowly trickling in for Amoebozoa, and they hopefully will aid in unveiling the true diversity of the group. In this study a retrospective approach is used to test the utility of COI gene in a scale-bearing amoeba, Cochliopodium, which is morphologically well defined. A total of 126 COI sequences and 62 unique haplotypes were generated from 9 Cochliopodium species. Extensive analyses exploring effects of sequence evolution models and length of sequence on genetic diversity computations were conducted. The findings show that COI is a promising marker for Cochliopodium, except in one case where it failed to delineate two morphologically well-defined cochliopodiums. Two species delimitation approaches also recognize 8 genetic lineages out of 9 species examined. The taxonomic implications of these findings and factors that may confound COI as a barcode marker in Cochliopodium and other amoebae are discussed.
Keywords: Cochliopodium, amoeba, COI, DNA barcode, morphology, species identification, species delimitation

 

Yap RKL, Whittaker M, Diao M, Stuetz RM, Jefferson B, Bulmus V, Peirson WL, Nguyen AV & Henderson RK (2014) Hydrophobically-associating cationic polymers as micro-bubble surface modifiers in dissolved air flotation for cyanobacteria cell separation. Water Research. 61: 253-262.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.05.032
Abstract: Dissolved air flotation (DAF), an effective treatment method for clarifying algae/cyanobacteria-laden water, is highly dependent on coagulation-flocculation. Treatment of algae can be problematic due to unpredictable coagulant demand during blooms. To eliminate the need for coagulation-flocculation, the use of commercial polymers or surfactants to alter bubble charge in DAF has shown potential, termed the PosiDAF process.When using surfactants, poor removal was obtained but good bubble adherence was observed. Conversely, when using polymers, effective cell removal was obtained, attributed to polymer bridging, but polymers did not adhere well to the bubble surface, resulting in a cationic clarified effluent that was indicative of high polymer concentrations. In order to combine the attributes of both polymers (bridging ability) and surfactants (hydrophobicity), in this study, a commercially-available cationic polymer, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA), was functionalised with hydrophobic pendant groups of various carbon chain lengths to improve adherence of polymer to a bubble surface. Its performance in PosiDAF was contrasted against commercially-available poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC). All synthesised polymers used for bubble surface modification were found to produce positively charged bubbles. When applying these cationic micro-bubbles in PosiDAF, in the absence of coagulation-flocculation, cell removals in excess of 90% were obtained, reaching a maximum of 99% cell removal and thus demonstrating process viability. Of the synthesised polymers, the polymer containing the largest hydrophobic functionality resulted in highly anionic treated effluent, suggesting stronger adherence of polymers to bubble surfaces and reduced residual polymer concentrations.
Keywords: algae separation, cationic bubbles, cyanobacteria, flotation, PosiDAF, water soluble polymers

 

Collins L, Alvarez D & Chauhan A (2014) 15 - Phycoremediation coupled with generation of value-added products. Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation. -: 341-387.
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800021-2.00015-7
Abstract: Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are yielding promising technologies for the sustainable production of products related to food, feed, biomaterials, and fuels. In what is known as the ?biorefinery concept,? the growth of photoautotrophic microorganisms can be coupled with the remediation of pollutants and the treatment of wastewater, resulting in the generation of value-added products from materials that were previously considered waste. Photosynthetic microorganisms possess higher growth rates compared to plants, and their production facilities can easily function on nonarable land, saving both land and water resources. In this chapter, we summarize the potential that cyanobacteria and microalgae hold to improve processes and products across industries related to waste management, agriculture, sustainable energy, and more. We additionally assess the ongoing biotechnological and genomic advancements that will further facilitate production of cyanobacteria and microalgae in a way that successfully meets both increasing societal energy needs and sustainability requirements.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, microalgae, phycoremediation, phototrophic microorganisms

 

Goncalves AL, Simoes M & Pires JCM (2014) The effect of light supply on microalgal growth, CO2 uptake and nutrient removal from wastewater. Energy Conversion and Management. 85: 530-536.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.05.085
Abstract: Microalgal based biofuels have been reported as an attractive alternative for fossil fuels, since they constitute a renewable energy source that reduces greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. However, producing biofuels from microalgae is still not economically viable. Therefore, the integration of biofuel production with other microalgal applications, such as CO2 capture and nutrient removal from wastewaters, would reduce the microalgal production costs (and the environmental impact of cultures), increasing the economic viability of the whole process. Additionally, producing biofuels from microalgae strongly depends on microalgal strain and culture conditions. This study evaluates the effect of culture conditions, namely light irradiance (36, 60, 120 and 180 lEm2 s1) and light:dark ratio (10:14, 14:10 and 24:0), on microalgal growth, atmospheric CO2 uptake and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) removal from culture medium. Four different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechocystis salina and Microcystis aeruginosa, were studied to ascertain the most advantageous regarding the referred applications. This study has shown that higher light irradiance values and light periods resulted in higher specific growth rates and CO2 uptake rates. C. vulgaris presented the highest specific growth rate and CO2 uptake rate: 1.190 ? 0.041 d1 and 0.471 ? 0.047 gCO2 L1 d1, respectively. All the strains have shown high nitrogen removal efficiencies, reaching 100% removal percentages in cultures with higher light supply. Phosphorus removal increased with light irradiance and with light:dark ratio. The highest removal efficiency, 67.6 ? 7.1%, was achieved by the microalga C. vulgaris.
Keywords: atmospheric CO2 capture, light:dark ratio, light irradiance, microalgal based biofuels, nitrogen and phosphorous uptake

 

Uma Devi K, Swapna G & Suneetha S (2014) 19 - Microalgae in bioremediation: Sequestration of greenhouse gases, clearout of fugitive nutrient minerals, and subtraction of toxic elements from waters. Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation. -: 435-456.
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800021-2.00019-4
Abstract: Microalgae, the microscopic, predominantly unicellular eukaryotes of wide diversity, are the most common inhabitants of Earth?s water bodies. They have a very short generation time and multiply exponentially under favorable environmental conditions. Being photosynthetic, they act as massive carbon sinks. They also have the capacity to take up metal ions from the surrounding medium. Different microalgal species are distinct with respect to the biomolecules they accumulate. These biomolecules?pigments, lipids, and proteins?constitute high-value nutrients in human and animal diets. Considering these attributes of microalgae, their potential in bioremediation of toxic metal pollutants and minerals like nitrates and phosphates in water and the greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O) in the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel consumption in transport vehicles and industries is being extensively explored. The algal biomass thus created during biosequestration of greenhouse gases and nutrient minerals can be a source of nutraceuticals for humans or animals and also probably a biofuel. The literature on this topic is herewith reviewed.
Keywords: bioremediation, biosequestration, flue gas, greenhouse gases, immobilization, mass culture, microalgae, minerals, nutraceuticals, toxic metal

 

Zaib M, Saeed A, Hussain I, Athar MM & Iqbal M (2014) Voltammetric detection of As(III) with Porphyridium cruentum based modified carbon paste electrode biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 62: 242-248.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.06.055
Abstract: A novel biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with Porphyridium cruentum biomass was developed for the determination of As(III) in contaminated water. As(III) was first biosorbed?accumulated on the electrode surface at open circuit potential and then stripped off by applying anodic scan range of -0.8 to +0.8 V using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique. The best result was obtained at pH6.0 with 0.1M HNO3 solution as stripping medium, allowing biosorption? accumulation time of 8 min using 5% P.cruentum biomass in graphite?mineral oil paste. Linear range for As(III) detection with the modified electrode biosensor was observed between 2.5 and 20 mg L-1. The FTIR spectrum of P.cruentum biomass confirmed the presence of active functional groups that participate in the binding of As(III). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indulged the surface morphology of modified electrode-biosensor before and after As(III)adsorption. Similarly, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that the average roughness of the modified electrode dereased indicating the successful incorporation of P.cruentum biomass. Efficiency of the biosensor in the presence of different interfering metal (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) ions were also evaluated.Theapplicationof P.cruentum modified biosensor was successfully used for the detection of As(III) in the binary metal (Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2?, Hg2+, and Pb2+) contaminated system. The accuracy of application of biosorption based biosensor for the detection of As(III) is as low as 2.5 mg L-1.
Keywords: As(III), red alga, modified carbon paste electrode, voltammetry, FTIR

 

Niizawa I, Heinrich JM & Irazoqui HA (2014) Modeling of the influence of light quality on the growth of microalgae in a laboratory scale photo-bio-reactor irradiated by arrangements of blue and red LEDs. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 90: 214-223.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2014.05.002
Abstract: Knowing the distribution of the density of radiant energy within a photo-bio-reactor and its impact on the growth of microalgae through the local rate of absorption of radiant energy is essential for the analysis, modeling and design of photo-bio-reactors. In this work we develop a physical model and a computer simulation algorithm, in order to accurately predict the rate of absorption of photons in microalgal cultures at each point of a reactor irradiated with a light source made of different arrangements of LEDs emitting in blue and red spectral regions. Results showed that the average absorption rates in the culture irradiated with blue LEDs were higher than that irradiated with red LEDs. However, the radiation emitted by red LEDs rendered greater energy efficiency for biomass production compared to that emitted by blue LEDs. The development of a computational model based on a Monte Carlo method allowed the determination of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption at each point inside the PBR at different culture times. The information obtained with this tool allowed a detailed assessment of the effect of different radiation conditions on growth of microalgae, regardless of the PBR and the light source used.
Keywords: microalgae, modeling, bioreactors, light emitting diode, Monte Carlo, scale up

 

Verheyen L, Versieren L & Smolders E (2014) Natural dissolved organic matter mobilizes Cd but does not affect the Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov) in resin buffered solutions. Aquatic Toxicology. 154: 80-86.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.05.009
Abstract: Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have contrasting effects on metal bioaccumulation in algae because of complexation reactions that reduce free metal ion concentrations and because of DOM adsorption to algal surfaces which promote metal adsorption. This study was set up to reveal the role of different natural DOM samples on cadmium (Cd) uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella sub-capitata (Korschikov). Six different DOM samples were collected from natural freshwater systems and isolated by reverse osmosis. In addition, one 13C enriched DOM sample was isolated from soil to trace DOM adsorption to algae. Algae were exposed to standardized solutions with or without these DOM samples, each exposed at equal DOM concentrations and at equal non-toxic Cd2+ activity (?4 nM) that was buffered with a resin. The DOM increased total dissolved Cd by factors 3?16 due to complexation reactions at equal Cd2+ activity. In contrast, the Cd uptake was unaffected by DOM or increased maximally 1.6 fold (13C enriched DOM). The 13C analysis revealed that maximally 6% of algal C was derived from DOM and that this can explain the small increase in biomass Cd. It is concluded that free Cd2+ and not DOM-complexed Cd is the main bioavailable form of Cd when solution Cd2+ is well buffered.
Keywords: Cd uptake, dissolved organic matter, free ion activity model, resin buffering, green algae

 

Zhang C, Lin S, Huang L, Lu W, Li M & Liu S (2014) Suppression subtraction hybridization analysis revealed regulation of some cell cycle and toxin genes in Alexandrium catenella by phosphate limitation. Harmful Algae. 39: 26-39.
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.06.005
Abstract: Molecular mechanisms regulating responses to phosphate (P) limitation in dinoflagellates are poorly understood. Here we investigated gene differential expression Alexandrium catenella strain ATHK using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques. SSH revealed a score of genes responded to P-limitation, and comparison with EST sequencing results indicated superior efficiency of SSH in identifying differentially expressed genes. Among the P-limitation responsive genes were the up-regulated stress-related genes, the downregulated phosphorus-transferring genes, and a number of other genes previously undocumented for dinoflagellates. Most notably, the previously undocumented cell cycle inhibitory regulator fizzy/cell division cycle 20-related protein gene was up-regulated while putatively cell cycle promoting genes (e.g. calcium-dependent protein kinase) down-regulated, consistent with the decrease in growth rate and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase under P-limitation observed microscopically and flow cytometrically respectively. Besides, both SSH and qRT-PCR showed that saxitoxin related genes, menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, an unknown gene and some other genes were also significantly induced by P-limitation. Our results demonstrate the utility of SSH in gene regulation research and provide a set of promising genes for further studies to understand the regulation of cell division (and hence population growth) and toxin production by P-limitation in A. catenella and likely other dinoflagellates.
Keywords: Alexandrium catanella, cell cycle, phosphate limitation, suppression subtractive hybridization, toxin

 

Baken S, Nawara S, Van Moorleghem C & Smolders E (2014) Iron colloids reduce the bioavailability of phosphorous to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. Water Research. 59: 198-206.
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.010
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems. The bioavailability of P in natural waters strongly depends on its speciation. In this study, structural properties of iron colloids were determined and related to their effect on P sorption and P bioavailability. The freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to media spiked with radiolabelled 33PO4, and the uptake of 33P was monitored for 1 h. The media contained various concentrations of synthetic iron colloids with a size between 10 kDa and 0.45 mm. The iron colloids were stabilised by natural organic matter. EXAFS spectroscopy showed that these colloids predominantly consisted of ferrihydrite with small amounts of organically complexed Fe. In colloid-free treatments, the P uptake flux by the algae obeyed Michaelise-Menten kinetics. In the presence of iron colloids at 9 or 90 mM Fe, corresponding to molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 0.17, the truly dissolved P (<10 kDa) was between 4 and 60% of the total dissolved P (<0.45 mm). These colloids reduced the P uptake flux by R. subcapitata compared to colloid-free treatments at the same total dissolved P concentration. However, the P uptake flux from colloid containing solutions equalled that from colloid-free ones when expressed as truly dissolved P. This demonstrates that colloidal P did not contribute to the P uptake flux. It is concluded that, on the short term, phosphate adsorbed to ferrihydrite colloids is not available to the green alga R. subcapitata.
Keywords: phosphoros bioavailability, phosphoros uptake, ferrihydrite, colloidal phosphorus, free phosphorus, phosphorus sorption

 

Letelier-Gordo CO, Lovstad Holdt S, De Francisci D, Borisov Karakeshev D & Angelidaki I (2014) Effective harvesting of the microalgae Chlorella protothecoides via bioflocculation with cationic starch. Bioresource Technology. 167: 214-218.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.014
Abstract: In the present work, the flocculation efficiency of cationic starch (Greenfloc 120) was tested on the fresh water microalga Chlorella protothecoides under different conditions (pH and flocculant concentrations). Different concentrations of Greenfloc 120 (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg L1) were screened against different algal densities (0.44, 0.56 and 0.77 g L1). Once the optimal flocculation concentration had been established (40 mg L1 for all different biomasses densities) a more detailed analysis was performed in order to investigate if different pH (4.0, 7.7, and 10.0) could increase the flocculation efficiency of cationic starch. Highest flocculation efficiency without addition of Greenfloc 120 was obtained at pH 10, while in the presence of flocculant, the efficiency increased for all the tested pH values, with a maximum of 98% for pH 7.7 and 10. Cationic starch confirmed to be as an easy to use, efficient and cost-effective flocculant for harvesting of microalgae.
Keywords: Chlorella protothecoides, flocculation, cationic starch

 

Zuykov M, Belzile C, Lemaire N, Gosselin M, Dufresne F & Pelletier E (2014) First record of the green microalgae Coccomyxa sp. in blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) from the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 120: 23-32.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.05.001
Abstract: During autumn 2012 and spring 2013, blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) with strongly deformed (L-shaped) posterior shell margins and green spots in soft tissue (microalgae) were collected from intertidal zone along the south shore of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary near Rimouski (Québec, Canada). Identification of algal cells infesting mussels as Coccomyxa sp. was confirmed by rRNA sequencing and HPLC pigment analysis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the presence of algal cells in the hemolymph and extrapallial fluid in mussels with deformed and non-deformed shells; concentrations of algal cells were ranged from about 200 mL1 in mussels with actually non-deformed shells to concentrations reaching up to 3.8 x 10^7 mL-1 in mussels with heavily deformed ones. Chemical analyses of soft tissues led us to conclude that butyltin compounds and trace metals cannot be considered among factors responsible for the shell deformity observed. Using scanning electron microscopy, the biogenic nature of the erosion on the external shell surface and aragonitic lenses of prisms in the curvature zone of deformed shells (in sections) were recorded. The sequence of the green algae from M. edulis of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary was closely related to Coccomyxa sp. infecting M. edulis from the Flensburg Fjord (North Sea) and Modiolus modiolus (L.) from the Vityaz Bay (Sea of Japan).
Keywords: Mytilus edulis, infestation, shell deformation, algae, Coccomyxa sp., St. Lawrence Estuary

 

Hess S & Melkonian M (2014) Ultrastructure of the algivorous amoeboflagellate Viridiraptor invadens (Glissomonadida, Cercozoa). Protist. 165: 605-635.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2014.07.004
Abstract: The family Viridiraptoridae represents a morphologically and ecologically distinct lineage of glissomonad flagellates (Cercozoa, Rhizaria). It currently comprises two highly specialised, algivorous genera inhabiting freshwater ecosystems, Orciraptor and Viridiraptor, for which ultrastructural data were lacking. In this study, the ultrastructure of Viridiraptor invadens HESS ET MELKONIAN, the sole described species of the viridiraptorid type genus, has been studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In particular the flagellar transitional region and basal apparatus, both reconstructed from serial sections, revealed ultrastructural traits, that agree with the phylogenetic placement of the viridiraptorids within Glissomonadida: The transitional region contains a distal plate/collar complex and the basal apparatus comprises two ventral posterior roots and an anterior root, all known from other glissomonads. However, two additional small microtubular roots, two conspicuous rhizoplasts and probasal bodies present during interphase represent novel characteristics. Furthermore, an acorn/V-shaped filament system was discovered at the proximal end of the flagellar transitional region and used to establish a basal body triplet numbering system for flagellate cells of the Rhizaria. Finally, ultrastructural data on perforated algal cell walls suggest that the previously described reticulocyst of Viridiraptor represents an extrusome-derived, mesh-like coat supporting the invasion/feeding process.
Keywords: acorn / v-shaped filament system, basal apparatus, basal body, flagellar roots, flagellar transitional zone / region, Pseudospora, reticulocyst, sarcomonad flagellates, Viridiraptor

 

De Schamphelaere KAC, Nys C & Janssen CR (2014) Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison. Aquatic Toxicology. 155: 348-359.
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.07.008
Abstract: Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-hour) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing 4 mg fulvic acid (FA) /L and containing organic phosphorous (P), i.e. glycerol-2-phosphate, instead of PO4 3- to prevent lead-phosphate mineral precipitation. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4-fold more sensitive to Pb than Chlorella kesslerii, with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the middle. The influence of medium physico-chemistry was therefore investigated in detail with P. subcapitata. In synthetic test media, higher concentrations of fulvic acid or lower pH protected against toxicity of (filtered) Pb to P. subcapitata, while effects of increased Ca or Mg on Pb toxicity were less clear. When toxicity was expressed on a free Pb2+ ion activity basis, a log-linear, 260-fold increase of toxicity was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.6. Effects of fulvic acid were calculated to be much more limited (1.9-fold) and were probably even non-existent (depending on the affinity constant for Pb binding to fulvic acid that was used for calculating speciation). A relatively simple bioavailability model, consisting of a log-linear pH effect on Pb2+ ion toxicity linked to the geochemical speciation model Visual Minteq (with the default NICA-Donnan description of metal and proton binding to fulvic acid), provided relatively accurate toxicity predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7- fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 ?g/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment.
Keywords: bioavailability, fulvic acid, water hardness, biotic ligand model, risk assessment, water quality criteria, environmental quality standards

 

Mayers JJ, Flynn KJ & Shields RJ (2014) Influence of the N:P supply ratio on biomass productivity and time-resolved changes in elemental and bulk biochemical composition of Nannochloropsis sp. Bioresource Technology. 169: 588-595.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.07.048
Abstract: This work reports for the first time the detailed impacts of dual nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stress on growth dynamics and biochemical composition in the Eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis sp.. P-stress concurrent with N-stress had subtle effects on culture bulk biochemical composition, but negatively influenced biomass productivity. However, the N:P supply ratio can be raised to at least 32:1 without compromising productivity (yielding a maximum lipid content of 52% of dry weight and volumetric lipid concentration of 233 mg L-1). The maximum biomass and lipid yields per unit of cell-P were 1.2 kg DW (g P)-1 and 0.54 kg lipid (g P)-1. The P concentration of many common media are thus in surplus for optimal Nannochloropsis sp. biomass and lipid production, offering potential for significant savings in P usage and improving the sustainability of algal cultivation.
Keywords: microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp., phosphorus usage, N:P ratio, biochemical composition, lipid accumulation, nitrogen deficiency, media optimisation

 

Carmel N, Tel-Or E, Chen Y & Pick U (2014) Iron uptake mechanism in the chrysophyte microalga Dinobryon. Journal of Plant Physiology. 171: 993-997.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2014.03.014
Abstract: The mechanism of iron uptake in the chrysophyte microalga Dinobryon was studied. Previous studies have shown that iron is the dominant limiting elements for growth of Dinobryon in the Eshkol reservoir in northern Israel, which control its burst of bloom. It is demonstrated that Dinobryon has a light-stimulated ferrireductase activity, which is sensitive to the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor DCMU and to the uncoupler CCCP. Iron uptake is also light-dependent, is inhibited by DCMU and by CCCP and also by the ferrous iron chelator BPDS. These results suggest that ferric iron reduction by ferrireductase is involved in iron uptake in Dinobryon and that photosynthesis provides the major reducing power to energize iron acquisition. Iron deprivation does not enhance but rather inhibits iron uptake contrary to observations in other algae.
Keywords: iron uptake, ferrireductase, growth pattern, enzyme activity, Dinobryon

 

Kadar E, Batalha IL, Fisher A & Roque ACA (2014) The interaction of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles with seawater. Science of the Total Environment. 487: 771-777.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.082
Abstract: Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the interaction between bare and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with various environmentally relevant carrying solutions including natural oceanic seawaterwith and without addition of algal exopolymeric substances (EPS). TheMNPswere coatedwith three different stabilising agents, namely gum Arabic (GA-MNP), dextran (D-MNP) and carboxymethyl-dextran (CMD-MNP). The colloidal stability of the suspensions was evaluated over 48 h and we demonstrated that: (i) hydrodynamic diameters increased over time regardless of carrying solution for all MNPs except the GA-coated ones; however, the relative changes were carrying solution- and coat-dependent; (ii) polydispersity indexes of the freshly suspended MNPs are below 0.5 for all coated MNPs, unlike the much higher values obtained for the uncoated MNPs; (iii) freshly prepared MNP suspensions (both coated and uncoated) in Milli-Q (MQ) water show high colloidal stability as indicated by zeta-potential values below ?30 mV, which however decrease in absolute value within 48 h for all MNPs regardless of carrying solution; (iv) EPS seems to ?stabilise? the GA-coated and the CMD-coated MNPs, but not the uncoated or the D-coated MNPs, which form larger aggregates within 48 h; (v) despite this aggregation, iron (Fe)-leaching from MNPs is sustained over 48 h, but remained within the range of 3?9% of the total iron-content of the initially added MNPs regardless of suspension media and capping agent. The environmental implications of our findings and biotechnological applicability of MNPs are discussed.
Keywords: iron oxide, magnetic nanoparticles, aggregation, dissolution, bioavailability

 

De Castro-Catala N, Munoz I, Armendariz L, Campos B, Barcelo D, Lopez-Doval J, Perez S, Petrovic M, Pico Y & Riera JL (2014) Invertebrate community responses to emerging water pollutants in Iberian river basins. Science of the Total Environment. 503-504: 142-150.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.110
Abstract: Chemical pollution is one of the greatest threats to freshwater ecosystems, especially in Mediterranean watersheds, characterized by periodical low flows thatmay exacerbate chemical exposure. Different groups of emerging pollutants have been detected in these basins during the last decade. This study aims to identify the relationships between the presence and levels of prioritary and emerging pollutants (pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds?PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs and Perfluorinated Compounds?PFCs) and the invertebrate community in four Mediterranean basins: the Ebro, the Llobregat, the Júcar and the Guadalquivir. Structural (species composition and density) and functional (catalase activity of the tricopteran Hydropsyche exocellata and the feeding activity of the cladoceran Daphniamagna) variableswere analyzed to determinewhich of the pollutants would greatly influence invertebrate responses. EDCs and conductivity, followed by PhACs, were the most important variables explaining the invertebrate density changes in the studied basins, showing a gradient of urban and industrial pollutions. Despite this general pattern observed in the four studied basins ? impoverishment of species diversity and abundance change with pollution ? some basins maintained certain differences. In the case of the Llobregat River, analgesics and anti-inflammatories were the significant pollutants explaining the invertebrate community distribution. In the Júcar River, fungicideswere the main group of pollutants that were determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Functional biomarkers tended to decrease downstream in the four basins. Two groups of pollutants appeared to be significant predictors of the catalase activity in themodel: EDCs and PhACs. This study provides evidence that the information given by functional biomarkers may complement the results found for the structural community descriptors, and allowed us to detect two emerging contaminant groups that are mainly affecting the invertebrate community in these basins.
Keywords: catalase activity, feeding rate, biomarker, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutical active compounds

 

Araya B, Gouveia L, Nobre B, Reis A, Chamy R & Poirrier P (2014) Evaluation of the simultaneous production of lutein and lipids using a vertical alveolar panel bioreactor for three Chlorella species. Algal Research. 6B: 218-222.
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2014.06.003
Abstract: The concept of a biorefinery improves the economic efficiency of a biofuel production process frommicroalgae by recovering high value added compounds. Lutein is a carotenoid currently extracted from petals of Tagetes erecta with an establishedmarket in poultry and in human nutritional supplements. For the very first time, an extended study on the lipid and lutein production over three Chlorella species as well as cell disruption methods was performed. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella zofingiensis and Chlorella protothecoides were grown in an indoor vertical alveolar panel photobioreactor with continuous illumination, and two cell disruptionmethodswere assessed at a laboratory scale: glass bead vortexing and ballmill grinding. For C. vulgaris, C. zofingiensis and C. protothecoides the intracellular lutein contentwasmeasured as: 3.86, 4.38 and 3.59 mgg?1 respectively. Lipid contents vary slightly among microalgae with a value close to 9% w/w. Biomass and lutein productivities were found to be higher for C. vulgaris (0.131 gL?1 d?1, 0.51 mg L?1 d?1) and for C. zofingiensis (0.122 gL?1 d?1, 0.53 mg L?1 d?1) compared to C. protothecoides (0.103 gL?1 d?1, 0.37mg L?1 d?1). C. vulgaris 1803 and C. zofingiensis B 32 were found to be promising organisms for simultaneous production of lutein and lipids. Although all the microalgae under study belong to the same genus, a species-specific response was observed for each of the cell grinding methods tested.
Keywords: lutein, lipid, photoautotrophic growth, vertical alveolar panel photobioreactor, Chlorella sp., cell disruption

 

Van Wagenen J, Lovstad Holdt S, De Francisci D, Valverde-Perez B, Gy Plosz B & Angelidaki I (2014) Microplate-based method for high-throughput screening of microalgae growth potential. Bioresource Technology. 169: 566-572.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.096
Abstract: Microalgae cultivation conditions in microplates will differ from large-scale photobioreactors in crucial parameters such as light profile, mixing and gas transfer. Hence volumetric productivity (Pv) measurements made in microplates cannot be directly scaled up. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to use microplates to measure characteristic exponential growth rates and determine the specific growth rate light intensity dependency (?-I curve), which is useful as the key input for several models that predict Pv. Nannocloropsis salina and Chlorella sorokinana specific growth rates were measured by repeated batch culture in microplates supplied with continuous light at different intensities. Exponential growth unlimited by gas transfer or selfshading was observable for a period of several days using fluorescence, which is an order of magnitude more sensitive than optical density. The microplate datasets were comparable to similar datasets obtained in photobioreactors and were used an input for the Huesemann model to accurately predict Pv.
Keywords: microalgae, screening, µ-I curve, modeling, microplate

 

Maity JP, Hou CP, Majumder D, Bundschuh J, Kulp TR, Chen CY, Chuang LT, Chen CNN, Jean JS, Yang TC & Chen CC (2014) The production of biofuel and bioelectricity associated with wastewater treatment by green algae. Energy. 78: 94-103.
DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2014.06.023
Abstract: This study describes algal biofuel production, bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment using Leptolyngbya sp. JPMTW1 (KF977831). The experiments were conducted in an AMFC (Algal Microbial Fuel Cell) photobioreactor (single-chamber). The pH, EC (electrical conductivity), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TDS (total dissolved solids) decreased from 8.01 to 7.0, 982 to 854 (mS/cm), 255 to 112 (mg/L) and 490e427 (mg/L), respectively, over course of 7 days. Biomass production, rate of biomass production, chlorophyll a, b and "total chlorophyll" content increased with increasing time and were observed to be 3300 mg/L, 471.42 mg/L/day, 0.981 mg/L, 0.173 mg/L and 1.156 mg/L after 7 days. Lipid production and rate of lipid production were 1068.383 mg/g dry wt. biomass and 152.62 mg/g dry biomass/day. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra revealed the presence of protein, lipid, FAs (fatty acids), triglycerides and ester functional groups. FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) profile revealed the presence of C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:1 and C16:1. The generation of electric potential by Leptolyngbya sp. JPMTW1 increased significantly (p  0.05) from 0.0211 to 0.264 mV within 7 days. The maximum power density (0.008 mW/ cm2) was obtained at cell potential at 12 mV. This study shows that simultaneous production of biofuel, bioelectricity and wastewater treatment is possible by Leptolyngbya sp. JPMTW1.
Keywords: microalgae, FAME, biofuel, power generation, wastewater treatment

 

Kudryavtsev A (2014) Paravannella minima n. g. n. sp. (Discosea, Vannellidae) and distinction of the genera in the vannellid amoebae. European Journal of Protistology. 50: 258-269.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2013.12.004
Abstract: Paravannella minima n. g. n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Vannellidae) isolated from a freshwater aquarium, possesses all light-microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of the genus Vannella, being one of the smallest species among the vannellidamoebae (cell size during locomotion usually between 4.5 and 10 m). At the same time, sequence analysis of the genes encod-ing for nuclear SSU rRNA, actin and mitochondrial Cox1 shows this species as the earliest-branching vannellid that appearsto be sister to the rest of this clade. This is correlated with the presence of some plesiomorphic characters; in particular, thesecondary structure of the hypervariable helices E23-1-E23-7 in the studied species is shared with Vannella and most of thegenera of Dactylopodida. The cell coat structure of the studied species corresponds to the hypothesis that vannellid amoebaewere ancestrally enclosed in a cell coat consisting of pentagonal glycostyles that have undergone multiple independent lossesin various clades of Vannellidae.
Keywords: amoebozoa, molecular phylogeny, Paravannella minima n. g. n. sp., taxonomy, ultrastructure, Vannellidae

 

Scoble JM & Cavalier-Smith T (2014) Scale evolution, sequence phylogeny, and taxonomy of thaumatomonad Cercozoa: 11 new species and new genera Scutellomonas, Cowlomonas, Thaumatospina and Ovaloplaca. European Journal of Protistology. 50: 270-313.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2013.12.005
Abstract: We describe 11 new species of Thaumatomonadida using light and electron microscopy and rDNA gene sequences (18S, ITS1,5.8S, ITS2). We found clear distinctions between major clades in molecular and morphological traits that support now splittingThaumatomastix into three genera: new marine genera Ovaloplaca (oval plate-scales) and Thaumatospina (triangular plate-scales), both with distinctive radially-symmetric bobbin-based spine-scales, restricting Thaumatomastix to freshwater specieswith putatively non-homologous eccentric-spine scales and thicker triangular plate-scales. New genus Scutellomonas lacks spine-scales, having oval plate-scales with deeply-dished upper tier as in Ovaloplaca, with which it forms a clade having short/absentanterior cilium. Cowlomonas gen. n. is possibly naked. We describe two new Allas species, two new Thaumatomonas, andone new Reckertia species, and transfer R. hindoni to Thaumatomonas. Triangular-scaled Reckertia has varied plate-scales andciliary scales. Thaumatomonas rDNA trees reveal two clades: zhukovi/seravini (predominantly triangular scales); colonien-sis/oxoniensis/lauterborni/constricta/solis (scales mostly oval). We hypothesise that the ancestor of Thaumatomonadidae hadradially-symmetric bobbin-based spine-scales and triangular plate-scales, bobbin-based spine-scales being lost in one lineageand eccentric-spine scales evolving in Thaumatomastix. Bobbin-based spine-scales arguably evolved from triangular plate-scales and single-tier ciliary scales (Ovaloplaca and Reckertia only) from plate-scale rudiments. We present a unified schemefor scale evolution and development in Imbricatea.
Keywords: imbricatea, silica scale evolution, spongomonadida, thaumatomonadida, thaumatomastix, zoelucasida

 

Kiran B, Kumar R & Deshmukh D (2014) Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy. Energy Conversion and Management. 88: 1228-1244.
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.06.022
Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with biofuel production from microalgae, including the selection and isolation of microalgal species, various cultivation and harvesting techniques as well as methods for their subsequent conversion into biofuels.
Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, microbial oil, photobioreactors, fatty acids, FAMEs

 

Sjollema SB, Martinez Garcia G, van der Geest HG, Kraak MHS, Booij P, Vethaak AD & Admiraal W (2014) Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae. Environmental Pollution. 187: 106-111.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.019
Abstract: Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally.
Keywords: herbicides, pulse amplitude fluorometry (PAM), bioassay, marine microalgae, hazard and risk, environmental quality standards (EQS)

 

Van Doorslaer X, Haylamicheal ID, Dewulf J, Van Langenhove H, Janssen CR & Demeestere K (2014) Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: Chemical transformation and ecotoxicity. Chemosphere. 119: S75-S80.
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.048
Abstract: This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50 = 0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L1), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50 = 5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L1). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide photocatalysis, pharmaceuticals, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, mass spectrometry, ecotoxicity, algal growth inhibition

 

Genin SN, Aitchison JS & Allen DG (2014) Design of algal film photobioreactors: Material surface energy effects on algal film productivity, colonization and lipid content. Bioresource Technology. 155: 136-143.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.060
Abstract: A parallel plate air lift reactor was used to examine the growth kinetics of mixed culture algal biofilms grown on various materials (acrylic, glass, polycarbonate, polystyrene and cellulose acetate). The growth kinetics of the algal biofilms were non-linear overall and their overall productivities ranged from 1.10-2.08 g/m2 day, with those grown on cellulose acetate having the highest productivity. Overall algal biofilm productivity was largely explained by differences in the colonization time which in turn was strongly correlated to the polar surface energy of the material, but weakly correlated to water-material contact angle. When colonization time was taken into account, the productivity for all materials except acrylic was not significantly different at approximately 2 g/m2/day. Lipid content of the algal biofilms ranged from 6% to 8% (w/w) and was not correlated to water-material contact angle or polar surface energy. The results have potential application for selecting appropriate materials for algal film photobioreactors.
Keywords: algal biofilms, photobioreactor, material properties

 

Gergs R, Steinberger N, Basen T, Martin-Creuzburg D (2014) Dietary supply with essential lipids affects growth and survival of the amphipod Gammarus roeselii. Limnologica. 46: 109-115.
DOI: 10.1016/j.limno.2014.01.003
Abstract: Growth and survival of benthic macroinvertebrates depend on the availability and the quality of potentialfood sources. The significance of essential biochemical nutrients, such as sterols and polyunsaturated fattyacids (PUFAs), for benthic invertebrates has been insufficiently studied. We investigated the effects ofthese essential lipids on growth and survival of the benthic gammarid Gammarus roeselii, a widespreadspecies in streams, rivers and lentic waters of Central Europe, in standardized feeding experiments.Juvenile gammarids were fed a mixture of three cyanobacteria with no evidence of toxin production,either unsupplemented or supplemented with cholesterol or the long-chain PUFA docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) to load algal or cyanobacterial cells with single lipid, and amixture of three eukaryotic algae containing various sterols and long-chain PUFAs. Our results revealedthat growth and especially survival of gammarids on the cyanobacterial diet significantly increased uponsupplementation with cholesterol and DHA, indicating that the nutritional inadequacy of cyanobacteriafor gammarids and potentially other benthic invertebrates is at least partially due to a deficiency in theseessential lipids. We propose that the expected increase in the frequency of pelagic cyanobacterial massdevelopments as a consequence of global warming will also affect benthic food web processes to anas-yet-unknown magnitude.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, sterols, cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, food quality, supplementation, benthic food web, amphipoda

 

Mater N, Geret F, Castillo L, Faucet-Marquis V, Albasi C & Pfohl-Leszkowicz A (2014) In vitro tests aiding ecological risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide in range of concentrations released in hospital wastewater and surface water. Environment International. 63: 191-200.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2013.11.011
Abstract: Ciprofloxacin (CIP), tamoxifen (TAM) and cyclophosphamide (CP) which are often used in anticancer treatment are released in hospital effluent and into the environment. Although the concentrations are low (from ng/L to ?g/L), no data exist concerning their ecotoxicological impact. In this study two biomarkers of early effect were performed on hepatic cells (HepG2): cell viability and genotoxicity (DNA breaks) using cell proliferative assay and comet assay, respectively. These data were compared with two standardized ecotoxicological tests: algaltoxkit F?andmicrotox?. Cells were exposed to an increasing amount of an individual drug or in amixture for 24, 48 or 72 h. The time-exposure of bacteria and algae ranged between 5 and 30 min and 72 h, respectively. A non-monotonic dose?response on cell viability was observed when HepG2 cells were exposed to TAM alone or in the presence of CIP. The same scheme was observed with microtox? when the bacteria were exposed to the mixtures.On the other side, an individual drug does not induce anyDNA breaks on hepatic cells,whereas a mixture leads to a dose dependent increase of DNA breaks. Similarly a positive response was observed with algaltoxkit F? only with mixtures. Synergistic effects observed when drugs are in a mixture highlight the importance of investigating the ecotoxicological effects of contaminants at low concentrations and in mixtures.
Keywords: ciprofloxacin, tamoxifen, cyclophosphamide, wastewater, hormesis, bioassays

 

Kadar E, Cunliffe M, Fisher A, Stolpe B, Lead J & Shi Z (2014) Chemical interaction of atmospheric mineral dust-derived nanoparticles with natural seawater - EPS and sunlight-mediated changes. Science of the Total Environment. 468-469: 265-271.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.059
Abstract: Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) formed via simulated cloud processing of mineral dust with seawater under environmentally relevant conditions. The effect of sunlight and the presence of exopolymeric substances (EPS) were assessed on the: (1) colloidal stability of the nanoparticle aggregates (i.e. size distribution, zeta potential, polydispersity); (2) micromorphology and (3) Fe dissolution from particles. We have demonstrated that: (i) synthetic nano-ferrihydrite has distinct aggregation behaviour from NPs formed from mineral dusts in that the average hydrodynamic diameter remained unaltered upon dispersion in seawater (~1500 nm), whilst all dust derived NPs increased about three fold in aggregate size; (ii) relatively stable and monodisperse aggregates of NPs formed during simulated cloud processing of mineral dust becomemore polydisperse and unstable in contact with seawater; (iii) EPS forms stable aggregates with both the ferrihydrite and the dust derived NPs whose hydrodynamic diameter remains unchanged in seawater over 24 h; (iv) dissolved Fe concentration from NPs, measured here as b3 kDa filter-fraction, is consistently N30% higher in seawater in the presence of EPS and the effect is even more pronounced in the absence of light; (v) micromorphology of nanoparticles from mineral dusts closely resemble that of synthetic ferrihydrite in MQ water, but in seawater with EPS they form less compact aggregates, highly variable in size, possibly due to EPS-mediated steric and electrostatic interactions. The larger scale implications on real systems of the EPS solubilising effect on Fe and other metals with the additional enhancement of colloidal stability of the resulting aggregates are discussed.
Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticle, aggregation, dissolution, bioavailability, EPS

 

Dahmen I, Chtourou H, Jebali A, Daassi D, Karray F, Hassairi I, Sayadi S, Abdelkafi S & Dhouib A (2014) Optimisation of the critical medium components for better growth of Picochlorum sp. and the role of stressful environments for higher lipid production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 94: 1628-1638.
DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6470
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coastal countries that suffer from a scarcity of water, such as Tunisia, have to cultivate marine microalgae on non-arable land in order to produce feedstock and overcome their demands of nutrition and energy. In this framework, a green microalga, CTM 20019, was isolated, identified as Picochlorum sp. and tested for its lipid production. RESULTS: The dry weight of Picochlorum sp. is composed of 163 g kg?1 lipids, 225 g kg?1 total sugars, 440 g kg?1 proteins and 112 g kg?1 ash rich in potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main fatty acids were palmitic acid (29%), linolenic acid (26.5%), linoleic acid (23.5%), hexadecatrienoic acid (11%) and hexadecadienoic acid (8.5%). As it is known that culture conditions greatly influence the composition of microalgae, the experiments were designed to optimise the composition of the medium in order to increase Picochlorum sp. growth from OD680nm = 0.53 to OD680nm = 2.2 and lipid accumulation from 163 g kg?1 to 190 g kg?1. The highest lipid contents of 570 and 585 g kg?1 were achieved under phosphate starvation and sodium carbonate supplementation, respectively. Under these conditions, the fatty acid profile is dominated by mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated acids, and is therefore suitable for aquaculture feeding. However, under high salinity, growth and lipid synthesis are inhibited, and the fatty acids a